博碩士論文 90441003 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:22 、訪客IP:44.192.54.67
姓名 高登第(Danny T. Kao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 企業管理學系
論文名稱 廣告訊息框架效果對消費者態度之影響: MOA的調節角色
(The Impact of Ad Message Framing on Consumer Attitudes:The Moderating Roles of MOA )
相關論文
★ 網頁背景圖片對消費者產品偏好的影響★ 組合商品的定價模式對消費者的滿意度與價值知覺
★ KTV消費型態與消費者類型之關聯★ 蘋果沉浸度研究
★ 女性業務人員的配飾、妝容、上衣對業務職能特質知覺之影響★ 男性業務人員服飾配件對職能特質知覺之影響
★ 個人辦公桌擺設對員工工作投入與專業職能知覺之影響★ 飯店房間內擺設對消費者知覺與金錢價值之影響 --- 以人格特質為干擾變數
★ 療癒著色本對情緒轉換與風險偏好的影響★ 名片設計對業務人員的職能特質與工作績效之知覺影響
★ 美語補習班的創新服務★ 台灣工具機製造商之策略構面、組織構面及財務績效之關係研究:五大廠商之個案分析
★ 反向策略之廣告效果研究★ 不同性刺激形式所引發的性幻想程度對廣告效果之影響
★ 情緒在消費者決策行為中的影響★ 消費者知識及屬性平衡對不完全資訊下消費者選擇之影響
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 ( 永不開放)
摘要(中) 本研究檢視了認知需求、時間壓力與消費者知識在廣告訊息框架效果與消費者態度之間關係中的調節效果。一百三十二位大學生參與了實驗一。研究結果顯示,高認知需求消費者在低時間壓力之下,會對負面框架的廣告訊息產生更正面的消費者態度;高認知需求消費者在高時間壓力之下,負面框架廣告訊息並未明顯優於正面框架廣告訊息所帶來的消費者態度。然而,對低認知需求的消費者而言,正面框架的廣告訊息比負面框架的廣告訊息更能產生正面的消費者態度,無論時間壓力的高低。
在一百二十四位大學生所參與的實驗二中,研究結果顯示:高認知需求但消費知識低的消費者,會對負面框架的廣告訊息產生較正面的消費者態度;但高認知需求且消費知識高的消費者,正面框架廣告訊息並未明顯優於負面框架廣告訊息所帶來的消費者態度。相對地,對低認知需求且低消費知識的消費者而言,正面框架的廣告訊息會比負面框架的廣告訊息,更能產生較正面的消費者態度;至於低認知需求且高消費知識的消費者,負面框架廣告訊息並未明顯優於正面框架廣告訊息所帶來的消費者態度。
實驗三有一百四十四位大學生參與,結果顯示:廣告框架效果並未明顯地影響到高消費知識消費者的態度,不論時間壓力的高低。低消費知識且處於低時間壓力下的消費者,會對負面框架的廣告訊息產生較正面的態度;然而,對低消費知識且處於高時間壓力下的消費者而言,正面框架廣告訊息並未明顯優於負面廣告框架訊息所帶來的態度。
摘要(英) This research examines the moderating impacts of need for cognition (NFC), time pressure and consumer knowledge on the relationship between ad message framing and consumer attitudes. 132 undergraduates participated in Study 1. Results showed that high NFC consumers under low time pressure form more favorable consumer attitudes toward negatively framed ad messages than positively framed ad messages; in contrast, insignificantly favorable consumer attitudes toward negatively over positively framed ad messages were found for high NFC consumers under high time pressure. In addition, low NFC consumers form more favorable consumer attitudes toward positively framed ad messages than negatively framed ad messages, irrespective of time pressure.
In Study 2, 124 undergraduates were invited to join the survey. Results demonstrated that while high NFC consumers with low knowledge engender more favorable consumer attitudes toward negatively framed ad messages than positively framed ad messages, insignificantly favorable consumer attitudes toward positively over negatively framed ad messages were found for high NFC consumers with high knowledge. In contrast, while low NFC consumers with low knowledge engender more favorable consumer attitudes toward positively framed ad messages than negatively framed ad messages, insignificantly favorable consumer attitudes toward negatively over positively framed ad messages were found for low NFC consumers with high knowledge.
