博碩士論文 91343023 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:83 、訪客IP:3.85.245.126
姓名 丁秉煌(Ping-Huang Ting)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 駕駛模擬儀之開發驗證及應用於駕駛疲勞之研究
(Development, validation and application of driving simulation on driver fatigue)
相關論文
★ 反應性磁控法濺鍍氮化鈦鎢薄膜磨潤行為研究★ 應用田口方法於發光二極體導線架 射出成型參數最佳化之研究
★ 應用田口方法於半導體晶圓盒製造最佳化★ 虛擬護理數位診斷模擬系統開發之研究
★ 虛擬射出成型試驗機之研究★ 三次元量床之虛擬儀器教學與訓練系統之設計與開發
★ 駕駛模擬器技術開發及其在駕駛行為研究之應用★ 電源模組老化因子與加速試驗模型之研究
★ 藥柱疲勞特性與壽限評估模式之研究★ 網際網路虛擬護理照護數位模擬系統之研究
★ 應用駕駛模擬器探討語音防撞警示系統 對駕駛行為之影響★ 虛擬實境應用於手部復健與電動輪椅模擬系統之研發
★ 遠距健康監測與復健系統之開發與研究★ 縮尺發動機振動與疲勞壽限之研究
★ 藥柱低週疲勞特性與壽限評估模式之研究★ 非接觸式電子經緯儀電腦模擬教學系統之研究
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 ( 永不開放)
摘要(中) 長時間或長距離的高速公路駕駛已是國人無可避免的活動,但疲勞事故與重大傷害的新聞卻時有所聞,顯見駕駛疲勞被車輛駕駛人所忽略。基於大眾運輸安全的認知上,駕駛時間與駕駛疲勞之間的關係以及駕駛疲勞對於駕駛人的影響應該被深入探討,且以更為客觀的實驗數據來進行說明。同時,駕駛模擬儀(DS)可提供一個即時互動的室內駕駛環境,具有降低實驗成本、增加實驗項目、確保實驗重現性與避免實車試驗危險等多種優點,為交通、人因、土木等領域的重要研究工具之一。然而,此類系統須先經過一系列的功能測試,證實其具有足夠的真實感與穩定度,方能確保實驗結果的可靠度。因此,本研究經由眾多文獻搜集而規劃出駕駛模擬儀應該具備的功能項目,並針對較具關鍵性的視覺系統進行多種的校正試驗,以找出其與實車駕駛時之差異性並提出有效的改善方法。之後再利用駕駛模擬儀進行駕駛疲勞的探討,以找出可提供公路駕駛時的安全資訊。
在駕駛模擬儀視覺系統校正方面,進行了虛擬場景效能測試、交通標誌感知辨識評估、煞車燈感知反應評估等三種的校正試驗。研究結果顯示畫面更新頻率會影響視覺系統的流暢度,而本研究所呈現的顯示效能遠高於Forbes的建議值。在交通標誌辨識與煞車燈感知反應兩項試驗結果則證實虛擬環境下的視覺景深、空間辨識度都與真實環境有顯著性的差異,因而影響遠近物件的辨識能力。在遠距離的交通標誌辨識結果清楚顯示出,虛擬試驗結果比起實車試驗結果來的短,但藉由尺寸放大校正後可使其逼近實車結果,同時本研究所推導出的辨識距離公式可獲得與虛擬實驗近似的辨識結果,能應用於DS視覺系統的建置。在近距離的煞車燈感知反應試驗方面,虛擬試驗結果比起實車試驗結果來的短,約有5-6公尺的差距,而此差異同樣存在於不同的車速條件。
在高速公路駕駛疲勞探討方面,主要透過多種主客觀指標來評估一模擬駕駛過程,駕駛人的警覺心、生理機能與駕駛績效等多種行為能力的變化。由分析結果可得知駕駛時間的增加,不僅會增加駕駛人的嗜睡慾望且降低駕駛警覺心外,更會減弱駕駛人生心理的活動力與感知反應能力。透過Pearson關聯性分析結果不僅找出多種與疲勞具顯著關聯的評估變數,可作為未來在疲勞偵測系統的有效指標外。同時由多種綜合指標的分析結果也證實到,在單調無趣的高速公路上,較為安全的單趟駕駛時間約在90分鐘左右。雖然相較於室內的虛擬駕駛,駕駛人可能在實車駕駛時可能會有比在DS有更為認真或是積極的實驗態度,但比對Nilsson等人的研究後可得知,本實驗結果仍提供了一個相當明確的疲勞預防機制,就是在長途駕駛過程時,駕駛人應適時的下交流道來稍作休息,不僅可提振疲勞所降低的生心理活動力外,更可有效降低疲勞事故發生的風險性。
摘要(英) Due to fast growth of motorized vehicles, driver fatigue is a major cause of accidents on motorways or major roadways and should be a focus of public education regarding the safety of transport. However, this area has been relatively neglected. The driving simulator (DS) has been regarded an effective tool for previewing and assessing new concepts and further constructions. In addition, compared to on-road vehicle test, DS have many advantanges like a safer and controlled environment, and allow the replication of experiment situations. Therefore, a realistic DS is a useful and economical tool employed to explore driver behavior in relation to ITS technologies and to different drivers, vehicles, roads, and environmental situations.
