博碩士論文 91249002 詳細資訊




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姓名 林忠義(Zhong-Yi Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 天文研究所
論文名稱 分裂彗星中彗髮的研究
(A Study of Cometary Comae of Split Comets)
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摘要(中) 從古至今,對於分裂彗星的觀測已經有許多記載。我們可以將彗星分裂現象分為下列四類: 第一類:彗星在分裂後完全消失,沒有遺留下任何殘骸。如 C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) 。 第二類 : 彗星經過行星或太陽附近被巨大的潮汐力給撕裂,但卻沒有完全消失。如 D/1993 F2 Shoemaker-Levy 9。第三類: 當彗星經過近日點,彗核就分裂,其所分裂出來的碎核,有些在下一次回歸時仍可以看見。如73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3。最後一種是彗星有分裂、爆發現象,但卻沒有觀測到碎片。如 C/2004 Q2 Machholz。目前,雖然有很多分裂彗星的觀測紀錄,但我們卻對這些讓彗星分裂的物理機制不甚了解,因此我們希望由鹿林一米望遠鏡以及興隆兩米光譜觀測來解開這個謎團。這篇論文包含了對彗星 C/2001 A2 LINEAR的光譜分析,我們在此彗星上,發現CN這個氣體分子的光度曲線在最高峰有移動的現象,這似乎與CN噴流有關,這些氣體噴流的來源,可能是一種微小〝CHON〞粒子所造成的,這個假設也證明了彗星 C/2004 Q2 Machholz的噴流為什麼只有在氣體分子(CN和C2)中看見,而在灰塵範圍裡卻看不見。 在彗星73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 中,經過影像處理過後,我們發現了一些特殊的彗髮結構 – Coma Wing-,這個結構可能來自於彗星分裂所造成或是由灰塵噴流造成的。最後對於 9P/Tempel 1的聯合觀測,我們利用處於太平洋西岸絕佳的地理位置來填補資料的遺缺,並計算太空船撞擊後所噴出的灰塵雲的擴展速度,我們所得到的結果同樣在東亞觀測的天文學家結果幾乎相同。對於彗星分裂物理機制的研究,我們仍需觀測更多的分裂彗星,這可由天文所參與的夏威夷Pan-Starrs計畫與鹿林即將興建的兩米望遠鏡來執行,我們希望將來可藉由這兩個的計畫來解開彗星分裂之謎。
摘要(英) The splitting of comets has been observed many times. These fragmentation events
can be roughly divided into four types. One the split comets disappeared completely
(C/1999 S4 LINEAR); two the comet was destroyed during its impact with Jupiter
(D/1993 F2 Shoemaker-Levy 9); the third where fragments have remained for a long
time (73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3); and the fourth the comets suffered several
minor fragmentations (C/2004 Q2 Machholz). In this study, we used low-resolution
spectrographic and photometry imaging to investigate the activity coma of natural
and artificial outburst events. We found that the CN emission of comet 2001 A2
LINEAR displayed remarkable asymmetry, with its intensity peak shiftting to the
tailward side by as much as 1000 km away from the center of the dust continuum.
There is thus a strong indication that the source of CN distribution was due to the
spliting event and not necessarily associated with the central nucleus. A probable
release mechanism is associated with the CN jet structure detected in the imaging
photometric measurements. Two jets observed for comet C/2004 Q2 Machholz
were observed in the coma distributions of C2 and CN of comet Machholz that
were not formed in the dust coma. The jets were spiral-like in structure and were
angled differently at different observing times. The formation of these jets can be
explained by the presence of two active surface regions on the rotating cometary
nucleus. Arclets structures are found in comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3B
after the splitting event and the sources produced a lot of dust and gas particles
come from the boulder train (fiant-fragments). Althoughc there were no fragments
found in the artificial outburst event, the result still provide us with a much better
understanding of the physical structure of the surface of comet Tempel 1.
關鍵字(中) ★ 噴流
★ 彗星分裂
★ 彗星
關鍵字(英) ★ Jets
★ Comets
★ Split Comets
論文目次 1 Introduction 1
1.1 The Origin andMotion of Comets 1
1.2 The Structure of Comets . 4
1.2.1 The Cometary Nucleus 4
1.2.2 The Dust Comas and Tails 6
1.2.3 The Neutral Coma 9
1.2.4 The Plasma Tail . 11
1.3 Fragmentation History 12
1.4 Goals and Summary of this work 14
2 Comet Observations and Data Reduction 16
2.1 Optical Comet Observation . 16
2.2 Overview of Observational Database 21
2.2.1 Comet 2001 A2 (LINEAR) 22
2.2.2 Comet 2004 Q2 (Machholz) . 23
2.2.3 Comet 9P/Tempel 1 . 24
2.2.4 Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 . 26
2.3 Instruments and Data Reduction 28
2.3.1 Imaging Photometry . 28
2.3.2 Long Slit Spectroscopy 30
3 Coma Morphology and Jet Structures 33
3.1 Comet 2004 Q2 Machholz 33
3.1.1 ComaMorphology and Jet Activity . 34
3.1.2 Discussion . 35
3.2 Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 . 39
3.2.1 Breakup Event 39
3.2.2 ComaWings . 44
3.2.3 Gas ComaMorphology 46
3.2.4 Discussion . 49
3.3 9P/Tempel 1 . 54
3.3.1 Pre-Impact Observations . 54
3.3.2 Post-Impact Observations 56
3.3.3 Discussion . 57
4 Brightness profiles of different gaseous species 61
4.1 BAO observations of comet C/2001 A2 LINEAR 61
4.2 Discussion . 69
5 Dust and Gas properties 72
5.1 C/2001 A2 LINEAR . 72
5.2 C/2004 Q2 Machholz . 78
5.3 9P/Tempel 1 . 83
6 Summary and Future work 85
6.1 Summary . 85
6.1.1 Results for Comet 2004 Q2 Machholz 85
6.1.2 Results for Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 87
6.1.3 Results for Comet 9P/Tempel 1 . 87
6.1.4 Results for Comet 2001 A2 (LINEAR) . 88
6.2 FutureWork 88
A List of Papers 102
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指導教授 葉永烜(Wing-Huen Ip) 審核日期 2007-7-20
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