144 undergraduates participated in Study 3. Results indicated that framing effect insignificantly affects the consumer attitudes of high-knowledge consumers, irrespective of time pressure. In contrast, while low-knowledge consumers under low time pressure hold more favorable consumer attitudes toward negatively framed messages than positively framed messages, insignificantly favorable consumer attitudes toward positively over negatively framed ad messages were found for low-knowledge consumers under high time pressure.
關鍵字(中) ★ 框架效果
★ 認知需求
★ 時間壓力
★ 消費者知識
★ 消費者態度
關鍵字(英) ★ NFC
★ consumer attitudes
★ consumer knowledge
★ time pressure
★ Framing effect
論文目次 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS v
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xi
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 MESSAGE FRAMING AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES 1
1.2 RESEACH MOTIVATION 2
1.3 IMPORTANCE OF THIS RESEARCH 3
1.4 EXPECTED RESEARCH ACHIEVEMENT 4
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 CONSUMER ATTITUDES 6
2.2 DEFINITION AND APPLICATIONS OF MESSAGE FRAMING 6
2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF FRAMING EFFECT 11
2.4 THEORIES OF FRAMING 16
2.5 REVIOUS RESEARCH ON MOTIVATION, OPPORTUNITY AND ABILITY
17
2.5.1 Motivation, Involvement and NFC 18
2.5.2 Opportunity and Time Pressure 21
2.5.3 Ability and Consumer Knowledge 26
2.6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MESSAGE FRAMING AND MOA 30
2.7 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 31
CHAPTER 3: HYPOTHESES 32
3.1 EFFECT OF NFC 32
3.2 EFFECT OF TIME PRESSURE 32
3.3 EFFECT OF CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE 35
3.4 EFFECTS OF NFC, TIME PRESSURE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
37
3.5 EFFECTS OF NFC, CONSUMER ABILITY AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
40
3.6 EFFECTS OF TIME PRESSURE, CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
43
CHAPTER 4: METHOD 47
4.1 STUDY 1 47
4.1.1 PRETEST 47
4.1.2 STIMULUS MATERIAL 47
4.1.3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS 48
4.1.4 PROCEDURE 48
4.1.5 MEASURES FOR FRAMING, MOA AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES
49
4.1.5.1 Independent Variables 49
4.1.5.2 Moderators 49
4.1.5.3 Dependent Variable 50
4.1.6 MANIPULATION CHECKS 51
4.1.7 HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND RESULTS 52
4.2 STUDY 2 56
4.2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS 56
4.2.2 PROCEDURE 56
4.2.3 MEASURES FOR FRAMING, NFC, CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES
57
4.2.3.1 Independent Variable 57
4.2.3.2 Moderators 57
4.2.3.3 Dependent Variable 58
4.2.4 MANIPULATION CHECK 59
4.2.5 HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND RESULTS 59
4.3 STUDY 3 64
4.3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS 64
4.3.2 PROCEDURE 64
4.3.3 MEASURES FOR FRAMING, TIME PRESSURE, CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND CONSUMER
ATTITUDES 65
4.3.3.1 Independent Variable 65
4.3.3.2 Moderators 66
4.3.3.3 Dependent Variable 67
4.3.4 MANIPULATION CHECKS 67
4.3.5 HYPOTHESIS TESTING AND RESULTS 69
CHAPTER 5: GENERAL DISCUSSION 73
5.1 HYPOTHESIS ANALYSIS 73
5.1.1 FOR H1: EFFECTS OF HIGH NFC, TIME PRESSURE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
73
5.1.2 FOR H2: EFFECTS OF LOW NFC, TIME PRESSURE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
74
5.1.3 FOR H3: EFFECTS OF HIGH NFC, CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
75
5.1.4 FOR H4: EFFECTS OF LOW NFC, CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
76
5.1.5 FOR H5: EFFECTS OF TIME PRESSURE, HIGH CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
77
5.1.6 FOR H6: EFFECTS OF TIME PRESSURE, LOW CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND MESSAGE FRAMING ON CONSUMER ATTITUDES
78
5.2 THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTION 79
5.3 MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS 80
5.3.1 AD APPEALS, NFC AND EXPIRATION STRATEGY OF MARKETING OFFERS
81
