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姓名 林怡君(Yi-Chun Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 怪誕的存有,優雅的死亡- 湯姆斯.羅蘭森的《英國死亡之舞》
(Grotesque Being, Polite Death —Rowlandson’s The English Dance of Death )
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摘要(中) 湯姆斯‧羅蘭森(Thomas Rowlandson,1756-1827)是英國十八世紀中期至十九世紀初期著名的漫畫家,他的創作產量豐沛,題材巨細靡遺的涵蓋了英國當時社會百態,表現的手法則是最擅長以流暢的線條描繪,生動的呈現畫作內容。《英國死亡之舞》(The English Dance of Death,1814-1816)屬於他創作生涯當中晚期的作品,這部作品以兩年之久的時間,每個月三幅畫作持續的出版,雖然多數學者認為羅蘭森生涯後期的創作不如他的壯年時期,但是《英國死亡之舞》無疑展現了作者無限的想像及創意、荒誕卻不失優雅的幽默。
有關「死亡之舞」這個主題的創作有著淵源長久的歷史,自中世紀以來,傳統作品所表現的內涵幾乎多是以宗教訓誨為重心:說明了死亡不分男女老少,不分階級高低,不分任何時間空間,不論各行各業的差異,都一視同仁的對待,他的權力高過一切,能夠隨意的帶走任何人。但是羅蘭森的《英國死亡之舞》所著重之處,與傳統的作品差異甚多,其中不再是各個階級面臨死亡之時人人平等的狀態,或是突顯死亡至高無上的決定權,而是強調死亡所出現的各種不同的日常生活狀況,突發事件、與各式各樣荒謬的情境。
英王喬治三世的時代(1760-1820)被稱為「諷刺漫畫的黃金時期」(The Golden Age of Caricature),與整個喬治王朝(1714-1820)的經濟發展、政治情勢、市場自由競爭、社會文化與教育都有關。喬治王朝的這一百多年期間,文學、藝術、音樂等等各方面的創作蓬勃發展,如此一來,作家與藝術家等生產者當然也面臨了市場競爭的極大壓力,他們的作品必須更符合社會期待與消費者的需要,在藝術創作、市場導向、甚至於是道德教誨各方面都必須兼顧。過去學者們對於羅蘭森「死亡之舞」創作的改變,都將其歸因於藝術家的個人因素,但是在出版市場如此興盛且競爭的時代,藝術家所處的大環境,必然應當深深影響著創作的結果。
本論文除了綜觀十八世紀與十九世紀初期諷刺漫畫的市場,了解羅蘭森生平與創作特色之外,仍希望由《英國死亡之舞》這部作品作為出發點,分析其與傳統「死亡之舞」的異同之處,進一步嘗試從當時人文思想、社會環境、心理層次等各方面的影響來觀看,解釋為什麼羅蘭森選擇這樣的創作表現方式。
摘要(英) Grotesque Being, Polite Death —
Rowlandson’s The English Dance of Death
Abstract
Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) was a famous English caricaturist during the middle eighteenth to the early nineteenth century. His incredible productivity amply covered every detail of the contemporary social life. The most outstanding techniques in his works were the fluent line drawings and those lively figures. The English Dance of Death (1814-1816) belongs to the late period of his career. The book was a collection of pictures created over two years, of which three pieces were published every month between 1814 and 1816. Although most reviews about Rowlandson considered the zenith of his career to be his thirties rather than his late years, The English Dance of Death undoubtedly showed Rowlandson’s unlimited imagination and creativity, and his grotesque humor with elegance.
The artistic creations for the ‘Dance of Death’ and ‘Danse macabre’ have now been in use for over five centuries. The religious edifications of the traditional ‘Dance of Death’ are quite distinct, and meanings of those works were almost the same since the Middle Ages: death leads everyone into the dance, from the whole clerical hierarchy to every single representative of the lay world. Death does not care for the social position, or for the wealth, the sex, the age of the people it leads into its dance. However, the presentation of the Rowlandson’s The English Dance of Death is rather different from those traditional ones. His pictures emphasize the activities of daily life and all varieties of interesting social events with the presence of death. The basic idea of the traditional works that all men will die equally in front of death was no longer stressed in Rowlandson’s creation.
The Reign of George Ⅲ (1760-1820) was designated the golden age of English caricature. The economic expansion of the nation, peculiar political conditions, unprecedented exploitation of prints, and changing cultural circumstances in the Hanoverian era all contributed to the flourish of the caricature. The productions of literatures, artistic works, and music compositions rapidly increased in the free markets. At the same time, the competition among those Georgian artists was fiercer than ever. The works they created must meet the expectation of the society and the need of consumers. All aspects of aesthetics, didactic instruction, and business transactions need to be considered. The reasons for the change in Rowlandson’s works were simply attributed to his personal characteristics by scholars in the past. Nevertheless, the influence of the dynamic metropolitan culture on Rowlandson’s practices certainly can not be disregarded.
