博碩士論文 91324001 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:4 、訪客IP:3.227.233.6
姓名 翁郁翔(Yu-Hsiang Weng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學工程與材料工程學系
論文名稱 以溴化四丁基銨鹽電解-電透析合成醋酸四丁基銨鹽及該鹽之精製
相關論文
★ 溴化四丁基銨鹽之製備與其電解─電透析方法以合成氯化四丁基銨鹽之研究★ 彩色濾光片再生製程強鹼染料廢水之電解-電透析處理以去除廢水中之KOH,並同時合成KOH與NaOCl
★ 彩色濾光片玻璃基板再生製程強鹼染料廢液之催化濕式氧化處理★ 甚高濃度有機廢水之催化溼式氧化處理
★ 甚高有機污染強鹼廢水之電透析前處理★ 甲醇鈉之製備與其與二氯甲烷之液-固相轉移催化甲氧基取代
★ 醋酸丁酯之液-固相轉移催化合成及其水解研究★ 醋酸丙烯酯之液-固相轉移催化合成及其水解研究
★ 鹵化四丁基銨之合成動力學、溶解、萃取及精製研究★ 醋酸戊酯之相轉移催化水解以合成正戊醇之研究
★ 四丁基銨鹽之溶解度、締合常數、活性係數及分佈係數★ 溶劑與陰離子(Y)之結構對一典型相轉移催化親核取代反應BzCl + Bu4NY→BzY + Bu4NCl之反應性之效應
★ 溶劑、親核劑(QBr)陽離子之結構及溫度對相轉移催化反應BzCl + QBr<--> BzBr + QCl 之反應 性之效應★ 溶劑、基質結構及溫度對相轉移催化親核取代反應ROH + Bu4NCl<-->RCl +Bu4NOH 之反應 性之效應
★ 2-胺基噻吖唑衍生物合成與其性質之探討★ 合成1,3-双[5-苯基-1,3,4-
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 ( 永不開放)
摘要(中) 摘 要
本研究首先以三丁胺Bu3N與溴丁烷BuBr之季化反應,合成溴化四丁基銨鹽Bu4NBr ,由於本實驗室長期研究鹵化四丁基銨鹽之合成動力學與精製已有多篇期刊與論文出版,技術尚屬成熟,故自行合成溴化四丁基銨鹽Bu4NBr,本實驗選擇DMA當溶劑。然後選擇適當之反應莫耳比Bu3N: BuBr : DMA,反應莫耳比1:1:3.73,溫度控制在100℃,反應13小時後,冷卻析出鹽,過濾取出。濾液再加入適當溶劑利用溶解度與介電常數之不同,可在析出鹽,如此循環可將產率提高,亦得到高純度之四丁基銨鹽Bu4NBr。
故本實驗首先選擇適當之膜組,將本實驗室三種陽離子交換膜與兩種陰離子交換膜組合使用發現以nafion組合AMV最佳之電流效率,再將溴化四丁基銨鹽溶於水中製成水溶液,調配適當的濃度通入淡化室中,而陰極室通入醋酸水溶液,陽極室通入NaCl水溶液,濃縮室通入NaBr水溶液,離子交換膜以上述使用,將直流電源供應器分別裝置在陰陽極上,通電後,不使電流超過極限電流,以幫浦循環之,將實驗變因設定為,HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq) 液濃度,QAcO(aq) 液濃度,HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq)流速,電流密度,電解槽隔室寬度。
電流效率與HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq)液濃度,HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq)流速及電流密度有關。而電壓效率與HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq)的濃度、電流密度、電解槽隔室寬度有關。
再由以上實驗影響決定電解-電透析之最適合成條件。
陽極室通入NaCl水溶液1N,濃縮室通入NaBr水溶液1N,淡化室通入QBr水溶液0.6N,陰極室通入HAcO水溶液0.2N,陽極室、濃縮室與淡化室、陰極室之間以Nafion NX982TX分隔,濃縮室、淡化室之間以AMV分隔,各室的寬度皆為0.5cm,外加電流3.06A,(電流密度1.46A/dm2) ,各室流速2.3 cm/s,反應溫度25℃,將pH值控制在3.4~3.81間,電化學反應進行20小時,可在陰極室得到0.3 N的醋酸四丁基銨鹽水溶液。
關鍵字(中) ★ 醋酸四丁基銨鹽
★ 電解-電透析
關鍵字(英) ★ tetrabutylammonium acetate
★ electrodialysis-electrolysis
論文目次 目 錄
摘要.............................................................................................................................I
目錄............................................................................................................................II
圖目錄.......................................................................................................................III
表目錄........................................................................................................................IV
符號說明...................................................................................................................V
第一章緒論
1-1鹵化四級銨鹽之性質.......................................................................................1
1-2鹵化四級銨鹽之合成方法.............................................................................2
1-2-1碘化四級銨鹽之合成方法....................................................................2
1-2-2氯化四級銨鹽之合成方法............................................................…...3
1-2-3其它鹵化四級銨鹽之合成方法.........................................................4
1-3鹵化四丁基銨鹽之應用...............................................................................5
. 1-3-1當相轉移催化劑.................................................................................5
1-3-2其他重要的用途.......................................................................………6
1-4電解-電透析之簡介........................................................................................7
1-4-1電透析之濃縮-淡化過程..................................................................7
1-4-2電透析之應用.........................................................................................7
1-4-3對於電解-電透析之合成..................................................................9
1-4-4季銨氫氧化物非電解-電透析之合成.........................................10
1-5本文的動機與主旨.........................................................................................12
第二章 理論部分
2-1二分子親核取代反應之速率方程式…………………………………...14