5.3.2 AD APPEALS, NFC AND CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE 81
5.3.3 AD APPEALS, CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE AND EXPIRATION STRATEGY OF MARKETING OFFERS
83
5.4 LIMITATION 84
5.5 FUTURE RESEARCH 84
REFERENCES 85
APPENDIX A: Questionnaire (PF, NFC and Low TP) 104
APPENDIX B: Questionnaire (NF, NFC and Low TP) 108
APPENDIX C: Questionnaire (PF, NFC and High TP) 112
APPENDIX D: Questionnaire (NF, NFC and High TP) 116
APPENDIX E: Questionnaire (PF, NFC and Knowledge) 120
APPENDIX F: Questionnaire (NF, NFC and Knowledge) 124
APPENDIX G: Questionnaire (PF, Knowledge and Low TP) 128
APPENDIX H: Questionnaire (NF, Knowledge and Low TP) 131
APPENDIX I: Questionnaire (PF, Knowledge and High TP) 134
APPENDIX J: Questionnaire (NF, Knowledge and High TP) 137
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 Studies on Attribute Framing Effects 14
Table 2 Studies on Goal Framing Effects 15
Table 3 Dependent Measure Across NFC × Time Pressure × Framing Conditions 55
Table 4 Dependent Measure Across NFC × Consumer Knowledge × Framing Conditions 63
Table 5 Dependent Measure Across Consumer Knowledge × Time Pressure × Framing Conditions 72
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 The Correlation Among High NFC, Time Pressure and Message Framing
53
Figure 2 The Correlation Among Low NFC, Time Pressure and Message Framing 55
Figure 3 The Correlation Among High NFC, Knowledge and Message Framing 61
Figure 4 The Correlation Among Low NFC, Knowledge and Message Framing 62
Figure 5 The Correlation Among High Knowledge, Time Pressure and Message Framing 70
Figure 6 The Correlation Among Low Knowledge, Time Pressure and Message Framing 71
參考文獻 REFERENCES
Ahearne, Michael., Thomas Gruen, and Kim M. Saxton (2000), “When the Product Is Complex, Does the Advertisement’s Conclusion Matter?” Journal of Business Research, 48(1), 55-62.
Ahluwalia, Rohini., Robert E. Burnkrant, and Rao H. Unnava (2000), “Consumer Response to Negative Publicity: The Moderating Role of Commitment,” Journal of Marketing Research, 37 (May), 203-14.
Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein (1977), “Attitude-Behavior Relations: A Theoretical Analysis and Review of Empirical Research,” Psychological Bulletin, September, 888-918.
Alba, Joseph W. and Wesley J. Hutchinson (1987), “Dimensions of Consumer Expertise,” Journal of Consumer Research, 13(March), 411-454.
Anderson, Ronald D., Jack L. Engledow, and Helmut Becker (1979), “Evaluating the Relationships Among Attitude Toward Business, Product Satisfaction, Experience and Search Effort,” Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 394-400.
Baker, Sara M., and Richard E. Petty (1994), “Majority and Minority Influence : Source-Position Imbalance As a Determinant of Message Scrutiny,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(1), 5-19.
Batra, Rajeev and Douglas M. Stayman (1990), “The Role of Mood in Advertising Effectiveness,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17(September), 203-214.
Benson Ⅲ, Lehman., and Beach Lee (1996), “The Effects of Time Constraints on the Pre-Choice Screening of Decision Options,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,” 67, August, 222-228.
Bettman, James R. and Mita Sujan (1987), “Effects of Framing on Evaluation of Comparable and Noncomparable Alternatives by Expert and Novice Consumers,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14(September), 141-154.
Binney, Wayne., John Hall, and Mike Shaw (2003), “A Further Development in Social Marketing: Application of the MOA framework and Behavioral Implications,” Marketing Theory, 3(3), 387-403.
Biswas, Abhijib and Daniel Sherrell (1993), “The Influence of Product Knowledge and Brand Name on Internal Price Standards and Confidence,” Psychology and Marketing, 10 (January/February), 31-46.
Block, Lauren G. and Punam A. Keller (1995), “When to Accentuate the Negative: The Effects of Perceived Efficacy and Message Framing on Intentions to Perform a Health-Related Behavior,” Journal of Marketing Research, 32(2), 192-203.
