博碩士論文 90441008 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳悅琴(Yueh-Chin Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 企業管理學系
論文名稱 創業家失敗復原歷程之研究
(An Exploratory Study of The Process of Entrepreneur Failure and Resilience)
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摘要(中) 本研究主要在探討經歷失敗打擊後的創業家,如何能夠在創傷中復原,願意且能夠再度回到創業家行列,東山再起。過去文獻多以成功創業家的角度來分析其人格特質與事業表現,或創業家和企業如何避免失敗,但卻鮮少針對創業家失敗後再創業的歷程進行研究,此部份形成理論缺口,在實務上卻屢見不鮮。因此,本研究主要在了解:創業家失敗成因及對失敗事件的反應、失敗創業家如何轉出失敗打擊、過渡失敗轉折點後的創業家恢復信心和警覺機會的過程為何、過渡失敗轉折點後的創業家,做了那些努力以重回創業家行列,東山再起?過去的失敗經驗,對再創業造成那些影響等問題,期望建構創業家失敗復原歷程的概念,以協助創業家避免失敗,或能夠從失敗中加速復原。
本研究以個案研究法、典型個案抽樣方法,於網路與報章雜誌上進行資料蒐集,針對以自我資金創業且全職參與事業營運活動;且曾遭遇過事業無法再繼續營運或消失的情況;且目前已再度東山再起,事業營運達到專業化規模的企業主,萃取出四家次級資料與三家直接訪談個案分析。本研究運用紮根理論分析方法,進行個案文本撰寫、編碼、提出主軸觀念和主軸線,從中發展理論觀點和命題。
本研究將所獲得的結果,分成三階段模型,說明如下:
一、第一階段:創業家陷入crucible的診斷
本研究建構「失敗成因之整合分析架構」,說明創業家回顧失敗成因,主要多來自「專業管理能力不足」導致中小企業落入新創事業陷阱。
二、第二階段:創業家自crucible中轉折脫困之機轉
本研究建構失敗創業家「調節機制之動態分析架構」,其中指出,失敗創業家面對失敗打擊所引發情緒、行為和生理反應時,可以透過內在恆定作用、外在恆定作用、緩衝作為和自我效能,來啟動逆境轉折點,平復失敗打擊之衝擊。
三、第三階段:轉折後增強機制與東山再起過程
1. 本研究建構失敗復原創業家之「轉折後增強機制作用圖」,以了解創業家強化創業動機、有效運用能力之過程。
2. 本研究建構「身份重建構」架構圖,說明創業家重建新身份對再創業之影響。
3. 本研究建構「抗敗性盾牌」之能耐基礎觀念,說明創業家如何化失敗為資產之意義建構。
本研究對學術貢獻包括:(1) 建立創業家失敗復原之三階段模型之彌補過去學理及實務上的缺口;(2) 提供創業家樣本,補足心理復原理論之跨樣本效度;(3) 延展復原階段由身心平復至重回專業行列;(4)豐富復原力歷程之理論內涵;(5)發展具紮根基礎之創業家復原力構念,有助於療程設計及復原力諮詢之效果之量測;(6)將社會心理學理論(如意會理論、自我效能理論)結合入心理治療實務。
本研究對實務之貢獻包括:(1)本研究提供創業家復原過程架構,可以緩衝或協助創業家面對可能重挫之重大商業決策;(2)本研究建構之失敗復原歷程,可以協助輔導更多失敗創業家重新回到創業家行列。有以下可強調概念:(A)培養專業管理能力;(B)提高自我效能認知;(C)建構多種身份;(D)發展個人的抗敗性盾牌。
摘要(英) This dissertation mainly explore and discuss how entrepreneurs experiencing business failures(or crucible) could resilience and bounce back from the negative event and moods, and in turn, be motivated and capable to come back to their entrepreneurial career for future challenges (i.e. good resilience ). In the traditional stream for entrepreneur research, studies mostly focus on the successful entrepreneurs, analyzing from personality or business operation performance perspectives on how they could succeed, or they often focus on how entrepreneurs avoid failures. Few studies draw their attention to the processes and progress how entrepreneurs bounce back after failures/crucible. We set out to fill this gap in research by investigating the following imperatives, including: possible antecedents for entrepreneurs’ failure and how they react to failure; how entrepreneur break away from demoralized states, convalesce and build confidence, and alert the new opportunities they could exploit to create new business life; etc.
This study adopts case research method, searching suitable cases from multiple sources including magazine, periodicals, newspaper and others. Criteria for case inclusion are as follow. First, the newly started companies should be funded by private financial investments. Second, the entrepreneurs participate full time in the targeted business. Third, the entrepreneurs once face severe failures in business development. Last, the entrepreneurs currently have come back to success that their new businesses are representative, in considerable scale and lead the industries. Four cases were extracted and analyzed based on secondary data wile three were on interviews. Grounded theory approach is conducted, while we write scripts, code and propose axis concept and mainly axis thread. Then, researchers try to build theory and propositions from those processes and data. We construct a three-stage model in explaining the research findings.