2-2溶劑對季化反應之效應……………………………………………………16
2-3由阿瑞尼亞定律解釋溫度對反應速率常數之影響…………………16
2-4電解-電透析之流程........................................................................17
2-5通量方程式與電極間之電位梯度....................................................17
2-6通電初態系統之濃度分布…....................................………………20
2-7平衡極電位與電荷轉移過電程....................................................... 21
2-7-1平衡極電位...............................................................................21
2-7-2電荷轉移過電壓.......................................................................23
2-8擴散電位............................................................................................24
2-9歐姆電位降....................................................................................... 24
2-10 Donnan potential.........................................................................….25
2-11濃度偏極化......................................................................................26
2-12系統外加電壓方程式......................................................................27
2-13電流效率、電壓效率及電能消耗與無因次操作變數群之關係式
..................................................................................................…28
第三章 實驗部分
3-1實驗及分析用藥品........................................................................... 33
3-2實驗裝置及分析儀器....................................................................... 34
3-2-1實驗裝置...................................................................................34
3-2-2電導度計.............................................................................…..35
3-2-3離子層析儀...............................................................................35
3-3樣品分析............................................................................................36
3-3-1電導度計的分析.......................................................................36
3-3-1.1淡化室Q+分析.................................................................36
3-3-1.2陰極室Q+分析.................................................................36
3-3-2離子層析儀(IC)之校正曲線及樣品分析..............................37
3-4實驗步驟........................................................................................... 38
3-4-0溴化四丁基銨鹽的製備...........................................................38
3-4-1 膜組的選擇………………………………………………….39
3-4-2醋酸溶液,醋酸四丁基銨溶液與醋酸醋酸四丁基銨混合溶液導電度與pH值的測定………………………………………39
3-4-3極限電流密度的測定.............................................................…40
3-4-4 HAcO(aq)濃度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響.......40
3-4-5 QBr(aq)濃度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響......…41
3-4-6電流密度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響......……41
3-4-7 HAcO(aq)流速對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之響.....…..41
3-4-8 QBr(aq)流速對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響.....…42
3-4-9電解槽隔室寬度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響
..............................................................................................…42
3-4-10 QAcO(aq) 濃度對電能消耗、電流效率及電壓效率之影響..43
第四章 結果與討論
4-1膜組的選擇…………………………………………………………44
4-2醋酸溶液,醋酸四丁基銨溶液與醋酸醋酸四丁基銨混合溶液導電度與pH值的測定…………………………………………………..44
4-2極限電流密度之測定......................................................................45
4-3 HAcO(aq)濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響............45
4-4 QBr(aq)濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響...........…46
4-5 HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq)濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗影響之比較
......................................................................................................….47
4-6電流密度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能效率消耗之影響..........48
4-7 HAcO(aq)流速對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響........….49 4-8 QBr(aq流速對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響................50
4-9 HAcO(aq)、QBr(aq)流速對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之較.....50.