Brockner, Joel., Batia M. Wiesenfeld, and Christopher L. Martin (1995), “Decision Frame, Procedural Justice and Survivors’ Reactions to Job Layoffs,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 63(1), 59-68.
Brucks, Merrie (1985), “The Effects of Product Class Knowledge on Information Search Behavior, “ Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (June), 1-16.
Cacioppo, John T., Richard E. Petty, Jeffrey A. Feinstein, and Blair G. Jarvis (1996), “Dispositional Differences in Cognitive Motivation: The Life and Times of Individuals Varying in Need for Cognition,” Psychological Bulletin, 119, 197-253.
Cacioppo, John T., Richard E. Petty, and Morris, K. (1983), “Effects of Need for Cognition on Message Evaluation, Recall and Persuasion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 805-818.
Cacioppo, John T., Richard E. Petty, and Chuan-Feng Kao (1984), “The Efficient Assessment of Need for Cognition,” Journal of Personality Assessment, 48(9), 306-307.
Cacioppo, John T., Richard E. Petty, Chuan-Feng Kao, and Regina Rodriguez (1986), “Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: An Individual Difference Perspective,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(5), 1032-1043.
Chaiken, Shelly (1980), “Heuristic versus Systematic Information Processing and the Use of Source Versus Message Cues in Persuasion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(November), 752-756.
Chaiken, Shelly., Akiva Liberman, and Alice H. Eagly (1989), “Heuristic and Systematic Information Processing within and beyond the Persuasion Context,” in Unintended Thought, ed. James S. Uleman and John A. Bargh, New York: Guilford, 212-252.
Chang, Chingching (2004), “The Interplay of Product Class Knowledge and Trial Experience in Attitude Formation,” Journal of Advertising, 33(1), 83-92.
Chang, Yong (1996), “The Effect of Humor in Advertising: An Individual-difference Perspective,” Psychology and Marketing, 13(6), 531-545.
Chebat, Jean-Charles., Mathieu Charlebois, and Gelinas-Chebat (2001), “What Makes Open vs. Closed Conclusions Advertisements More Persuasive? The Moderating Role of Prior Knowledge and Involvement,” Journal of Business Research, 53(2), 93-102.
Cordell, Victor V. (1997), “Consumer Knowledge Measures as Predictors in Product Evaluation,” Psychology and Marketing, 14(3), 241-260.
Coulter, Keith S. and Girish N. Punj (2004), “The Effects of Cognitive Resource Requirements, Availability and Argument Quality on Brand Attitudes,” A Melding of Elaboration Likelihood and Cognitive Resource Matching Theories,” Journal of Advertising, 33(4), 53-64.
Cowley, Elizabeth and Andrew A. Mitchell (2003), “The Moderating Effect of Product Knowledge on the Learning and Organization of Product Information,” Journal of Consumer Research, 30(3), 443-454.
Davis, Mark A. and Philip Bobko (1986), “Contextual Effects on Escalation Processes in Public Sector Decision Making,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37(1), 121-138.
Dhar, Ravi and Stephan Nowlis (1999), “The Effect of Time Pressure on Consumer Choice Deferral,” Journal of Consumer Research, 25(4), 369-384.
Ditto, Peter H. and David F. Lopez (1992), “Motivated Skepticism: The Use of Differential Decision Criteria for Preferred and Non-Preferred Conclusions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), 568-584.
Donovan, Robert J. and Geoffrey Jalleh (1999), “Positively versus Negativity Framed Product Attributes: The Influence of Involvement,” Psychology and Marketing, 16(7), 613-630.
Dunegan, Kenneth J. (1993), “Framing, Cognitive Modes and Image Theory: Toward an Understanding of a Glass Half Full,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 491-503.
Dunegan, Kenneth J. (1996), “Fines, Frames and Images: Examining Formulation Effects on Punishment Decisions,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 68(1), 58-67.
Eagly, Alice H. and Shelly Chaiken (1993), The Psychology of Attitudes, Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College.
Engel, James F., Roger D. Blackwell, and Paul W. Miniard (1993), Consumer Behavior, 7th ed., Dryden Press, Chicago, IL.
