博碩士論文 90343008 詳細資訊




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姓名 吳坤齡(Kun-Ling Wu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 界面活性劑與電泳輔助放電加工之研究
(A Study of Electrical Discharge Machining Aided by Surfactant and Electrophoresis)
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摘要(中) 放電加工是利用電能轉變成熱能產生高溫達到去除材料的目的,適用於高硬度、高強度等難切削之材料加工。由於放電過程中工件表面受到急冷急熱的作用,容易產生微裂縫、微氣孔等缺陷,使得加工面的品質變差;對機件使用壽命上造成嚴重的影響。因此如何精修放電表面,提升加工品質是本論文所要探討的主題。
本研究針對放電加工後表面粗糙度不佳的缺點,提出了三種改善表面品質的方法,分別為加工液中添加界面活性劑、放電面噴塗介電材料及結合電泳拋光技術對放電加工表面進行精修,達到精緻表面的目的。經由實驗結果分析顯示,純煤油中添加Span 20 界面活性劑,藉由界面活性分子的作用,達到分散碳渣、加工屑的效果,減少積碳、放電集中現象,對材料去除率可提升40~85%;純煤油中添加鋁粉與非離子界面活性劑Tween 80,改善了鋁粉集聚現象,使其更均勻地分散於放電加工液中,對放電後的工件表面粗糙度可改善60%;另一種方法為放電面上噴塗介電材料,以其薄膜厚度來影響放電痕高低點之電阻抗,消耗部份的放電能量,使得放電痕之隆起處逐一被去除,留下深淺均一的凹坑,因此加工後工件表面粗糙度改善率可以提升33%,表面粗度值穩定性可以增加18%;而採用電泳沉積方法可使粒徑0.3µm的Al2O3顆粒均勻吸附於旋轉電極,配合適當參數對放電後之工件進行精密拋光,可在5~10 min將初始粗糙度0.52 µmRa的放電表面改善到0.068 µmRa 似如鏡面的效果,對縮短加工時間與改善表面粗糙度效果相當明顯。
摘要(英) In electrical discharge machining (EDM), materials are removed by thermal energy transformed from electrical energy. This technique can be applied to remove materials with high hardness and strength, which are difficult to machine by traditional methods. During the process, the workpiece is subject to rapid heating and cooling under a violent temperature gradient. As a result, defects such as microcracks and pores are formed, to deteriorate the surface quality and shorten the life cycle. In view of such drawbacks, this study aims to enhance the high precision quality of electrical discharge machined surface.
Three approaches to improve the surface roughness and to achieve a mirror-like surface quality are proposed. Three techniques including the addition of surfactant to dielectric, the spraying of dielectric material and the combination of EDM with electrophoretic deposition polishing (EDP) are further studied. For the first approach, the experimental results reveal that adding surfactant Span20 to kerosene can disperse carbon and debris through the molecular reaction of the surfactant. As a result, carbon accumulation and concentrated discharge are reduced and material removal rate can be improved by 40-85%. Similarly, the addition of Al powder and surfactant Tween 80 to kerosene helps reduce the agglomeration of Al powder, thus ensuring even distribution of Al powder in the dielectric, which in turn improves surface roughness by 60%. The second approach influences the impedance of the electrical discharge profile by spraying thin films with different thickness, which consumes part of the discharge energy. The bulges on the surface are removed by the second electrical discharge, leaving craters of even depth and thus improve the surface roughness by 33%. In addition, the surface roughness stability is together with an increase in surface roughness improved by 18%. Finally, combining EDM with EDP using 0.3µm of Al2O3 particles can improve the initial surface roughness from 0.52 µmRa to a mirror-like surface of 0.068 µmRa. In addition, the total working time required for the polishing process can also be reduced significantly to around 5 to 10 minutes.
