博碩士論文 91342010 詳細資訊




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姓名 李明禹(Ming-yu Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 利用花崗岩及玻璃回收料製造功能性人造石材之研究
(Mixing Design & Resource Study of Functional Composite Stone Materials)
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摘要(中) 本研究利用花崗岩及玻璃回收料製造功能性複合石材,係利用花崗岩石材加工所剩餘的邊料板等下腳料資源化,經過粉碎加工、篩選洗淨,添加高硬度的回收玻璃石英砂、色料及功能性摻料,混合樹脂黏著劑,設計成合理的緻密配比,在真空、震動條件下壓結成型,製備功能性複合石材。因微細顆粒充填於黏著劑中而形成極緻密結構,進而增強抗壓強度及抗彎曲性能,使功能性複合石材具有高強度及低吸水率等優點,符合未來功能性石材的趨勢與節約資源永續發展的理念。
本論文利用在抽真空的低壓條件下,以震動加壓的方法探討石材下腳料與廢玻璃資源化製成人造石材,以40 % 的石英細粉混合60 % 的容器玻璃粉碎粒料資源化,在操作條件真空度50 mmHg,1400 Hz的震動頻率與1.5 kg/cm²的壓力震動壓實下,壓實持續2 min作成夜光功能性人造石材進行可行性研究。
研究顯示,回收料可以壓製成高抗壓強度與極低吸水率的人造鋪面石材,可以得到良好的緻密度。其比重為2.445,莫氐硬度> 6。較天然花崗岩的物理特性更為優良。(1)在細骨材緻密配比及最小含膠量設計條件下,添加細料進行充填,可提高抗壓強度達1500 kg/cm²以上,抗彎曲強度500 kg/cm²以上。(2)功能性複合石材微結構更為緻密,石材表面經抛光加工處理後光澤度提高,吸水率 < 0.02 %,優於天然大理石。(3)經過偏光顯微鏡、XRD與SEM微觀分析,功能性複合石材表面具有銳錐型TiO2結晶,具有光觸媒自清潔功能性。(4)添加15 %蓄光摻料之發光亮度為0.3 mcd/cm²可長達8小時以上,適合做為夜間標示與緊急逃生避難指引之營建材料。 (5)經濟效益評估設廠投資約需6.4仟萬,每年可資源化材料24萬噸。整體研究成果顯示可以利用回收料發展成為一種實用的功能性複合石材。
摘要(英) Stone materials for their inherited advantages and performances including fire proof, wear withstanding, bright and elegance have been comprehensively applied in constructional works. Though ultra large size of stone plates in thickness of 3 cm are now used for the curtain walls of buildings and stone materials for the flooring, stone sculptures and decoration purposes have been rapidly developed, many difficulties are challenging the engineering technology and maintenance. Therefore, basic requirements of being lighter, thinner, higher strength, and larger plate of stone materials have become the bottleneck for the future constructional materials to break through.
Functional composite stone materials, as the subject of the study, utilize the recycling of residual stone materials after the cutting process are to be further crashed, screened, cleaned, added with quartz of higher hardness, coloring and modified with additives in a refined batching; then mixed with epoxy resin to be compressed and molded under vacuum and vibration conditions. Wherein, nanometer powder modifier can be filled in the resin to form an extremely refine structure thus to improve bending strength and impact resistance for the functional composite stone materials to give advantages of being resilient, lightweight and yielding high tensile strength to meet the trends and sustainable development of ultra think stone sheets.
Modifier added into the functional composite stone materials is comprised of light storage, nanometer photothermal catalyst and special ceramic additives. Finally, the stone material is given surface treatment to provide features of stopping ingression of water containment, increasing brightness and hardness, becoming luminous in darkness, generating ions, bacteria resisting by photo-catalyst and self-cleaning, so to eliminate defectives including whitening, rust stains and water seepage found with the current natural stone materials.
Study results show that (1) given with the design conditions of refined batching and the least glue containment, addition of resin modifier and filler of nanometer fine materials will improve compression resistance over 1500 kg/cm², and bending strength over 500 kg/cm². (2) Addition of nanometer fine materials gives even more refined structure for the functional composite stone materials. The surface gloss of the stone materials after polishing could reach over 80, Mohr’s hardness over 8, and water absorption rate greater than 0.02%, all better than those found with the natural marble. (3) XRD and SEM, and AFM microscopic analysis indicate that TiO2 crystals in conic form are found on the surface of the functional composite stone materials that provides self-cleaning function of photo-catalyst. (4) Addition of 15% light storage material permits the duration of 0.3 mcd/cm² effective brightness up to 12 hours, making it an ideal candidate material for the making of marker during night hours and indicator of emergency evacuation. (5) The ratio by weight of the recycled waste of stone materials derived from the process could reach 43% in the functional composite stone materials, that is the extreme of the refined batching of 3/4” coarse aggregate. However, the engineering quality of granite is slightly compromised since the homogeneity of the crystal of granite is worse than that of the silicon sand. Nonetheless, overall study results have shown that the recycled stone materials are justified as feasible functional composite stone materials.