Eysenck, Michael W. and Manuel G. Calvo (1992), “Anxiety and Performance: The Processing Efficiency Theory,” Cognition and Emotion, 6(November), 409-434.
Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
Fiske, Susan T. (1980), “Attention and Weight in Person Perception: The Impact of Negative and Extreme Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38(June), 889-906.
Forgas, Joseph P. (2001), “Affective Intelligence: The Role of Affect in Social Thinking and Behavior” In J. Ciarrochi, J. P. Forgas, J. D. Mayer (Eds.), Emotional Intelligence in Everyday Life: A Scientific Inquiry (pp. 45-79). Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press.
Fortin, David R. and Ruby R. Dholakia (2005), “Interactivity and Vividness Effects on Social Presence and Involvement with a Web-Based Advertisement,” Journal of Business Research, 58(3), 387-396.
Friestad, Marian and Peter Wright (1994), “The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21(June), 1-31.
Ganzach, Yoav and Nili Karsahi (1995), “Message Framing and Buying Behavior: A Field Experiment,” Journal of Business Research, 32(1), 11-17.
Gruen, Thomas W., Talai Osmonbekov, and Andrew J. Czaplewski (2005), “How E-Communities Extend the Concept of Exchange in Marketing: An Application of the Motivation, Opportunity, Ability (MOA) Theory,” Marketing Theory, 5(1), 33-49.
Haugtvedt, Curtis P. and Richard E. Petty (1992), “Personality and Persuasion: Need for Cognition Moderates the Persistence and Resistance of Attitude Changes,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(2), 308-319.
Haugtvedt, Curtis P., Richard E. Petty, and John T. Cacioppo (1992), “Need for Cognition and Advertising: Understanding the Role of Personality Variables in Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1(3), 239-260.
Homer, Pamela M. and Sun-Gil Yoon (1992), “Message Framing and the Interrelationships Among Ad-Based Feelings, Affect and Cognition,” Journal of Advertising, 21(1), 19-33.
Hornik, Jacob (1984), “Subjective vs. Objective Times Measures: A note on the Perception of Time in Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, 11(June), 615-618.
Jaben, Jan (1992), “Avoiding Temptation: Not Using Negative Ads Usually Is Good Business, Poll Shows,” Business Marketing, 77, 36-37.
Johnson, Eric J. and Edward J. Russo (1984), “Product Familiarity and Learning New Information,” Journal of Consumer Research, 11, 542-550.
Kahneman, Daniel and Amos Tversky (1979), “Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision Making Under Risk,” Econometrica, 6, 621-630.
Kanouse, David E. (1984), “Explaining Negativity Biases in Evaluation and Choice Behavior: Theory and Research,” In T.C. Kinnear (ed.), Advances in Consumer Research, 11, 703-708. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.
Kardes, Frank R. (1988), “Spontaneous Inference Processes in Advertising: The Effects of Conclusion Omission and Involvement on Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15(September), 225-233.
Kardes, Frank R., John Kim, and Jeen-Su Lim (1994), “Moderating Effects of Prior Knowledge on the Perceived Diagnosticity of Beliefs Derived from Implicit Versus Explicit Product Claims,” Journal of Business Research, 29(3), 219-224.
Kassin, Saul M., M. Reddy E., and Tulloch, W.F. (1990), “Juror Interpretation of Ambiguous Evidence: The Need for Cognition, Presentation Order and Persuasion,” Law and Human Behavior, 14(1), 43-55.
Keller, Punam Anand and Lauren G. Block (1997), “Vividness Effects: A Resource Matching Perspective,” Journal of Consumer Research, 24(December), 295-304.
Kramer, Roderick M. (1989), “Windows of Vulnerability or Cognitive Illusions? Cognitive Processes and the Nuclear Arm Race,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25(1), 79-100.
Krishnamurthy, Parthasarathy., Patrick Carter, and Edward Blair (2001), “Attribute Framing and Goal Framing Effects in Health Decisions,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 85(2), 382-399.
Krugman, Herbert E. (1965), “The Impact of Television Advertising: Learning without Involvement,” Public Opinion Quarterly, 29(Fall), 349-356.
Kuvaas, Bard and Geir Kaufmann (2004), “Impact of Mood, Framing, and Need for Cognition on Decision Makers’ Recall and Confidence,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 17(1), 59-74.