關鍵字(中) ★ 放電加工
★ 表面粗糙度
★ 材料移除量
★ 電泳沉積
★ 鏡面
關鍵字(英) ★ material removal
★ surfactant
★ electrophoretic deposition
★ mirror-like surface
★ surface roughness
★ EDM
論文目次 目 錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
謝誌 IV
目錄 V
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究背景 2
1-3 文獻回顧 5
1-4 研究方法 12
1-5 本論文之構成 14
第二章 界面活性劑對放電加工特性的影響 16
2-1 前言 16
2-2 基本原理 17
2-2-1放電加工 17
2-2-2界面活性劑原理應用 21
2-3 實驗方法 22
2-4 結果與討論 23
2-4-1 添加界面活性劑種類及濃度評估 23
2-4-2 放電加工液中添加界面活性劑的效果 24
2-5 放電特性探討 27
2-5-1 峰值電流之影響 27
2-5-2 極間電壓的影響 28
2-5-3 脈衝時間之影響 30
2-5-4 再鑄層觀察 30
2-5-5 放電波形探討 32
2-5-6 加工時間與加工液對放電特性的影響 33
2-6 結論 37
第三章 加工液中添加鋁粉與界面活性劑對放電表面
之改善效果 38
3-1 前言 38
3-2 田口品質工程 39
3-2-1 田口實驗設計法 39
3-2-2 變異數分析 40
3-3 實驗內容與方法 41
3-3-1 實驗方法 41
3-3-2 實驗材料 43
3-4 結果與討論 44
3-4-1 放電加工液中添加鋁粉與界面活性劑的特性 44
3-4-2 田口式實驗結果分析 47
3-4-2-1 L18直交表及實驗數據 47
3-4-2-2 材料去除率分析 48
3-4-2-3 表面粗糙度分析 48
3-4-2-4 驗證實驗 51
3-5 放電特性的探討 53
3-5-1 不同加工液對放電特性的影響 53
3-5-2 不同加工液對極間間隙之討論 54
3-5-3 加工極性對表面粗糙度之影響 54
3-5-4 峰值電流對表面粗糙度之影響 58
3-5-5 脈衝時間對表面粗糙度之影響 62
3-6再鑄層觀察與討論 63
3-7結論 65
第四章 噴塗製程對放電加工面之改善研究 66
4-1 前言 66
4-2 噴塗製程之加工原理 67
4-3 實驗方法與研究內容 69
4-3-1 實驗設備與材料 69
4-3-2 研究內容 69
4-4 結果與討論 71
4-4-1 塗料中添加粉末種類對表面粗糙度的影響 71
4-4-2 塗料中添加粉末濃度對表面粗糙度的影響 75
4-4-3 不同製程對放電加工面的影響 75
4-4-4 不同製程對表面粗糙度均勻性的影響 80
4-4-5 再鑄層觀察 81
4-4-6 放電波形探討 83
4-5 結論 85
第五章 結合微能量放電與電泳沉積拋光的鏡面加工研究 86
5-1 前言 86
5-2 電泳沉積原理 87
5-3 實驗設備與方法 87
5-3-1 實驗設備 87
5-3-2 實驗方法 90
5-3-2-1 電泳沉積最佳參數 90
5-3-2-2 微能量放電與電泳拋光實驗 90
5-4 結果與討論 92
5-4-1電泳沉積的參數選擇 92
5-4-1-1電壓 93
5-4-1-2 電極轉速 95
5-4-1-3 溶液酸鹼值 97
5-4-1-4 磨粒濃度 98
5-4-1-5 電泳沉積最佳參數 99
5-4-2 電泳沉積拋光的效果 99
5-4-2-1 加工時間對粗糙度的影響 99
5-4-2-2 變質層探討 102
5-4-2-3 電泳拋光與傳統機械拋光的比較 102
5-5 結論 105
第六章 總結論 106
參考文獻 108
圖 目 錄
圖1-1 目前放電加工主要研究領域 4
圖1-2 實驗流程圖 13
圖2-1 放電加工示意圖 19
圖2-2 放電加工材料去除機制示意圖 20
圖2-3 界面活性劑分子示意圖 21
圖2-4 界面活性劑濃度對表面粗糙度、材料去除率的 影響 24
圖2-5 不同放電加工液置放7天後外觀狀態 25
圖2-6 界面活性分子分散加工屑示意圖(a)加工屑於加工液中流動;(b)加工屑因靜電力集聚在一起;(c)添加界面活性劑後,界面活性分子包覆著加工屑減少粒子集聚現象。 26
圖2-7 放電集中之SEM圖 27
圖2-8 加工電流對表面粗糙度、材料去除率的影響 29
圖2-9 不同極間電壓對表面粗糙度、材料去除率的影響 29
圖2-10 脈衝時間對表面粗糙度、材料去除率的影響 31
圖2-11 不同加工液放電後之表面再鑄層SEM圖 32
圖2-12 不同加工液之放電波形
( P : +, I p : 3A, Ton : 25us, Eg : 40V, Time : 40 min) 34