Nevertheless, a high-fidelity DS need many kinds of validated experiments to test and verify its reliability and stability during the development processes, particularly the visual environment. Therefore, the author integrated the validated experiments of visual environment between the on-road test and simulated test. The analytic results clearly indicated that the differences of legibility distances of different objects between driving simulators and real road environments, no matter the objects is traffic sign or braking light. The legibility distances of objects on simulated test all significantly shorter than the field test. Thus, this study proposes a simple algorithm for determining the magnification of a traffic sign for a display system in a simulator. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method of this study can reduce the difference of legibility distances between two different visual environments.
The author also applied DS system to investigate drive fatigue of highway driving. This study quantitatively dertermined the progression of fatigue by means of analyzing several experimental measures. Sleepiness ratings (SSS) and Borg’s category ratio (CR-10) were used to assess impairment of driver alertness and sleepiness experience. Four objective measures, including reaction time testing, physiolofical parameters, fatigue symptoms, and driving performance, were used to determine the fatigue influence of driving safety. Furthermore, several compound indexes were used to assess temporal deterioration of driving ability from alert to fatigued using principal component analysis. The experimental results demonstrated that excessive driving is a potential cause of fatigue-related accidents. Moreover, analytical results indicated that 90 minutes was the safe duration while driving on monotonous highway. Based on the experimental findings, this study provides explicit information of fatigue development and its impact on driving safety that can be used to prevent fatigue-related accidents.
關鍵字(中) ★ 運輸安全
★ 駕駛模擬儀
★ 系統驗證
★ 駕駛疲勞
關鍵字(英) ★ transportation safety
★ driver fatigue
★ systems verification
★ driving simulator
論文目次 摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
致謝 III
總目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VIII
符號說明 IX
一、 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究內容 4
1.4 研究方法 4
1.5 論文架構 6
二、 文獻回顧 7
2.1 各國在駕駛模擬儀的發展與應用研究 7
2.2 駕駛模擬儀系統驗證規劃與相關研究 19
2.3 駕駛疲勞相關研究 28
2.3.1 駕駛疲勞的顯著肇因與危險族群 28
2.3.2 駕駛疲勞之主客觀評估方法 29
2.3.3 駕駛疲勞之防治策略與偵測系統 34
三、 駕駛模擬儀視覺系統校正 40
3.1 實驗目的與規劃 40
3.2 虛擬場景效能測試 41
3.3 交通標誌感知辨識評估 45
3.4 煞車燈感知反應評估 53
3.5 小結 57
四、 應用駕駛模擬儀於駕駛疲勞之研究 58
4.1 研究動機與目的 58
4.2 實驗方法 59
4.3 數據彙整與分析 66
4.4 結果與討論 74
4.5 小結 79
五、 結論與未來研究方向 80
5.1 結論 80
5.2 未來研究方向 81
參考文獻 82
附錄一 駕駛模擬儀驗證問卷 92
附錄二 受試者須知及同意書 94
附錄三 受試者基本資料表 95
附錄四 疲勞主觀評量表 96
附錄五 疲勞徵狀與改善策略 97
作者簡歷 98
參考文獻 1. Allen, R. W., Stein, C. A., Aponso, B. L., Rosenthal, T. J., & Hogue, J. R. (1990). A Low cost, part task driving simulator based on microcomputer technology. Paper presented at the 69th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC.
2. Alicandri, E. (1994). The Highway Driving Simulator (HYSIM): the next best thing to being on the road. Public Roads, 57(3), 19-23.
3. Carsten, O. M. J., Groeger, J. A., Blana, E., & Jamson, A. H. (1997). Driver performance in the EPSRC driving simulator: a validation study. Report No. GR/ K56162, United Kingdom: University of Leeds.
4. Salaani, M. K., Heydinger, G. J., & Guenther, D. A. (1997). Validation Results from Using NADSdyna Vehicle Dynamics Simulation. SAE Paper No. 970565.
5. Salaani, M. K., & Heydinger, G. J. (1998). Powertrain and Brake Modeling of the 1994 Ford Taurus for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. SAE Paper No. 981190.
6. Salaani, M. K., Heydinger, G. J., & Grygier, P. A. (2002). Modeling and Implementation of Steering System Feedback for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. SAE Paper No. 2002-01-1573.
7. Salaani, M. K., & Heydinger, G. J. (2001). Model Validation of the 1997 Jeep Cherokee for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. SAE Paper No. 2000-01-0700.