Lassiter, Daniel G., Michael A. Briggs, and David R. Slaw (1991), “Need for Cognition, Causal Processing, and Memory for Behavior,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(6), 694-699.
LeBoeuf, Robyn A. and Eldar Shafir (2003), “Deep Thoughts and Shallow Frame: On the Susceptibility to Framing Effects,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 16, 77-92.
Levin, Irwin P. (1987), “Associative Effects of Information Framing,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 25(2), 85-86.
Levin, Irwin P., D. P. Chapman, and R. D. Johnson (1988), “Confidence in Judgments Based on Incomplete Information: An Investigation Using Both Hypothetical and Real Gambles,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 1, 29-41.
Levin, Irwin and Gary J. Gaeth (1988), “How Consumers Are Affected by the Framing of Attribute Information Before and After Consuming the Product,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3), 374-378.
Levin, Irwin P., Sandra L. Schneider, and Gary J. Gaeth (1998), “All Frames Are Not Created Equal: A Typology and Critical Analysis of Framing Effects,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76 (November), 149-188.
Levin, Irwin P., S. K. Schnittjer, and S. L. Thee (1988), “Information Framing Effects in Social and Personal Decisions,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24(6), 520-529.
Liebert, Robert M. and Larry W. Morris (1967), “Cognitive and Emotional Components of Test Anxiety: A Distinction and Some Initial Data,” Psychological Reports, 20(3), 975-978.
Linder, Darwyn E. and Stephen Worchel (1970), “Opinion Change as a Result of Effortfully drawing a Counterattitudinal Conclusion,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 6(October), 432-448.
Loke, Wing-Hong and Sing L. Lau (1992), “Effects of Framing and Mathematical Experience in Judgments,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 30(5), 393-395.
MacInnis, Deborah J. and Bernard J. Jaworski (1989), “Information Processing From Advertisements: Toward An Integrative Framework,” Journal of Marketing, 53(4), 1-23.
MacInnis, Deborah J., Christine Moorman, and Bernard J. Jaworski (1991), “Enhancing the and Measuring Consumers’ Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information From Ads,” Journal of Marketing, 55(October), 32-53.
MacKenzie, Scott B. and Richard J. Lutz (1989), “An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude Toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context,” Journal of Marketing, 53(April), 48-65.
Maheswaran, Durairaj and Joan Meyers-Levy (1990), “The Influence of Message Framing and Issue Involvement,” Journal of Marketing Research, 27(3), 361-367.
Maheswaran, Durairaj and Brian Sternthal (1990), “The Effects of Knowledge, Motivation, and Type of Message on Ad Processing and Product Judgments,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17(1): 66-73.
Marks, Lawrence J. and Jerry C. Olson (1981), “Towards a Cognitive Structure Conceptualization of Product Familiarity,” in Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 8, Kent B. Monroe, ed., Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 145-150.
Marshall, Greg W., John C. Mowen, and Thomas H. Stone (1995), “Risk-Taking in Sales-Force Selection Decisions: The Impact of Decision Frame and Time,” Psychology and Marketing, 12(4), 265-285.
Marteau, T. M. (1989), “Framing of Information: Its Influence Upon Decisions of Doctors and Patients,” British Journal of Social Psychology, 28(1), 89-94.
Martin, Brett A.S., Bodo Lang, and Stephanie Wong (2003), “Conclusion Explicitness in Advertising: The Moderating Role of Need for Cognition (NFC) and Argument Quality (AQ) on Persuasion,” Journal of Advertising, Winter, 32(4): 57-65.
Martin, Brett A. S. and Roger Marshall (1999), “The Interaction of Message Framing and Felt Involvement in the Context of Cell Phone Commercials,” European Journal of Marketing, 33(1/2), 206-218.
Martin, Pearl., Jenny Laing, Martin Robin, and Melanie Mitchell (2005), “Caffeine, Cognition, and Persuasion: Evidence for Caffeine Increasing the Systematic Processing of Persuasive Messages,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(1), 160-182.
Maule, John A. and Ola Svenson (1993), Time Pressure and Stress in Human Judgment and Decision-Making, New York: Plenum.
Meyerowitz, Beth E. and Shelly Chaiken (1987), “The Effect of Message Framing on Breast Self-Examination Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(march), 500-510.