4-10電解槽隔室寬度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響........51
4-11 QAcO(aq)濃度對電流效率、電壓效率、電能消耗之影響..........…52
4-12電流效率及電壓效率與無因次操作變數群之關係式..................53
4-13電解-電透析之最適條件………………………………………….55
第五章 結論.....................................................................................…86
參考文獻..................................................................................................89
附錄......................................................................................................…97
參考文獻 參考文獻
[1] Dario Landini;Angelamaria Maia;Alessandro Rampoldi,“Stability
of Quaternary Onium Salts under Phase-Transfer Conditions in the Presence of Aqueous Alkaline Solutions”,J. Org. Chem. 51,3187-3191,(1986).
[2] 蘇國銘,“叔胺與碘丁烷之親核取代反應之溶劑效應與結構效應
”,中央大學化工所碩士論文(1996).
[3] 游昆麟,“三乙胺與鹵化物之親核取代反應之溶劑效應與結構效
應”,中央大學化工所碩士論文(1996).
[4] G. Bermudez;L.H. Blanco;N. Vargas,“Synthesis and Analytical
Characterization of Some Quaternary Amonium Salts”,Rev. Colomb.
Quim.,11(1)33-8(Span), 1982(CA.98:142895t).
[5] 王天財“芐基氯之相轉移催化取代及其與叔胺之季銨
化研究”,成功大學化工所博士論文(1990).
[6]I.L.Kotlyareevskii,“Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium
Salts”,Izv.Akad.Nauk SSSR,Ser.Khim,2820-1(Russ),1974(12).
[7] Kortvelyessi,Gyula;Almasy,Gedeon,Mrs.“Quaternization of Amines
or Amines with Methyl or Ethyl Chloride Using Calcium Hydroxide
or Llime Hydrate As Acid Trap”,Hung. Teljes HU 54,341(Cl.C07
C211/64) 1989,9.(CA.115:70907t).
[8] V.L. Shirokii;A.B. Sutormin;Maier, N.A.;Golubkov, N.E.;Belyanin,
“Manufacture of Tetraalkylammoniu Chlorides”,U.S.S.R. ,SU1, 505
927 (Cl.C07 C87/30) 07 Sep 1989(33), 111(CA.112:5857z).
[9] C.M. Stark;C. Liotta, “Phase Transfer Catalysis:Principles and
Techniques”,ACADEMIC PRESS, New York(1978).
[10] Geroia, Edwin;Cowiey, Alan H;Bard, Allen “Quaternary Analgams
as Zintl Ion Salts and Their Use in the Synthesis of Novel Quaternary
Ammonium Aslts”, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 108(19) 6082-3,1986(CA.
105:122860n).
[11] Rutzen, Horst;Lorenz, Peter;Tesmann, Holger,“Process for the
Preparation of Powdered or Granulated Quaternary Ammonium
Halides from Alkyl Halides and Tertiary Amines”, Eur. Pat. Appl.
Ep.288,857 (Cl.C07 C85/04), 02 Nov 1988, DE Appl.3,713,996, 2
Apr 1987,4PP(CA110:59926z).
[12] K.R. Smith;J.E. Borland;J.W. Perine;J.D. Sauer,“Preparation of
Solid Quaternary Ammonium Halides ”,U.S. US5,196,5282(Cl. 56
4-29;C07 C209/12), 23 Mar. 1993, Appl. 723,975, 01 Jul 1991, 3pp(
CA.119:7229c).
[13] Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.“Tera-n-butylammonium bromide”,
Jpn.Kokai tokkyo Koho JP 59 27,854[84 27,854](Cl.C07 C87/30) ,
14 Feb 1984, Appl. 82/137,791, 06 Aug 1982, 4pp(CA.101:5459h).
[14] S. Dermeil ;Y. Sasson,“Synthesis of Quaternary Ammonium
Flouoride Salts by a Solts by a Solid-Liquid Halogen Exchange
Process in Protic Solvents”, J. Org. Chem. 54,4827-29(1989).
[15] Zahalka, Hayder A.;Sasson, Yoel.“Esterification of 1,4-
DichlorobutaneWith Sodium Formate under Solid-Liquid Phase
Transfer Catalysis“,Can J. Chem. 67(2), 245-9(1989).
[16] Desmurs, Jean Roger. Ratton. Serge,“Esterification Process of
Hydroxybenzoic Acids”,Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 467,727(ClC07 C69/88
), 22 Jan 1992, FR Appl. 9017,818, 22 Jun 1990,28pp(CL.116: 193922x).
