博碩士論文 91323026 詳細資訊




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姓名 李庚益(Kent-Yi Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 熱處理對車用鋁合金材料熱穩定性與表面性質之影響
(Effects of heat treatment on thermal stability and surface properties of aluminum automotive alloys)
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摘要(中) 本研究對Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金施以T6時效處理,以探討時效處理對合金之微結構、與機械性質及高溫熱穩定性之影響,並利用濺鍍沈積法製作Al-Sc合金薄膜,同時施以不同的溫度之熱處理,探討熱處理與Sc元素添加對鋁薄膜晶粒結構、導電特性與表面突起之影響。
實驗結果顯示,Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金雖可藉由T6時效處理,析出強化相θ′(Al2Cu相)與λ′(Al5Cu2Mg8Si6相),提高合金的機械強度,但析出相經300℃持溫10小時後會明顯粗化,產生過時效現象,致使時效處理合金之熱穩定性反不如鑄態合金。合金經300℃持溫100小時之熱穩定測試後進行磨耗測試,在低荷重(10N)磨耗時,鑄態合金與時效處理後合金之磨耗量相近,顯示T6熱處理並未對在低荷重的磨耗行為有所影響;但在高荷重(40N)時,由於鑄態合金經300℃持溫處理後之硬度較高,因此耐磨性較T6時效處理後之合金為高。
以濺鍍沈積法製作0~0.4wt%Sc之Al-Sc合金薄膜,同時對薄膜施以200℃、300℃、400℃及500℃之熱處理一小時,並對薄膜晶粒型態、電阻率變化與表面突起特性進行分析。
實驗結果顯示,添加Sc可有效降低薄膜剛沈積時的晶粒尺寸,並可限制晶界的移動,抑制熱處理時晶粒成長與再結晶現象。熱處理可促使Al-Sc薄膜析出Al3Sc相,大幅改善其導電性質,經500℃熱處理後,Al-Sc之電阻率已降低至與純鋁薄膜相近。Sc元素添加可提高鋁薄膜之降伏強度,並減少表面突起數量,且效果隨Sc含量增加而增加;然而經400℃熱處理後,Al-Sc薄膜之突起的尺寸將大幅的增加。
摘要(英) This study elucidates the effects of T6 heat treatment on thermal stability and wear behavior of Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg alloy. The experimental alloys under as-cast and T6 heat-treated conditions were isothermally heat-treated at 300℃ for 100 hours to investigate thermal stability and wear behavior.
The results reveal that T6 heat-treatment promoted the precipitation of the λ′ (Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) and θ′ (Al2Cu) phases and the augmentation of hardness of Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg alloy. However, the coarsening of λ′ and θ′ phases led to a large decrease in hardness following isothermal heat-treatment 10 hours. The thermal stability of the T6 heat-treated alloy was much worse than that of the as-cast alloy. For wear behavior, the as-cast and T6 heat-treated alloys showed the same wear rate with 10N load after isothermal heat-treatment. This indicated the wear rates of Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg alloys were independent on T6 heat treatment. Under 40N load, the wear resistance of as-cast alloy was superior to that of T6 heat-treated alloy after isothermal heat-treatment.
The effects of the heat treatment and Sc contents on grain structure, electrical resistivity and hillocks formation of Al-Sc alloy films were also investigated in this study. Three kinds of Al-x Sc (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4 wt. %) alloy films were prepared via sputtering deposition, subsequently exposed at 200℃, 300℃, 400℃ and 500℃ up to 1 hours.