Stage one: entrepreneurs fall in the analytical inquiries for the crucible.
The integrative model for antecedents of entrepreneurs’ failure indicates that most of them in the cases in our study failed because of inadequacy in professional managerial capacity.
Stage two: mechanisms for entrepreneurs’ breaking away from crucible
The dynamic analysis framework for entrepreneurs’ moderation mechanisms points out that, through interal stabilizer function, external stabilizer function and buffer and self-efficacy, the failed entrepreneurs could switch on their ‘crucible turning point’ and gradually ease the impact stemmed from prior failure.
Stage three: reinforcement mechanisms facilitating resilience after the crucible turning point
We constructed the scheme representing entrepreneurs’ reinforcement mechanisms after crucible turning point to understand the process they reinforce their own business initiating motivation and exploit their capability well. Besides, we construct framework for ‘Grounded in identity construction for entrepreneurs’ and make explicit their influence on entrepreneurs’ resilience. Finally, we construct the ‘anti-failure shield’ concept as entrepreneurs’ competence bases to transform negative experiences into valuable knowledge assets for resilience.
The present dissertation contribute to the academia by (1) constructing a three-stage model for resilience to fill the gap of the extant study on entrepreneur; (2) providing research on resilience using entrepreneur sample to enrich sample validity in traditional resilience research in psychology field; (3) extending understandings for business bounce-back progress from physical and psychological recover to business resilience; (4) enriching the theoretical contents for resilience; (5) grounding the construct of entrepreneurial resilience, which facilitates the measurement of the construct; (6) Bringing in social psychology theories (e.g. sensemaking, self-efficacy) to enhance psychological theoretical bases for psychological therapy.
The present dissertation brings contributions for practitioners in that we (1) build a framework for entrepreneurs’ resilience processes to enhance the knowledge and decisional bases for entrepreneurs when they face severe business failure. (2) extract the concepts that facilitate entrepreneurial resilience by emphasizing the (A) professional managerial capacity (B) leveling up self-efficacy cognition (C) build multiple identities (D) develop anti-failure shield.
關鍵字(中) ★ 意會活動
★ 自我效能
★ 復原力
★ 事業失敗
★ 創業家
關鍵字(英) ★ Business failure/crucible
★ Entrepreneur
★ Resilience
★ Self-efficacy and Sensemaking
論文目次 目 錄
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機……………………………………………………...1
第二節 研究問題與目的……………………………………………………...6
第三節 研究流程……………………………………………………………...7
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 創業失敗之成因與反應.……………………………………………...8
第二節 創業家失敗復原力…………………………………………………..12
第三節 內在動機與自我效能趨動創業家機會辨識………………………..16
第四節 創業家東山再起的意會活動………………………………………..20
第五節 創業家失敗復原力歷程與東山再起之觀念架構…………………..24
第三章 研究方法與設計
第一節 研究方法…………………………………………………………….25
第二節 樣本個案背景說明………………………………………………….30
第三節 資料分析方法……………………………………………………….35
第四章 創業家失敗成因與調節
第一節 創業家事業失敗的起因……………………………………………..37
第二節 創業家失敗反應和調節過程………………………………………..75
第五章 創業家轉折後增強機制對機會辨識之影響
第一節 李瑞河復原轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,重建身份」…….136
第二節 伍必翔復原轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,善用知識」…….142
第三節 張榮貴復原轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,善用自有知識」.150
第四節 楊基寬復原轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,偏執的堅持」….156
第五節 吳耀勳復原轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,善用自有知識與
社會資產」..........................................................................................164
第六節 許湘鋐轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,重建身份」………….171
第七節 彭耀興轉折後的增強機制_「勢在必行,善用自有知識找活路」.177
第八節 本章小節…………………………………………………………….185
第六章 意會活動對創業家東山再起過程之分析
第一節 李瑞河轉進擴張之意會活動……………………………………..201
第二節 伍必翔覆轍再發之意會活動……………………………………..215
第三節 張榮貴棄守轉攻之意會活動……………………………………..230
第四節 楊基寬偏執展勢之意會活動……………………………………..237
第五節 吳耀勳腐朽成金之意會活動……………………………………..244
第六節 許湘鋐袪惡復德之意會活動……………………………………..255
第七節 彭耀興憨膽多助之意會活動……………………………………..265
第八節 本章小結…………………………………………………………..278
第七章 研究結論與討論
第一節 研究結論與發現…………………………………………………..292
第二節 研究貢獻…………………………………………………………..315
第三節 研究限制與後續研究建議………………………………………..319
中文參考文獻……………………………………………………………………..321
西文參考文獻……………………………………………………………………..323
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指導教授 蔡明宏、林明杰
(Ming-Hone Tsai、Ming-Ji Lin)
審核日期 2006-1-16
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