[17] Klan, Petr;Benovsky, Petr, “Phase-Transfer Catalyzed Synthesis
of 2-Propenylesters of Carboxylic Acids“,Monatsh. Chem.
123(5),469-71(1992).
[18] Hu, Yulai;Pa. Weihua;Cui, Wenfeng;Wang, Jinxian,“Synthesis of
Esters from Acyl Chlorides and Halide under Solid-Liquid Phase-
Transfer Catalysis”, Synth. Commun. 22(19), 2763-7(1992).
[19] Puntambekar,Hemalata M.“Mild,one-pot conversion of carboxylic
acids into ester using phase transfer catalysis.” Indian J.chem.Sect.B
1993, 32B(7),793-4.
[20] Banait-JS Devi-R Singh-B“Electrochemical Reaction at Sacrifical
Electrodes.7.Synthesis of some uniqe mercury alkoxides and
glycolates and their coordination-compounds.” Bulletin of the
Chemical Soceity of Japan 1991, vol 64, Iss 12,pp3669-3672.
[21] Opeida, I. A.;Zalevskaya, N. M.;Titsky, G. D.;Vasiliev, A. Yu.,
“Catalysis by Tetrabutylammonium Salts in the Oxidation of
Hydrocarbons”, UKR . Khim. Zh. 59(10),1072-7(1993).
[22] Chen, Youshuang;Huang, Wenbang;Li, Jiayuan,“Phase-Transfer
Catalyzed Oxidation of n-octanol to n-octanal”, Huaxue Shiji 16(1),62
(1994).
[23] Kadaba-PK;Parmley-G;Crooks-PA;Agha-B,“Traizolines.24.
Permanganate-Catalyzed Low-Temperature Thermolysis of 5-(4- Pyidyl)
Substituted a1,2,3-Triazolines”, 30(5), 1191-1195(1993).
[24] Nanba, Hiroyuki;Takahashi, Noriko;Abe, Koichi;Saito, Massao,
“Preparation of Suberonitrile by Catalytic Cyanation of 1,6-
Dichlorohexane”,Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 63,196,546 [88,196,549]
(Cl.C07 C121/20), 15 Aug 1988, Appl. 87/28,192, 12 Feb 1987,3PP
(CA.110:23360w).
[25] Silhanek, Jaroslav;Bartl, Jiri,“Selectivity in two-phase Liquid-
Liquid Reaction Systems”, Sb. Vys. Sk. Chem.-Technol. Praze, C:
Org. Chem. Technol. C31, 81-93(1991).
[26] Yoneyama, Kiroxhi;Sugimura, Kenji;Kuwabata, Susumu,“Effects
of Electrolytes on the Photoelectrochemical Reduction of Carbon
Dioxide at Illuminated p-type Cadmium Telluride and p-type Indium Phosphide Electrodes in Aqueous Solutions”Chem. Interfacial Electrochem. 249(1-2), 143-53(1988).
[27] Mariani,Robert Dominick.“Electrochemistry at liquid
crystal/electrode interfaces.”From Diss.Abstr. Int. B, 48(12),Pt.
1, 3579(1988).
[28] Mao, Junye;Li, Fenggen,“Application of Tetraalkylammonium
Chloride as Coagulant Aids in Coagulation of SBR Latex”
,Hecheng Xiangjiao Gongye 11(3),206-9(1988).
[29] Biedron, Ralf,“Additives for the Strengthening, Abrasion
Resistance, and Waterproofing of Concrete”, Ger. Offen. DE3,723,158
(Cl.C04 B24/18), 26 Jan 1989, Appl. 14 Jul 1987,2pp(CA.110:140522m).
[30] Mori, Tosiki;Suzuki, Shigeaki;Onishi, Takashi,“Preparation of
Acyloxy-Terminated Polyisoprene Derivatives as Intermediates for
Drugs, Perfumes, and Heromones”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP
63,227,546[88,227,546](Cl.C07 C67/08), 21 Sep 1988, Appl. 87/63,
420, 17 Mar 1987, 6pp(CA.111:39634v).
[31] Applegate, L. E.,“Membrane Separation process”, Chemical
eng., Jun. 11(1984).
[32] 郭文正;曾添文, “薄膜分離”,高立圖書公司,臺北(1998).