The market of English caricatures in the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, along with the life and artistic career of Rowlandson will be surveyed in this essay. The societal, cultural, and psychological forces of this specific period are all the more imperative to be examined together with the difference between the traditional ‘Dance of Death’ and Rowlandson’s The English Dance of Death.
關鍵字(中) ★ 死亡之舞
★ 死亡觀
★ 英國死亡之舞
★ 湯姆斯‧羅蘭森
關鍵字(英) ★ dance of death
★ The English Dance of Death
★ Thomas Rowlandson
★ Death view
論文目次 目 錄
論文提要……………………………………………………………………………..i
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………ii
誌謝辭………………………………………………………………………………..iv
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………...v
緒論…………………………………………………………………………………...1
研究主旨與動機…………………………………………………………………………………….1
文獻概述與研究方法………………………………………………………………………………..5
第一章、 十八世紀至十九世紀初英國諷刺漫畫…………………………………11
第一節、 諷刺漫畫的歷史淵源與交易市場…………………………………………………...11
一、 諷刺漫畫的根源……………………………………………………………………11
二、 諷刺漫畫興盛的原因………………………………………………………………14
三、 諷刺漫畫流通市場與交易………………………………………………………….17
第二節、 湯姆斯‧羅蘭森的諷刺漫畫………………………………………………………..20
一、 羅蘭森的生平……………………………………………………………………….20
二、 風格來源與作品分析……………………………………………………………….26
第二章、 死亡之舞與死亡觀的歷史發展…………………………………………35
第一節、 死亡之舞的淵源與意涵……………………………………………………………35
一、 死亡之舞的淵源……………………………………………………………………...35
二、 死亡之舞的意涵……………………………………………………………………...39
第二節、 中世紀的死亡之舞與死亡觀……………………………………………………….43
一、 法國巴黎無辜教會墓園的《死亡之舞》與圖版詮釋…………………………….43
二、 中世紀的死亡形象與死亡觀……………………………………………………….47
第三節、 文藝復興世紀的死亡之舞與死亡觀……………………………………………….52
一、 霍爾班的《死亡之舞》與圖版詮釋…………………………………………………52
二、 文藝復興時期的死亡形象與死亡觀…………………………………………………54
第三章、 湯姆斯‧羅蘭森的《英國死亡之舞》………………………………...58
第一節、 《英國死亡之舞》的製作…………………………………………………………..58
一、 《英國死亡之舞》的成書背景………………………………………………………58
二、 《英國死亡之舞》的製作過程………………………………………………………62
第二節、 《英國死亡之舞》的作品分析……………………………………………………..65
一、《英國死亡之舞》作品概述…………………………………………………………..65
二、《英國死亡之舞》與傳統作品的異同………………………………………………..76
第四章、 羅蘭森漫畫創作與當代社會文化的關係………………………………82
第一節、 怪誕的概念與羅蘭森的《英國死亡之舞》 ……………………………………..82
一、 怪誕的歷史淵源………………………………………………………………………82
二、 《英國死亡之舞》當中的怪誕概念…………………………………………………84
第二節、 喬治王朝優雅文化與羅蘭森的《英國死亡之舞》……………………………….93
一、 喬治王朝的優雅文化……………………………………………………………….93
二、 《英國死亡之舞》當中的優雅生活……………………………………………….97
第三節、 人類死亡觀與羅蘭森的《英國死亡之舞》……………………………………..104
一、 十八世紀末期與十九世紀初的死亡觀……………………………………………104
二、 《英國死亡之舞》當中的死亡觀…………………………………………………107
第四節、 羅蘭森同時期的諷刺畫以及之後有關「死亡之舞」的創作…………………...114
結論…………………………………………………………………………………117
參考書目……………………………………………………………………………125
圖版…………………………………………………………………………………128
參考文獻 參考書目
英文參考書目
Ackermann, Robert, English Dance of Death: from the design of Thomas Rowlandson. London: Methuen and Co, 1903.
Ariès, Philippe. Images of Man and Death, Havard University Press, 1985.
--- The hour of our death, Alfred A. Knopf Inc. 1981.
--- Western attitudes toward death : from the Middle Ages to the present, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.
Barrell, John edited, Painting and the Politics of Culture: New Essays on British Art, 1700-1850, Oxford University Press, 1992.
Baudelair, Charles. Critique d’art, Gallimard, 1976.
Baxandall, Michael. Patterns of Intention: On the Historical Explanation of Pictures, London: Yale University Press, 1985.
Bazin, Germain. Baroque and rococo, Thames and Hudson, 1985.
Brewer, John. The Pleasures of the Imagination: English Culture in the Eighteenth Century, University Of Chicago Press, 2000.
