博碩士論文 90522044 詳細資訊




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姓名 蕭勝文(Sheng-Wen Hsiao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊工程學系
論文名稱 電子競標系統之研究
(The Research on Electronic Auction Schemes)
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摘要(中) 競標是一種議訂價格的程序,也是各種決定商品價格的方法中最基本及最重要的一種。商品的售價能藉由競標市場中的互動來決定。在現實的環境中,為了因應各種不同的商業目的而發展出了許多不同型態的競標機制,例如英式競標、荷式競標、密封式競標、維克瑞 (Vickrey) 式競標等。在最近幾年來,由於網際網路的蓬勃發展,所以許多傳統的交易方式也漸漸地朝向電子化轉型,其中,電子競標更是因為網際網路無遠弗界的特性而受到了許多的注目。然而,不同於傳統面對面競標,在電子競標中很容易發生如擋標、誘標等問題,使得商品的價格無法被正確的決定,因而讓競標失去了原先的意義。因此,為了滿足安全及公平的原則,在設計電子競標系統時需考慮不可否認、公開驗證、匿名、標價機密、無收據等性質。本論文將深入探討這些性質,並提出一滿足此五個性質的電子密封式競標系統。
到目前為止已有多種電子密封式競標系統被發表。在本論文的第二章中首先將會根據開標程序執行者的不同而將這些電子密封式競標系統分為兩大類別;一類是由競標者本身來執行開標程序,另一類則是由拍賣商來執行開標程序。接著本論文將會分別對這兩類別的優缺點加以分析,並回顧四個著名的電子密封式競標系統。在第二章的最後一節將會就安全性、效率性以及其他性質來對這四個競標系統做比較。
在第三章中將會解釋無收據性質的重要性並提出一種結合智慧卡的無收據電子密封式競標系統。此系統以結合智慧卡及機率式加密器的方式,來改良先前系統所需要的一種稱為單向不可竊聽通道的不合理假設,並利用單向雜湊函數來設計而增加整體的效能。在本章的最後將會詳細地分析此系統並證明此系統確實滿足前述的五個性質,然後將此系統與先前系統詳細比較,以證明此系統在整體效能上的優越性。
在本論文第四章中將會先回顧一由日本學者千田 (Chida) 等人所提出的電子密封式競標系統,然後再以實例方式來詳細說明此系統第一開標協定的安全漏洞。接著本論文將會探討根據此安全漏洞所引申出來的數值比較問題,然後提出一種有效率的方法來解決此問題。在本章的最後將會提出一種基於此數值比較方法的開標協定,此開標協定不但同樣地改良千田第一開標協定的安全漏洞,同時也比千田第二開標協定更有效率。
摘要(英) Auctions are a form of price negotiation and one of the most basic and important methods for establishing the price of goods. In an
auction, goods can be sold at a price determined by interactions in the market. Many types of auctions have been practiced in various situations. In recent years, the Internet has rapidly spread, and thus it has accelerated the development of the trading on the Internet. For this reason, an auction business extends rapidly on the Internet. However, this rapid development of electronic auction results in many problems at the same time. For realizing a fair and secure electronic auction scheme, there are five requirements should be satisfied. They are non-repudiation, public verifiability, anonymity, secrecy of bidding price and receipt-freeness, respectively.
To date, many electronic sealed-bid auction schemes have been proposed for satisfying different security requirements. In Chapter 2, these electronic sealed-bid auction schemes will be classified into two categories depending on how the sealed-bids are opened in the opening phase. Four well-known schemes will be reviewed and then compared with one another in terms of security, efficiency, and other properties in the end of this chapter.
In Chapter 3, a new efficient receipt-free sealed-bid auction scheme by using smart card will be proposed. The proposed scheme is the first practicable receipt-free sealed-bid auction scheme. It takes advantage of combining the smart card with a probabilistic encryption to improve an unreasonable assumption of the previous scheme, and employs the one-way hash function to increase the efficiency. In the end of this chapter, the proposed scheme will be compared with the previous scheme in terms of security and efficiency.
In Chapter 4, a security flaw of the first opening protocol of the previous scheme will be shown by giving an instance. As a result of the security flaw, a value-comparing problem is described and then a new value-comparing method is proposed. The method is a general model that can be implemented by using variant cryptographic primitives according to different situations. Furthermore, in order to repair the security flaw, an improved opening protocol based on the new value-comparing method will be proposed. The improved opening protocol not only repairs the security flaw, but also has more efficiency than the second opening protocol of the previous scheme.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電子競標
★ 智慧卡
★ 無收據
關鍵字(英) ★ electronic auction
★ sealed-bid
★ smart card
★ receipt-free
論文目次 Contents
1 Introduction
1.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Types of Auctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2
1.3 State of the Art of Electronic Auction Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.4 Requirements of Electronic Auction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.5 Overview of the Thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2 Review of the Previous Work
2.1 Classification of Electronic Sealed-Bid Auctions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.2 Kikuchi-Harkavy-Tygar Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2.1 Brief review of secure addition scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2.2 Review of Kikuchi-Harkavy-Tygar scheme . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3 Sakurai-Miyazaki Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.3.1 Review of convertible undeniable signature scheme . . . . . . 13
2.3.2 Review of Sakurai-Miyazaki scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.4 Sako's Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.4.1 Brief review of Sako's scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.5 Kobayashi-Morita-Suzuki-Hakuta Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.5.1 Review of Kobayashi-Morita-Suzuki-Hakuta scheme . . . . . . 19
2.6 Comparison of Different Auction Schemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6.1 Properties comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.6.2 Computations comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
2.6.3 Communications comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
3 An Efficient Receipt-Free Sealed-Bid Auction Scheme with Smart
Card
3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 Previous Related Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.2.1 Review of Abe-Suzuki scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3.3 The Proposed Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3.1 Requirements of electronic sealed-bid auction . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3.2 Overview of the system model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
3.3.3 Overview of the scenario and assumption . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
3.3.4 The proposed protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.4 Analyses and Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.1 Security analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
3.4.2 Efficiency analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
3.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4 An Improved Electronic Sealed-Bid Auction Scheme
4.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 Review of Chida-Kobayashi-Morita Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
4.2.1 Notations and bidding protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2.2 Opening protocol-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.2.3 Instance of opening protocol-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.2.4 Opening protocol-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.3 Improvement of Chida-Kobayashi-Morita Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.3.1 A new value-comparing method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4.3.2 An improved opening protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.4 Analyses and Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4.1 Security analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.4.2 Efficiency analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5 Conclusions
5.1 Brief Review of Main Contributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5.2 Further Research Topics and Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
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指導教授 顏嵩銘(Sung-Ming Yen) 審核日期 2003-6-24
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