博碩士論文 91126009 詳細資訊




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姓名 蘇文惠(Wen-Hui Su)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 延伸的邊界:傑洛姆(Jean-Léon Gérôme)1847-1867年間歷史畫研究
(Extending Borders:A Study in Jean-Léon Gérôme’s History Painting From 1847 to 1867)
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摘要(中) 歷史畫是Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) 一生創作的重要主題之一。本論文以他在1847到1867年間的歷史畫為主,檢視他在完成美術學院教育成為專業畫家之後,如何逐漸改革學院規範,建立個人特色,成為當時最具聲望的藝術家之一。他的作法同時受到讚美與質疑,本論文重新探勘史料,研究兩派意見產生歧異的原因,Gérôme個人在理論與實踐之間的落差,以及歷史畫定義與實踐在十九世紀中轉變的情況,並從十九世紀脈絡與當代觀點理解Gérôme的藝術成就。
法國皇家繪畫與雕刻學院在十七世紀創立之初即提出一套規範,將繪畫種類分級,歷史畫由於被賦予歷史畫崇高的教育與道德使命,因此處於最高階地位。此套價值觀在十九世紀初有逐漸改變的趨勢,到十九世紀中葉時,原先屬於最低階的風俗畫價值亦開始受到肯定,出現融合歷史畫與風俗畫風格。Gérôme在美術學院所受的教育仍強調古典主義價值,然而他亦受外在美學與史學潮流影響,特別是實證主義者Hippolyte Adolphe Taine(1828-1893)的觀點,使他的歷史畫與過去的歷史畫相較之下,高度寫實的程度如同照片效果,此風格乃奠基於實際觀察與參考考古文獻,追求如科學般客觀再現,方法上採取不留個人筆觸,冷靜描繪畫中近乎真實的場景構圖,並從戲劇觀點決定時刻選擇與建構場景空間,帶領觀眾從全知者的角色共同參與歷史事件,如同偷窺者般凝視畫中女體與人物,享受觀看時所擁有的權力感。
歷史畫不因Gérôme而墮落或死亡,而是歷史畫定義擴充。擴充的原因受到內外兩方面的因素影響。從藝術內在因素來看,歷史畫的創作理論與實踐,歷經兩百年演變已漸趨僵化,藝術家轉而尋找其他再現手法,而畫作的效果從原先著重在表現思想與道德,轉為著重表現人物的情感。從外在環境因素來看,經濟興盛,沙龍展開放,觀眾階層向下擴充,大眾文化美學受到藝術家重視。Gérôme將歷史畫從原先神聖不可侵犯的高度拉至人人皆可欣賞的藝術,不再如過去需要具有一定的學識背景才能理解畫作內容,畫中人物仍以皇室貴族為主,但是其行徑並未必高尚,歷史畫原先的教育與道德功能轉為以娛樂性為主。其次,攝影術發明則影響人們觀看的方式與對真實的定義,藝術效果越接近照片者彷彿也是越接近真實本身。
摘要(英) Throughout the life of Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904), history was one of his most important subjects. This thesis focuses on his history painting from 1847 to 1867, when he became a professional artist after finishing the curriculum at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He changed the norms of academic tradition, gradually establishing his own style, and becoming one of the most influential artists in mid-nineteenth-century France. His style was both highly valued and harshly criticized at the same time. This study reexamines the archives to uncover the main reason for the divergent opinions, namely that the definition and the practice of history painting as a whole was changing during the mid-nineteenth century. I also revaluated his artistic achievement from the context of nineteenth-century and contemporary perspectives.
When L’Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture was founded in the seventeenth century, it proposed a set of norms in which paintings were ranked according to their subjects. Bestowed with both educational and moral missions, history painting sat atop the hierarchy. However, this set of rigid norms began to be questioned in early nineteenth century, as some art critics grew to value genre painting, the lowest ranking subject. Subsequently, a new hybrid style appeared, combining history and genre painting.
As a student at Ecole des Beaux-Arts receiving a conventional academic education, Gérôme highly valued the classical principles. However, contemporary developments in aesthetics and historiography shaped his style as well, especially from the positivist philosopher Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (1828-1893). His painting, as a result, differed from the history painting of the previous two centuries. His art was based on observation and archeological documentation, in order to be as objective as a science. He left no trace of personal brush work on the surface, constructed a cold, photographic setting, presented moments and pictorial space from the viewpoint of drama, and engaged viewers in the historical events, as ominiscent and powerful voyeurs gazing at female nudes and characters in the paintings.