Clark, James Midgley. The dance of death in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Glasgow: Jackson, 1950.
Collins, Marcia. The Dance of Death in Book Illustration, Columbia: University of Missouri, 1978.
Connelly, Frances S. edited. Modern art and the grotesque, New York : Cambridge University Press, c2003.
Donald, Diana. The age of caricature: satirical prints in the reign of George III, New Haven : Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 1996.
Evanston, Ewa Kuryluk. Salome and Judas in the cave of sex : the grotesque: origins, iconograpy, techniques, Northwestern University Press, 1987.
Falk, Bernard. Thomas Rowlandson: His life and Art, London, 1949.
George, M. Dorothy. Hogarth To Cruikshank: Social Change in Graphic Satire, New York: Walker and Company, 1967.
Godfrey, Richard introduced. English Caricature, 1620 to the Present: Caricaturists and Satirists, Their Art, Their Purpose, and Influence, London: Victoria and Albert Muzeum, 1984.
Gombrich, Ernst Hans. “The Cartoonist Armoury”, Meditations on a hobby horse and other essays on the theory of art, London : Phaidon Press, 1978.
Goodwin, Sarah Webster and Elisabeth Bronfen, Death and Representation, The John HopkinsUniversity Press, 1993
Guthke, Karl S. The Gender of Death, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Hallett, Mark, Hogarth, London: Phaidon, 2000.
--- The Spectacle of Difference: Graphic Satire in the Age of Hogarth, London: Yale University Press, 1999.
Hans Holbein, The Dance of Death, with and introduction and notes by James M Clark, London, Phaidon Press,1947
Hans Holbein the Younger, The Dance of Death, A complete facsimile of the original 1538 ed. of Les simulachres & historiees faces de la mort. With a new introd. by Werner L. Gundersheimer, New York, Dover Publications, c1971.
Harpham, Geoffrey Galt. On the grotesque : strategies of contradiction in art and literature, Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, c1982.
Haslam, Fiona. From Hogarth to Rowlandson: Medicine in Art in Eighteenth Century Britain [caricature]. Liverpool University Press, 1997.
Hayes, John T. The art of Thomas Rowlandson, Art Services International, c1990.
--- Rowlandson, Phaidon, Distributed in U.S.A. by Praeger, New York, 1972.
Holly, Michael Ann. Panofsky and the Foundations of Art History. Cornell University Press, 1984.
Huizinga, Johan. The Waning of the Middle Ages, New York: Dover Publication, 1998.
Kayser, Wolfgang. The grotesque in art and literature, New York : Columbia University Press, 1981.
Langford, Paul. A polite and Commercial people: England 1727-1783, New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Panofsky, Edwin. Meaning in the Visual Art. The University of Chicago Press, 1955.
Paulson, Ronald. Rowlandson: A New Interpretation. London, Studio Vista; New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.
--- Popular and Polite Art in the Age of Hogarth and Fielding, University of Notre Dame Press, 1980.
--- Emblem and Expression: Meaning in English Art of the Eighteenth Century, London: Thames and Hudson, 1975.
Porter, Roy. Patient’s Progress: Doctors and Doctoring in Eighteenth-century England, California: Stanford University Press, 1989.
Riely, John. Rowlandson drawings from the Paul Mellon Collection, Yale Center for British Art, c1977.
Roberts, Marie Mulvey and Roy Porter ed. Literature & medicine during the eighteenth century, London ; New York : Routledge, 1993.
Rosenblum, Robert. Transformations: in Late Eighteenth Century Art, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1967.
Wark , Robert R. Drawings by Thomas Rowlandson in the Huntington collection, San Marino, Calif. : Huntington Library, 1975.
--- Rowlandson's drawings for The English dance of death, San Marino, Calif : Huntington Library, 1966.
--- Rowlandson's drawings for A Tour In A Post Chaise, San Marino, Calif : Huntington Library, 1964.
Solkin, David. Painting for Money : The Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England, Paul Mellon Center BA, 1996.
Sutherland, Guilland. British Art, 1740-1820: Essays in Honor of Robert R. Wark, 1992.
Styles, John. edited, Design and the Decorative Arts: Georgian Britain 1714-1837, Victoria & Albert Museum, 2004.
Vaughan, William. British Painting: The Golden Age, New York: Thames and Hudson, 1999.
Warthin, Aldred Scott. The Physician of the Dance of Death, New York, 1931
Wear, Andrew. Medicine in society : historical essays Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1992.
Wright, Thomas. A History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art, New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing co. 1968.
中文參考書目
Christopher Hibbert, The English: A Social History (David Higham Associates Ltd., 1989)。《英國社會史》,賈士蘅譯。台北市:編譯館,民國84年。
指導教授 曾少千(Shiao-Chien Tseng) 審核日期 2006-7-13
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