[33] Hung,T.C. and T. T. Wang ,“A Study on the Behavior of Cation on
Ion Exchange ,” Desalination ,21, pp.327-340 (1977).
[34] Lacey, R. E.;S. Loeb,“Industrial Process with Membranes”,
John Wiley &Sons Inc., N.Y.,(1972).
[35] 田中正郎, “應用電化學”, Ch. 4,復漢出版社,(1994).
[36] Grot, G. F.,“Nafion as a Separator in Electrolytic Cells”,The
Abstrate of the Electrochemical Soc. Meeting, 7 May(1986).
[37] Taguchi, Satoshi;Suetsugu, Masumi;Nagase, Tsutomu,
“Manufacture of Aqueous Tetraalkylammonium Hydroxide
Solutions”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 06,25,880[94,25,880]
(Cl.C25 B3/00), 01 Feb 1994, Appl. 92/184,998, 13 Jul 1992,
4pp(CA.120:283087r).
[38] Kojima, Kunihiko;Suzuki, Joji;Shida, Takeo;Imamura, Juichi, “
Manufacture of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide by
Electrodialysis”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 03 93,752[91 93,752
(Cl.C07 C211/62), 18 Apr 1991, Appl. 89/228,959, 04 Sep 1989,
9pp(CA.115:231682h).
[39] Rijkhof, Evert Jan;Tholen. Johannes Petrus Paulus;Van der Maas,
“Method for Electrochemical Preparation of Quaternary Ammonium
Hydroxide”, Eur. Pat. Appl. EP 420,331(Cl.C25 B3/00), 03 Apr
1991, GB Appl. 89/19,682, 31 Aug 1989,11pp(CA.115:101542b).
[40] Iwamoto, Hisahiko;Sada, Toshikatsu,“Electrolysis in Cell having
Cation Exchangers”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP02,115,387[90,115,
387] (Cl.C25 B3/00) , 27 Apr 1990, Appl. 88/266,017, 24 Oct 1988,
5pp(CA.114:13949p).
[41] Sharifian, Hossein;Tanner, Alan R.,“Method for Purifying
Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides”, PCT Int. Appl. WO 90
06,382(Cl.C25B3/00),14 Jun 1990,US Appl. 276,651, 28 Nov 1988,
32pp(CA.113:105307k).
[42] Hossein, Sharifian;Tanner, Alan R.,“Process for Electrochemically
Preparing Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides”, PCT Int. Appl.
WO 90 01,076(Cl.C25B3/00),08 Feb 1990,US Appl. 221,720, 20 Jul
1988, 18pp (CA.112:200749p).
[43] Takahashi, Shuji;Uchama, Minoru,“Manufacture of High-Purity
Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP
63,109,183[88,109,183] (Cl.C25 B3/00) , 13 May 1988, Appl.
86/253,757, 27 Oct 1986, 3pp(CA.109: 82124z).
[44] Shimizu, Shunpei;Cho, Shunren;Yagi, Osamu,“Manutacture of
Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution ”, Jpn.
Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 63 24,080[88,24,080] (Cl.C25 B3/00) , 01 Feb
1988, Appl. 86/165,469, 16 Jul 1986, 5pp(CA.108: 194813j).
[45] Hale, Cecil H.;Tanner, Alan;Hale, Bryan M.,“Electrochemical
Method for Producing High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium
Hydroxides”, U.S. us 4,714,530(Cl.204-131;C25 F5/00), 22 Dec
1987, Appl. 884,505, 1 Jul 1986,5pp(CA.108: 64672B).
[46] Kashiwase, Masaharu;Terumi,“Electrolytic Preparation of
Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP
61,190,085[86,190,085] (Cl.C25 B3/00) , 23 Aug 1986, Appl.
85/29,342, 19 Feb 1985, 4pp(CA.108: 102986s).
[47] Ochoa Gomez, Jose Ramon;Tarancon Estrads, Maria,“Electrolytic
Preparation of Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides and Alkoxides”
,Span. ES 2,019,550(Cl.C25 B3/00), 16 Jun 1991, Appl. 9,001,049,
11 Apr 1990, 18pp(CA.116:58931J).
[48] Ochoa Gomez, J.R.;Tarancon Estrads, M.,“Electrosnthesis of
Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxides”, J. Appl. Electrochem. 21(4),365
-7(1991).