Mitchell, Andrew A. and Peter F. Dacin (1996), “The Assessment of Alternative Measures of Consumer Expertise,” Journal of Consumer Research, 23 (December), 219-240.
Moorman, Christine., Kristin Diehl, David Brinberg, and Blair Kidwell (2004), “Subjective Knowledge, Search Locations, and Consumer Choice,” Journal of Consumer Research, 31(3), 673-680.
Moorthy, Sridhar., Brian T. Ratchford, and Debabrata Talukdar (1997), “Consumer Information Search Revisited: Theory and Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Consumer Research, 23 (4), 263-277.
Muehling, Darrel D. (1987), “Comparative Advertising: The Influence of Attitude-Toward-the-Ad on Brand Evaluation,” Journal of Advertising, 16(4): 43-49.
Newberry, Kaye J., Philip M. J. Reckers, and Robert W. Wyndelts (1993), “An Examination of Tax Practitioner Decisions: The Role of Preparer Sanctions and Framing Effects Associated with Client Condition,” Journal of Economic Psychology, 14(2), 439-452.
O’Connor, Daryl B., Eamonn Ferguson, and Rory C. O’Connor (2005), “Intentions to Use Hormonal Male Contraception: The Role of Message Framing, Attitudes and Stress Appraisals,” British Journal of Psychology, 96, 351-369.
Ordonez, Lisa and Lehman Benson III (1997), “Decisions under Time Pressure: How Time Constraint Affects Risky Decision Making,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 71 (August), 121-140.
Park, Whan C., Eashwer S. Iyer, and Daniel C. Smith (1989), “The Effects of Situational Factors on In-Store Grocery Shopping Behavior: The Role of Store Environment and Time Available for Shopping,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (March), 422-433.
Park, Whan C. and Byeong-Joon Moon (2003), “The Relationship between Product Involvement and Product Knowledge: Moderating Roles of Product Type and Product Knowledge Type,” Psychology and Marketing, 20(11), 977-997.
Park, Whan C. and Parker V. Lessig (1981), “Familiarity and Its Impact on Consumer Decision Biases and Heuristics,” Journal of Consumer Research, 8(2): 223-230.
Park, Whan C., David L. Mothersbaugh, and Lawrence Feick (1994), “Consumer Knowledge Assessment”, Journal of Consumer Research, 21(1), 71-82.
Petty, Richard E., John T. Cacioppo, and David Schumann (1983), “Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement,” Journal of Consumer Research, 10(2), 135-146.
Pham, Michel T. (1996), “Cue Representation and Selection Effects of Arousal on Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Research, 22(March), 373-387.
Rao, Akshay R. and Kent B. Monroe (1988), “The Moderating Effect of Prior Knowledge on Cue Utilization in Product Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (2), 253-264.
Reingold, Eyal M., Neil Charness, Marc Pomplun, and David M. Stampe (2001), “Visual Span in Expert Chess Players: Evidence from Eye Movements,” Psychological Science, 12 (January), 110-127.
Robberson, M. R., and R. W. Rogers (1988), “Beyond Fear Appeals: Negative and Positive Persuasive Appeals to Health and Self-Esteem,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18(3), 277-287.
Rossiter, John R., Larry Percy, and Robert J. Donovan (1991), “A Better Advertising Planning Grid,” Journal of Advertising Research, 31(5): 11-21.
Rothman, Alexander J., Peter Salovey, C. Antone, K. Keough, and C. D. Martin (1993), “The Influence of Message Framing on Intentions to Perform Health Behaviors,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29(5), 408-433.
Rothman, Alexander J. and Peter Salovey (1997), “Shaping Perceptions to Motivate Healthy Behavior: The Role of Message Framing,” Psychological Bulletin, 121(1), 3-19.
Rothschild, Michael L. (1979), “Marketing Education in Nonbusiness Situations or Why It's So Hard to Sell Brotherhood Like Soap,” Journal of Marketing, 43 (Spring), 11-20.
Rothschild, Michael L. (1999), “Carrots, Sticks, and Promises: A Conceptual Framework for the Management of Public Health and Social Issue Behaviors,” Journal of Marketing, 63(4), 24-37.
Rudell, Fredrica (1979), Consumer Food Selection and Nutrition Information, New York: Praeger.