The results revel that the addition of Sc reduced the grain size of the as-deposited films and immobilized the grain boundaries, retarding grain growth and re-crystallization of the films during heat-treatment. Although the as-deposited Al–Sc alloy films showed high resistivity, the former was significantly decreased due to the precipitation of Al3Sc phase during heat-treatment. After 500℃ treatment, the resistivity of Al - Sc alloy films was similar to that of pure Al film. The hillock density dramatically reduced with increasing the Sc concentration in the films. However, average size of the hillocks in Sc containing films clearly increased when heat-treatment temperature was elevated to 400℃.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電阻率
★ Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金
★ 熱處理
★ 熱穩定性
★ 磨耗性質
★ 表面突起
★ 鈧
★ 鋁合金薄膜
★ 濺鍍
關鍵字(英) ★ Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg alloy
★ Heat-treatment
★ Therm
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 iii
謝 誌 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
第一章 前 言 1
1.1 研究背景與文獻回顧 1
1.1.1 Al-Si-Cu-Mg 鋁合金 1
1.1.2 鋁合金薄膜 2
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 基礎理論 4
2.1 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之基礎理論 4
2.1.1 鋁合金簡介 4
2.1.2 Al-Si-(Cu-Mg)合金 6
2.1.3 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之介金屬相 9
2.1.4 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之熱處理 12
2.1.5 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之析出順序 16
2.1.6 Cu、Mg含量對Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金析出及熱穩定性之影響 17
2.2磨耗性質 20
2.3鋁薄膜簡介 24
2.3.1鋁薄膜特性與製作方式 24
2.3.2鋁薄膜沈積理論 26
2.4 鋁薄膜表面突起 28
2.4.1鋁薄膜突起之原因與分類 28
2.4.2鋁薄膜晶粒尺寸與表面突起 29
2.4.3抑制薄膜突起之機制 31
2.5 Al-Sc合金簡介 35
第三章T6熱處理對Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金之磨耗性質與熱穩定性之影響..39
3.1實驗方法 39
3.1.2 合金的準備與鑄造 40
3.1.3 熱處理 41
3.1.3-1 T6熱處理 41
3.1.3-2 長時間時效處理 41
3.1.4 微結構觀察與分析 41
3.1.4-1 光學顯微鏡 41
3.1.4-2 掃描式電子顯微鏡 42
3.1.4-3 電子微探儀 42
3.1.4-4 導電度量測 42
3.1.4-5 熱差掃瞄分析 43
3.1.5 機械性質試驗 43
3.1.5-1 硬度試驗 43
3.1.6 磨耗試驗 43
3.2 結果與討論 45
3.2.1 金相觀察及電子微探儀分析 45
3.2.2 微分掃瞄熱分析 50
3.2.3 導電度分析 53
3.2.4 硬度試驗 57
3.2.5 磨耗試驗 62
3.3 結論 65
第四章 熱處理與Sc含量對Al-Sc合金薄膜表面突起之影響 66
4.1實驗方法 66
4.1.1薄膜製作 67
4.1.1-1濺鍍靶材之熔配 67
4.1.1-2濺鍍前處理與鍍膜參數 67
4.1.1-3薄膜熱處理 68
4.1.2微結構分析 69
4.1.2-1薄膜成分分析 69
4.1.2-2掃描式電子顯微鏡 69
4.1.2-3穿透式電子顯微鏡 70
4.1.2-4原子力顯微鏡 70
4.1.3物性量測 70
4.1.3-1電阻率量測 70
4.1.3-2薄膜內應力量測 71
4.2結果與討論 73
4.2.1沈積態之薄膜晶粒結構觀察 73
4.2.2薄膜應力曲線分析 74
4.2.3薄膜熱處理後之晶粒結構觀察 76
4.2.4電阻率量測 79
4.2.4薄膜表面型態觀察 82
4.3結論 92