[49] Kofuch. Yasutosh;Deo, Takashi,“Electrochemical Manufacturing
of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide Aqueous Solution”
, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 62,139,890[87 139,890](Cl.C25 B3/00),
23 Jur 1987, Appl. 85/277,888, 12 Dec 1985, 35pp(CA.107: 245184u).
[50] Kato, Tomomichi;Deo, Takashi;Terao, Hiroshi, “Electrolytic Cell
for Manufacture of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide”
, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 02, 129,390[90,129,390] (Cl.C25B /00)
, 17 May 1990, Appl. 88/282,374, 10 Nov 1988,4pp(CA.114: 13950g).
[51] Kato, Tomomichi;Yamauchi, Masaharu, Terumasa,“ Manu-
facture of Tetraalkylammonium Hydroxide”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo
Koho JP02, 70,080[90 70,080] (Cl.C25 B3/00) , 08 Mar 1990, Appl.
88/221,408, 06 Sep 1988, 7pp(CA.113: 200178c).
[52] Sada, Toxhikatsu;Iwamoto, Hisahiko;Deo, Takashi,
“Manufacturing of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide”,
Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 01,87,793[89 87,793] (Cl.C25 B3/00) ,
31 Mar 1989, JP Appl. 87/12,2238, 23 Jan 1987, 6pp(CA.112:13432y).
[53] Iwamoto, Hisahiko;Deo, Takashi;Sada, Toshikatsu,
“ Manufacturing of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide
Using Anion Exchanger”, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP01,87,796
[89 87,796] (Cl.C25 B3/00) , 31 Mar 1989, JP Appl. 87/112,454, 11
Mar 1987, 6pp(CA.111: 242643q).
[54] Iwamoto, Hisahiko;Suehiro, Mimoru;Takasaki, Yoshiharu,
“Manufacturing of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide”
, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 01,108,388[89 108,388] (Cl.C25 B3/00)
, 25 Apr 1989, Appl. 87/262,799, 20 Oct 1987, 4pp(CA.111: 221100v).
[55] Iwamoto, Hisahiko;Deo, Takashi;Sada, Toshikatsu, “ Manufacturing
of High-Purity Quaternary Ammonium Hydroxide by Electrolysis”
, Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP 63,213,686[88 213,686] (Cl.C25 B3/00)
, 06 Sep 1988, Appl. 87/43,168, 27 Feb 1987, 5pp(CA.110: 30511z).
[56] Ford, W. T.;R. J. Hauri, J. Am. Chem. Soc.,95,7381(1973).
[57] Kreshkov, A. P.;E. N. Saynshkina;B. A. Krozdov, J. Appl. Chem.
USSR, 38,2357(1965).
[58] 張詠鈞,“氯化戊烷之相轉移催化醋酸根取代以合成醋酸戊酯之
研究”,中央大學化工所碩士論文(1998).
[59] 郭啟忠,“季銨鹽之溶解度及其在有機相-水相系統中之締合與分
佈”, 中央大學化工碩士論文,(1996).
[60] J. O,M. Bockis;A. K. N. Reddy,“Modern Electrochemistry”,Plenum
Press, New York(1970), Chap. 4.
[61] Klaus J. Vetter,“Electrochemical Kinetics”,Scripta Technica,INC.,
Chap. 2.
[62] Allen J. Bard ; Larry R. Faukner,“Electrochemical methods”, John
Wiley and Sons,Inc.(1980),Chap.5.
[63] Robert E. Lacey and Sidney Loeb,“Industrial Processing with
Membrance”, John Wiley and Sons,Inc.(1972),Chap.1.
[64] Charles M. Starks and Charles Liotta,“Phase Transfer Catalysis”
New York San Francisco London(1978),Chap.2.
[65] Huang , T. C. and I. Y. Yu,“The Concentration Polarization of
Electrodialysis in Ion Exchange Membrane Multi-Compartment
Electrodialyzer ,”J. Chin. Inst. Chem.Eng. ,5, pp.39-48,(1974).
[66] 許習彰,“碘化四丁基銨鹽之製備與其電解-電透析方法合成氯化四丁基銨鹽之研究”,中央大學化工所碩士論文(1999).
[67] 高志宏,“鹵化四丁基銨鹽之合成動力學、溶解、翠取及精製研究”,中央大學化工所碩士論文(2000).
指導教授 王天財(Ten-Tsai Wang) 審核日期 2004-7-15
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明