博碩士論文 90323001 詳細資訊




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姓名 王淳(Tsun Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 以FPGA為基礎之精密位置控制IC
(FPGA-based High-Precision Position Control IC)
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摘要(中) 隨著機械產業的高精密度趨勢,對於CNC 工具機之加工精密度的要求也越來越嚴格。本論文的目的即利用FPGA設計一可應用於CNC 工具機之精密位置控制IC。
在眾多影響工具機高精密度的因素中,摩擦力為最主要的因素。摩擦力是非常複雜的非線性現象,包括靜摩擦力、庫侖摩擦力及黏滯摩擦力。線性控制方法(如PID控制)並無法有效消除摩擦力的影響。為了要克服摩擦力造成的影響,本論文以適應性控制理論估測出摩擦力大小,並建立一摩擦力模型補償摩擦力。在位置控制方面,使用PD控制器及前饋控制器確保系統的強健性及消除系統的伺服落後。
精密位置控制IC包含位置控制電路、摩擦力補償電路、編碼器解碼與計數電路、序列式數位/類比轉換電路與RS-232介面電路,採模組化設計,利用全球通用且跨平台之VHDL 硬體描述語言設計。在IC 驗證方面,本文除了進行軟體模擬外,並實際在工具機台上進行實驗。
摘要(英) The demand of high precision and high accuracy becomes more and more important in modern mechanical systems, such as machine tools and microelectronics manufacturing equipment. The objective of this thesis is to present a high-precision position control IC based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) for the computerized numeric control (CNC) machine tool.
The most important factor that affects the high-precision position control is friction. Friction is a complex physical phenomenon and the linear control theory cannot be used to compensate it. In order to achieve high-precision position control, friction must be appropriately compensated for. The thesis presents an auto-tuning parameter of friction compensation based on the adaptive control. The position loop controller is PD controller and feedforward controller ensuring robust and promote the tracking performance. The proposed position control IC consists of a motor control circuit, a RS-232 interface circuit, quadrature decoders and up/down counters, and a serial D/A interface. The experimental verification was carried out with the XYZ table of the Pou Yuen machine tool with Panasonic AC servomotors.
關鍵字(中) ★ 可程式邏輯閘陣列元件
★ 梯度陡降法
★ 工具機
★ 位置控制
★ 摩擦力
關鍵字(英) ★ CNC machine tool
★ FPGA
★ friction
★ position control
★ gradient method
★ VHDL
論文目次 ABSTRACT I
CONTENTS II
LISTS OF FIGURES IV
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Literature Survey 1
1.3 Aim of the Thesis 2
CHAPTER 2 CONTROLLER DESIGN 4
2.1 Structure of The Control System 4
2.2 Controller Design 5
2.2.1 Position Control 5
2.2.2 Gradient Method 7
CHAPTER 3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF FPGAS 10
3.1 Overview of FPGAs 10
3.2 FPGA Architecture 11
3.2.1 Configurable Logic Blocks 12
3.2.2 Input/Output Block 12
3.3 Design Process of The FPGA 13
CHAPTER 4 REALIZATION OF HIGH-PRECISION POSITION CONTROL IC 16
4.1 The Overview of High-Precision Position Control IC 16
4.2 RS-232 Interface 17
4.3 Quadrature Decoders and Up/Down Counters 18
4.4 Position Command Decoders 20
4.5 Parallel to Serial Circuit 20
4.6 Control Circuit 22
4.6.1 PD Controller 22
4.6.2 Friction Compensation 23
CHAPTER 5 RESULTS OF SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENT 24
5.1 Experiment System 24
5.2 Friction Effects in The Machine Tool 26
5.3 Experiment Results of Friction Compensation 29
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 34
6.1 Conclusions 34
6.2 Future work 34
REFERENCE 36
參考文獻 [1] Armstrong-Helouvry, “Control of Machines with Friction,” Boston, MA: Kluwer, 1991.
[2] Armstrong-Helouvry, B., Dupont, P., and Canudas de Wit, C., “A Survey of Models, Analysis Tools and Compensation Methods for the Control of Machines with Friction,” Automatica, Vol. 30, No. 7, pp. 1083-1138, 1994.
[3] Wu, R. H., Tung, P. C., “Studies of Stick-Slip Friction, Presliding Displacement, and Hunting,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, Vol. 124, No. 1, pp. 111–117, 2002.
[4] Lee, H. S., Tomizuka, M., “Robust Motion Controller Design for High-accuracy Positioning Systems,” IEEE Trans. Indus. Electron., Vol. 43, pp. 48-55, 1996.
[5] Canudas de Wit, C.; Olsson, H.; Åström, K.J.; Lischinsky, P., “A New Model for Control of Systems with Friction,” IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, Vol. 40, pp. 419 –425, 1995
[6] Altpeter, F., Grunenberg, M., Myszkorowski, P., Longchamp, R., “Auto-Tuning of Feedforward Friction Compensation Based on Gradient Method,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Vol 4, pp. 2600-2604, 2000.
[7] Iwasaki, M., Shibata, T., Matsui, N., “Disturbance-observer-based nonlinear friction compensation in table drive system,” IEEE/ASME trans. Mechatron, Vol 4, pp. 3-8, 1999.
[8] Kempf, C. J., Kobayashi, S., “Disturbance observer and feedforward design for a high-speed direct-drive positioning table,” IEEE trans. control syst. technol., Vol.7, pp. 513-526, 1999.
[9] Yang, S., Tomizuka, M., “Adaptive Pulse Width Control for Precise Positioning Under the Influence of Stiction and Coulomb Friction,” ASME J. Dyn. Syst., Meas., Control, Vol. 110, No. 3, pp. 221–227, 1988.
[10] Francis, R. J., Rose, J., Brown, S. D., “Field Programmable Gate Arrays,” Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.
[11] Hoang L. H., “Microprocessors and digital ICs for motion control,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 82, pp. 1140-1163, 1994
[12] Ogata, K., “Modern Control Engineering,” Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1997.
[13] Panasonic, “AC 伺服馬達驅動器MINAS-A 操作說明書,” 2001.
[14] Åström, K. J., Wittenmark, B., “Adaptive Control,” Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc, 1995.
[15] Slotine, J.-J. E., Li W., “Applied Nonlinear Control,” Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1991.
[16] Tung, E.D., Urushisaki, Y., Tomizuka, M. “Low velocity friction compensation for machine tool feed drives,” American Control Conference, pp. 1932-1936, 1993
[17] Gross, H., “Electrical Feed Drives for Machine Tool,” John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1983.
指導教授 董必正(Pi-Cheng Tung) 審核日期 2003-7-9
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