第五章 總結論 93
第六章 未來研究方向 95
參考文獻 97

圖目錄
圖2.1 Al-Si二元合金平衡相圖 8
圖2.2 Cu添加對合金於250 ℃下勃氏硬度值之變化曲線 19
圖2.3磨耗模式的種類 21
圖2.4磨耗類型示意圖 22
圖2.5滑動磨耗行為中不同機構,(a)黏著磨耗,(b) 表面疲勞磨耗
(c) 表面疲勞磨耗,(d) 磨潤化學磨耗與研磨磨耗 23
圖2.6不同磨耗階段的磨耗曲線 24
圖2.7濺鍍法原理示意圖 26
圖2.8薄膜成核與成長示意圖 27
圖2.9鋁薄膜表面突起之SEM影像觀察 28
圖2.10純鋁薄膜之應力與溫度曲線 29
圖2.11薄膜晶粒大小與突起形態之關係 30
圖2.12基材溫度與沈積率對突起密度之關係 32
圖2.13鈍化層的厚度與表面突起之關係 32
圖2.14 Ta、Nd元素添加對鋁薄膜降伏強度與突起之影響 34
圖2.15 Ta、Nd元素添加對突起密度之影響 34
圖2.16 Al-Sc二元合金之部分相圖 36
圖2.17鋁-過渡元素之再結晶溫度比較圖 37
圖2.18 Sc元素添加對各合金降伏強度之影響 38
圖3.1實驗流程圖 39
圖3.2 (a)金屬模模具、(b) 鑄件 40
圖3.3磨耗試驗設備之示意圖 44
圖3.4 Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金之鑄造微結構
(箭頭:1共晶矽 2:Al2Cu 3:Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) 45
圖3.5 Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金經固溶處理後之微結構
(箭頭:1共晶矽 2:Al2Cu 3:Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) 47
圖3.6合金經300C持溫10 h後之BEI影像圖(a)鑄態合金
(b)T6熱處理合金(箭頭:1共晶矽 2:Al2Cu 3:Al5Cu2Mg8Si6) 49
圖3.7 Al-12.5Si-4.5Cu-1.0Mg合金固溶處理前後之DSC曲線
(I: θ′相的析出波峰,II:λ′相的析出波峰) 51
圖3.8鑄造合金於300 ℃持溫0 ~10h期間之DSC曲線 52
(I: θ′相的析出波峰,II:λ′相的析出波峰) 52
圖3.9 T6熱處理合金於300℃持溫0 ~ 10 h期間後之DSC曲線
(I: θ′相的析出波峰,II:λ′相的析出波峰) 53
圖3.10合金於鑄態、固溶淬火以及T6 熱處理後之導電度量測 54
圖3.11合金於300 ℃持溫100 h之導電度變化 57
圖3.12合金於鑄態、固溶處理及T6時效處理後之硬度值 58
圖3.13合金於300 ℃持溫100 h之硬度變化曲線 61
圖3.14合金經300℃熱穩定性試驗後之磨耗量 63
圖3.15 荷重10 N時之磨耗表面 (a)鑄態合金,(b)T6熱處理合金 64
圖3.16 荷重40 N時之磨耗表面 (a)鑄態合金,(b)T6熱處理合金 64
圖4.1實驗流程圖 66
圖4.2四點探針示意圖 71
圖4.3曲率量測之系統架構圖 72
圖4.4薄膜於沈積態之晶粒結構(a)薄膜A (b)薄膜B (c)薄膜C 73
圖4.5薄膜連續升溫之應力變化曲線 75
圖4.6薄膜於不同熱處理狀態之晶粒結構 78
圖4.7薄膜晶粒大小與熱處理溫度關係圖 78
圖4.8薄膜電阻率與熱處理溫度之關係圖 81
圖4.9薄膜A在不同熱處理狀態下之SEM影像圖
(a)沈積態(b)200℃熱處理(c)400℃熱處理 86
圖4.10薄膜A在不同熱處理狀態下之AFM影像圖
(a)沈積態(b)200℃熱處理(c)400℃熱處理 87
圖4.11薄膜B在不同熱處理狀態下之SEM影像圖
(a)沈積態(b)200℃熱處理(c)400℃熱處理 88
圖4.12薄膜B在不同熱處理狀態下之AFM影像圖
(a)沈積態(b)200℃熱處理(c)400℃熱處理 89
圖4.13薄膜C在不同熱處理狀態下之SEM影像圖
(a)沈積態(b)200℃熱處理 (c)400℃熱處理 90
圖4.14薄膜C在不同熱處理狀態下之AFM影像圖
(a)沈積態(b)200℃熱處理(c)400℃熱處理 91

表目錄
表2.1鋁合金代號與主要元素關係: (a)鍛造鋁合金(b)鑄造鋁合金 5
表2.2常用的Al-Si合金之成份表 7
表2.3常用鑄造Al-Si合金之相對性質 8
表2.4 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之凝固反應 9
表2.5 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金介金屬化合物之化學組成 9
表2.6 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之各式富鐵相 10
表2.7鋁合金基本熱處理之代號 15
表2.8 Al-Si-Cu-Mg合金之析出相結構與性質 16
表3.1合金成分 40
表3.2鋁基地中Cu、Mg原子含量 47
表3.3鑄態與T6熱處理合金於300℃等溫期間之導電度 55
表3.4鑄態與T6熱處理合金於300 ℃等溫期間之硬度值 61
表4.1靶材成分分析 67
表4.2薄膜之成分分析 69
表4.3薄膜之降伏應力與降伏溫度 76
表4.4薄膜於不同熱處理下突起密度與尺寸 85
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指導教授 李勝隆(Sheng-Long Lee) 審核日期 2012-7-30
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