History painting did not die or degenerate because of Gérôme; instead, it eventually expanded its boundaries. Motivations both internal and external to the art itself drove the expansion. Internally, as the theory and practice of history painting had become petrified, artists sought other representation and styles. The major effect on history painting, as a result, changed from focusing on moral meaning to more emotional expression. Externally, the social environment changed. Viewers consisted of a broader range of classes, and more and more painters like Gérôme emphasized a popular aesthetic. History painting thus descended from a sacred height to a level that everyone could appreciate. It no longer required viewers to have good knowledge of history. The characters in the painting still belonged to the ruling class, but their behavior was not necessarily noble and respectful. Its function transformed from educational and moral to more entertaining. Besides, the invention of photography affected the way of seeing and defining truth. While the overall effect was more like photography, for Gérôme, painting itself seemed closer to historical reality.
關鍵字(中) ★ 學院藝術
★ 歷史畫
★ 歷史風俗畫
關鍵字(英) ★ Jean-Leon Gerome
★ History painting
★ historical genre
★ academic art
論文目次 論文提要………………………………………………………………………… i
Abstract …………………………………………………………………….…… ii
致謝詞…………………………………………………………………………..iv
緒論
一、研究動機與目的…………………………………………………………………… 1
二、研究範圍…………………………………………………………………………. 4
三、文獻概述…………………………………………………………………………. 8
四、文章架構…………………………………………………………………………. 11
第一章變動中的學院傳統……………………………………………………. 14
第一節十九世紀初歷史畫的轉變……………………………………15
第二節歷史風俗畫的興起……………………………………………23
第三節風俗畫價值的肯定…………………………………………..31
小結
第二章Jean-Léon Gérôme 藝術風格的形成………………………………….41
第一節早期古典教育………………………………………………. 41
第二節藝術風格傳承:Delaroche, Gleyre …………………………... 44
一、Delaroche 的教學方法…………………………………………… 44
二、Delaroche 對Gérôme 的影響…………………………………….. 47
三、Gleyre 的風格…………………………………………………….. 50
四、Gleyre 對Gérôme 的影響………………………………………. 51
第三節Gérôme 的藝術理念…………………………………………. 54
一、追求理想美……………………………………………………… 54
二、知識存在於細節之間………………………………………….. 56
三、動作即生命……………………………………………………… 58
四、對當代藝術的批評……………………………………………… 60
第四節外在環境的影響………………………………………………62
一、加入商業藝廊…………………………………………………….62
二、美術學院課程的改革…………………………………………….63
三、從接受到拒絕官方委託案……………………………………...64
四、近東之旅………………………………………………………...64
五、攝影術的應用…………………………………………………….65
小結…………………………………………………….……………….66
第三章Gérôme 的藝術實踐…………………………………………………… 67
第一節1847-55:在傳統中找出路……………………………………… 68
一、新希臘風格………………………………………………………………68
二、追隨大師風格的宗教、寓言題材作品……………………………….. 71
三、充滿詩意想像力的神話與小說題材…………………………………… 74
四、1847-55 年間Gérôme 的歷史畫特色…………………………………… 77
第二節一八五六到一八六七年間:歷史重現….…………………………79
一、墮落的歷史…………………………………………………………….…80
1. 殘暴的羅馬人…………………………………………………………82
2. 不適任的國王…………………………………………………………82
3. 爭議性判決……………………………………………………………85
4. 英雄之死………………………………………………………………88
二、法蘭西帝國的今與昔……………………………………………………92
三、1856-67 年間Gérôme 的歷史畫特色……………………………………...94
小結……………………………………………………………………………..99
第四章Gérôme 歷史畫的意義..…………………………………………..… 101
第一節十九世紀脈絡的觀點……………………………………………... 101
一、實證主義史學觀…………………….…………………………………... 101
二、實證主義美學與歷史畫……………………………………..… 105
第二節當代詮釋觀點…………………………………………………..…. 112
一、女性裸體的問題……………………………………………………..…. 112
二、媚俗、大眾文化與學院藝術………………………………………….. 114
小結……..………………………………………………………………………..120
結論…………………………………………………………….………………….123
參考書目………………………………………………………….……………….128
附錄一:圖表:1847-1868 年間Gérôme 於沙龍展出的畫作清單…….………133
附錄二:Gérôme 個人年表與當代歷史事件對照………………………….….. 135
圖版……………………………………………………………………………....138
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Storey, John. 著,李根芳等人譯,《文化理論與通俗文化導論》(Cultural Theory and Popular culture: an Introduction)。台北:巨流出版社,2003年。
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William, Raymond著,劉建基譯。《關鍵詞:文化與社會的詞彙》(Keywords: Vocabulary of Culture and Society)。北京:三聯書店,2005年。
White, Hayden著,劉世安譯。《史元:十九世紀歐洲的歷史意象》(Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth Century Europe)。台北:麥田出版,1999年。
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曹俊峰。《康德美學導論》。台北:水牛出版社,2003年。
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黃淑媚。《法國學院派繪畫泰斗:布格羅》。台北:藝術家出版社,2004年。
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指導教授 曾少千(Shiao-Chien Tseng) 審核日期 2006-1-24
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