圖2-13 不同加工液放電之延遲時間比較
( P : +, I p : 3A, Ton : 25 us, Eg : 40V, Time : 40 min) 35
圖2-14 不同加工液放電加工後之SEM比較
( P : +, I p :3A, Ton : 1 us, E g : 40V) 36
圖2-15 不同加工液加工深度比較
( P : +, I p : 8A, Ton : 25 us, E g : 40V, Time : 30 min) 36
圖3-1 不同放電加工液的實際外觀
(a) Kerosene+Al; (b) Kerosene + Al + surfactant。 45
圖3-2 界面活性分子分散鋁粉示意圖;(a) 加工液中添加鋁粉,經攪拌鋁粉呈現局部聚集,(b) 添加界面活性劑後,界面活性分子會將聚集的鋁粉逐漸拉開,(c) 聚集的鋁粉分離。 46
圖3-3 材料移除率之因子回應圖 50
圖3-4 表面粗糙度之因子回應圖 51
圖3-5 不同加工液放電後之表面粗糙度比較 53
圖3-6 不同加工液放電後之表面SEM圖
(Polarity: +, Ip: 0.3A, Pulse: 1.5μs) 55
圖3-7 不同放電加工液與脈衝時間對極間間隙比較圖 56
圖3-8 不同極性與脈衝時間對表面粗糙度的影響 56
圖3-9 不同極性與電流對表面粗糙度的影響 57
圖3-10 不同極性與加工液放電表面SEM比較圖
(Ip: 0.3A, Pulse: 1.5μs) 59
圖3-11 不同脈衝時間下對表面粗糙度的影響(Ip:0.3A) 60
圖3-12 不同峰值電流下工件表面之表SEM圖
(Polarity: +, Pulse: 1.5μs) 61
圖3-13 不同脈衝時間下工件表面SEM圖
(Polarity: +, Pulse: 1.5μs) 62
圖3-14 不同加工液放電後再鑄層SEM的比較圖
(Polarity: +, Ip: 0.3A, Pulse: 1.5μs) 64
圖4-1 傳統放電與噴塗製程材料去除機制微觀示意圖 68
圖4-2 塗料噴塗於放電坑上的微觀圖 68
圖4-3 噴塗製程實驗流程圖 70
圖4-4 添加不同粉末對表面粗糙度的影響 73
圖4-5 添加不同粉末對表面粗糙度的改善情形 73
圖4-6 不同製程最佳表面狀態的比較圖 74
圖4-7 EDM+噴塗製程在不同極間電壓下對Ra的影響 77
圖4-8 EDM+噴塗製程在不同的極間電壓對Ra的改善率 77
圖4-9 不同製程的加工去除機制示意圖 78
圖4-10 不同製程後3D表面輪廓分析 79
圖4-11 不同製程工件表面狀態和粗度值均勻性示意圖 82
圖4-12 不同製程加工表面再鑄層的比較圖 83
圖4-13 不同製程精加工之放電波形(0.38A) 84
圖5-1 電泳沉積實驗示意圖 88
圖5-2 實驗機構示意圖 89
圖5-3 實驗流程圖 91
圖5-4 電泳拋光示意圖 92
圖5-5 電壓對沉積量的關係圖 94
圖5-6 烘乾後顆粒占沉積量之百分比 94
圖5-7 電泳沉積拋光表面EDS成分分析 95
圖5-8 轉速對沉積量的影響 96
圖5-9 轉速對表面粗糙度的影響 96
圖5-10 沉積量對pH的變化 97
圖5-11 濃度對沉積量的變化 98
圖5-12 軸向荷重與表面粗糙度之關係 100
圖5-13 不同粒徑粗糙度與拋光時間之影響 101
圖5-14 電泳沉積拋光後表面的EDS及SEM分析圖 101
圖5-15 拋光前後變質層之比較 103
圖5-16 一般拋光與電泳拋光工件表面粗糙度之比較 103
圖5-17 電泳拋光前後之工件表面SEM照片比較圖;(a)放電表面,(b)電泳拋光面,(c)電泳拋光後工件表面似如鏡面。 104
表 目 錄
表2-1 Span系列之化學性質 22
表2-2 實驗之加工條件 23
表3-1 實驗之加工參數 41
表3-2 實驗設計之參數與水準值 43
表3-3 鋁粉之化學組成 43
表3-4 界面活性劑之化學組成 44
表3-5 L18直交表實驗的參數組合及訊號/噪音比 47
表3-6 材料移除率之變異數分析與F檢定 49
表3-7 表面粗糙度之變異數分析與F檢定 50
表3-8 材料移除率最佳值與驗證實驗值比較 52
表3-9 表面粗糙度最佳值與驗證實驗值比較 52
表4-1 導電顆粒的平均粒徑和電阻係數 72
表4-2 鋁粉和鉻粉的物理性質 72
表5-1 使用微能量放電加工之參數 92
表5-2 電泳沉積最佳參數 99
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指導教授 顏炳華(Biing-Hwa Yan) 審核日期 2006-5-6
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