Sanbonmatsu, David M. and Russel H. Fazio (1990), “The Role of Attitudes in Memory-Based Decision Making,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 (October), 614-622.
Sanbonmatsu, David M. and Frank R. Kardes (1988), “The Effects of Physiological Arousal on Information Processing and Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (December), 379-385.
Sawyer, Alan G. (1988), “Can There Be Effective Advertising Without Explicit Conclusions? Decide for Yourself?” in Nonverbal Communication in Advertising, Susan Hecker and D.W. Steward, eds., Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
Sawyer, Alan G. and Daniel J. Howard (1991), “Effects of Omitting Conclusions in Advertisements to Involved and Involved Audiences,” Journal of Marketing Research, 28(November), 467-474.
Shestowsky, Donna and Leonard M. Horowitz (2004), “How the Need for Cognition Scale Predicts Behavior in Mock Jury Deliberations,” Law and Human Behavior, 28(3), 305-337.
Shiv, Baba., Julie A. Edell Britton, and John W. Payne (1997), “Factors Affecting the Impact of Negatively and Positively Framed Ad Messages,” Journal of Consumer Research, 24(3), 285-294.
Shiv, Baba., Julie A. Edell Britton, and John W. Payne (2004), “Does Elaboration Increase or Decrease the Effectiveness of Negatively versus Positively Framed Messages,” Journal of Consumer Research, 31(1), 199-208.
Sieck, Winston and Frank J. Yates (1997), “Exposition Effect on Decision Making: Choice and Confidence in Choice,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 70, 207-219.
Simonson, Itamar., Joel Huber, and John Payne (1988), “The Relationship Between Prior Brand Knowledge and Information Acquisition Order,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14, 566-578.
Smith, Brian N., Natalie N. Kerr, Michael J. Markus, and Mark F. Stasson (2001), “Individual Differences in Social Loafing: Need for Cognition As a Motivator in Collective Performance,” Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 5, 150-158.
Smith, Gerald E. (1996), “Framing in Advertising and the Moderating Impact of Consumer Education,” Journal of Advertising Research, 36(5), 49-64.
Smith, Gerald E. and Late Lawrence H. Wortzel (1997), “Prior Knowledge and the Effect of Suggested Frames of Reference in Advertising,” Psychology and Marketing, 14(2), 121-143.
Smith, S. M. and Richard E. Petty (1996), “Message Framing and Persuasion: A Message Process Analysis,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(3), 257-268.
Steffen, Valerie J., Louis Sternberg, Lisa A. Teegarden, and Kristen M. Shepherd (1994), “Practice and Persuasive Frame: Effects on Beliefs, Intention and Performance of a Cancer Self-Examination,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(10), 897-925.
Steward, Shawn (1995), “Tapping the well for new customers,” Cellular Business, November, pp. 34-8.
Suri, Rajneesh and Kent B. Monroe (2003), “The Effects of Time Constraints on Consumers’ Judgments of Prices and Products’” Journal of Consumer Research, 30(1), 92-104.
Svenson, Ola and Anne Edland (1987), “Change of Preferences Under Time Pressure: Choices and Judgments,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 28(4): 322-330.
Tracy, William., Clarke Valerie, and Ron Borland (2001), “Effects of Message Framing on Breast-Cancer-Related Beliefs and Behaviors: The Role of Mediating Factors,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(5), 925-950.
Verplanken, Bas (1989), “Involvement and Need for Cognition as Moderators of Beliefs-Attitude-Intention Consistency,” British Journal of Social Psychology, 28(2), 115-122.
Verplanken, Bas (1991), “Persuasive Communication of Risk Information: A Test of Cue Versus Message Processing Effects in a Field Experiment,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17(2), 188-193.
Wegener, Duane T. and Richard E. Petty (2001), Understanding Effects of Mood Through the Elaboration Likelihood and Flexible Correction Models in Theories of Mood and Cognition: A Users’ Guidebook. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Zhang, Yong and Richard Buda (1999), “Moderating Effects of Need for Cognition on Responses to Positively Versus Negatively Framed Advertising Messages,” Journal of Advertising, 28(2), 1-15.
指導教授 林建煌(Chien-Huang Lin) 審核日期 2006-5-2
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明