關鍵字(中) ★ 光觸媒
★ 營建材料
★ 人造石材
★ 玻璃回收料
★ 花崗岩
關鍵字(英) ★ recycled waste of stone materials
★ functional composite stone materials
論文目次 第一章 緒論 ...................................................................................................... 1
1.1 前言 .............................................................................................................. 1
1.2 研究動機 ...................................................................................................... 2
1.3 研究目的 ...................................................................................................... 3
1.4 研究範圍....................................................................................................... 4
1.5 研究方法....................................................................................................... 6
1.6 研究流程與架構 .......................................................................................... 8
第二章 文獻回顧 ............................................................................................ 11
2.1 石材回收再利用材料 ................................................................................ 11
2.2 玻璃的再利用 ............................................................................................ 19
2.3 蓄光摻料在人造石材之應用 .................................................................... 23
2.4 奈米光觸媒 ................................................................................................ 25
2.5 多孔性陶瓷與光觸媒 ................................................................................ 36
2.6 合理配比..................................................................................................... 38
第三章 實驗設計與研究方法 ........................................................................ 47
3.1 黏著劑對人造石材硬化性質實驗 ............................................................ 47
3.1.1 實驗流程及方法 .................................................................................. 47
3.1.2 實驗材料 .............................................................................................. 49
3.1.3 儀器設備及方法 .................................................................................. 50
3.2 蓄光摻料對人造石材發光性實驗 ............................................................ 53
3.2.1 實驗材料 .............................................................................................. 53
3.2.2 樣品備製 .............................................................................................. 54
3.2.3 夜光輝度評估 ..................................................................................... 54
3.2.4 餘輝亮度持久性測試 ......................................................................... 57
3.2.5 發光輝度評估的方法 .......................................................................... 60
3.3 奈米光觸媒摻料對功能性石材的研究 .................................................... 63
3.3.1 實驗流程 .............................................................................................. 63
3.3.2 實驗材料 .............................................................................................. 65
3.3.3 儀器設備及方法 .................................................................................. 66
3.4 真空震動壓實對石材緻密性的實驗 ........................................................ 70
3.4.1 實驗試體製備 ...................................................................................... 70
3.4.2 真空震動壓實對緻密性影響的實驗材料 ......................................... 72
3.4.3 真空震動壓實對功能性石材緻密性的儀器設備及方法 .................. 73
3.4.3.1 實驗設備 ........................................................................................... 73
3.4.3.2 營建石材的性能與測試標準 ........................................................... 75
3.5 配比設計與分析實驗 ................................................................................ 78
3.5.1 實驗流程 .............................................................................................. 78
3.5.2 實驗材料 .............................................................................................. 78
3.5.3 緻密配比實驗儀器設備及方法 .......................................................... 79
3.5.3.1 微觀顯微鏡 ....................................................................................... 79
3.5.3.2 光澤度的試驗方法及步驟 .............................................................. 80
3.5.4 配比的研究 ......................................................................................... 82
第四章 結果與討論 ........................................................................................ 89
4.1 黏著劑對人造石材硬化性質的影響 ........................................................ 89
4.1.1 硬化特性 .............................................................................................. 89
4.1.2 硬化試體的抗壓強度和彎曲強度 ...................................................... 91
4.1.3 先期配比試驗 ...................................................................................... 95
4.2 蓄光摻料對人造石材發光性結果與討論 .............................................. 101
4.2.1 餘輝檢定分析 .................................................................................... 101
4.2.2 九宮格取樣分析 ................................................................................ 103
4.2.3 蓄光摻料含量對亮度的影響 ............................................................ 105
4.2.4 玻璃粒度對亮度的影響 ................................................................... 109
4.2.5 蓄光摻料粒度與餘輝亮度時間 ........................................................ 112
4.2.6 激光時間對亮度的影響 .................................................................... 113
4.2.7 激光照度對亮度的影響 .................................................................... 113
4.3 奈米光觸媒摻料對功能性石材的影響 .................................................. 117
4.3.1 光觸媒摻料自潔去污的影響 ............................................................ 119
4.3.2 奈米光觸媒摻料疏水性的影響 ........................................................ 124
4.4 真空震動壓實對功能性石材緻密性的影響 .......................................... 126
4.5 合理配比設計的影響 .............................................................................. 132
4.5.1 顆粒堆積對抗壓強度的影響 ........................................................... 132
4.5.2 壓實壓力對強度的影響 .................................................................... 137
4.5.3 震動頻率的影響 ................................................................................ 139
4.5.4 吸水率試驗 ....................................................................................... 143
4.6 功能性複合石材配比設計驗証與分析 .................................................. 147
4.6.1 抗壓強度之望大特性 ....................................................................... 147
4.6.2 抗彎強度之望大特性 ....................................................................... 154
4.6.3 吸水率之望小特性 ........................................................................... 158
4.6.4 光澤度試驗 ....................................................................................... 164
4.6.5 耐久性實驗 ....................................................................................... 165
4.6.6 抑菌試驗檢定與成效 ....................................................................... 167
第五章 效益分析 .......................................................................................... 173
5.1 人造石材製造生產財務效益評估 .......................................................... 173
5.1.1 收入預估 ........................................................................................... 175
5.1.2 支出預估 ............................................................................................ 175
5.2 單層與複層設計之生產成本比較 .......................................................... 177
第六章 總結與建議 ...................................................................................... 182
6.1 結論 ........................................................................................................... 182
6.2 建議 ........................................................................................................... 185
參考文獻 ........................................................................................................... 186
附錄 ................................................................................................................... 197
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指導教授 林志棟(Jyh-dong Lin) 審核日期 2009-2-2
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