8. Salaani, M. K., Grygier, P. A., & Heydinger. G. J. (2001). Model Validation of the 1998 Chevrolet Malibu for the National Advanced Driving Simulator. SAE Paper No. 2001-01-0141.
9. Nordmark, S., & Åström, H. (2001). Improvement and Validation of the VTI Driving Simulator, Friction Potential and Safety: Prediction of Handling Behavior, Florence. 2nd International Colloquium on Vehicle Tyre Road Interaction, Florence, RITE EURAM PROJECT BRPR – CT97 – 0461.
10. Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa., Östlund, J., Henriksson, P., & Heikkinen, S. (1999). Good Validity between Driving Simulator and Field Studies for Experienced Car Drivers. VTI rapport 464.
11. Tenkink, E. (1989). The Effect of Road Width and Obstacles on Speed and Course Behavior (in Dutch). Report IZF 1989 C-4. TNO Institute for Perception Soesterberg. The Netherlands.
12. Soma, H., Hiramatsu, K., Satoh, K., & Uno, H. (1996). System Architecture of the JARI Driving Simulator and its Validation. Paper Presented at the Symposium on the Design and Validation of Driving Simulators, ICCTP’96, Valencia.
13. 張建彥等人,”大客車心理物理行為門檻模式之駕駛模擬儀場景建置”,中華管理學報,第六卷,第一期,第119-139,民國九十四年三月。
14. Drosdol, J., & Panik, F. (1985). The daimler-benz driving simulator: a tool for vehicle development. SAE Technical Paper Series, Vol. 850334.
15. Wylie, E. J. (1978). Vision and driving. Canadian Journal of Optometry, 40, 70-74, Cited in Strano, CM (1993, March).
16. Naatanen, R., & Summala, H. (1976). Road User Behavior and Traffic Accident. Amsterdam, North Holland.
17. Sander, M. S., & McCormick, E. J. (1987). Human Factors in Engineering and Design. Sixth, ed., McGraw-Hill, Book Co., 580-605.
18. Fisher, J. (1992). Testing the Effect of Road Traffic Signs Informational Value on Driver Behavior. Human Factors, 34(2), 231-237.
19. Dewar, R. E., & Ellis, J. G. (1974). Comparsion of the Three Methods for Evaluating Traffic Signs. Transportation Research Record, 503, 38-47.
20. Dewar, R. E., Ellis, J. G., & Mundy, G. (1976). Reaction Time as an Index of Traffic Sign Perception. Human Factor, 18, 381-392.
21. Olgen, K. W. (1990). Human Factor in Traffic Engineering. ITE Journal, 41-46.
22. AustRoads. 1998. Guide to Traffic Engineering Practice. National Association of Australian State, Road Authorities, 3d ed. Vermont Sout.
23. Teeravarunyou, S., & Laosirihongthong, T. (2003). Dynamic Legibility of Standard Thai Fonts on Traffic Highway Sign. 6th Asian Design International Conference, Tsukuba, Japan, 14-17.
24. Zwahlen, H. T., & Vel, U. D. (1994). Conspicuity in terms of Peripheral Visual Detection and Recognition of Fluorescent Color Targets Versus Nonfluorescent Color Targets against Different Background in Daytime. In Transportation Research Record 1456, National Research Council, Washington D.C., 125-138.
25. Zwahlen, H. T., & Schnell, T. (1997). Visual Detection and Recognition of Fluorescent Color Targets versus Non-fluorescent Color Targets as a Function of Peripheral Angle and Target Size. In Transportation Research Record 1605, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 28-40.
26. Zwahlen, H. T., & Schnell, T. (1999). Legibility of Traffic Sign Text and Symbols. In Transportation Research Record 1692, National Research Council, Washington D.C., 142-151.
27. Zwahlen, H. T., & Xiong, S. (2001). Legibility of Text on Traffic Sign as a Function of Luminance and Size. The 80st TRB Annual Meeting. Washington D.C.
28. Zwahlen, H. T., & Badurdeen, F. F. (2002). Daytime Legibility as a Function of Non-Fluorescent and Fluorescent Traffic Sign Colors. The 81st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper No 02 -3232, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
29. Dewar, R. E., Kline, D. W., Mark, I., & Schieber, F. (1994). Symbol signing design for older drivers. Final Report: DTFH-61-91-C-0018, McLean, VA: Federal Highway Administration.
30. Schieber, F., & Goodspeed, C. H. (1997). Nighttime conspicuity of highway signs as a function of sign brightness, background complexity and age of observer. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Santa Monica, CA, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 1362-1366.
31. Schieber, F. (1998). Optimizing the legibility of symbol highway signs. In A. Gale (Ed.), Vision in Vehicles. VI. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishers, 163-170.
32. Zwahlen, H. T., Hu, X., Sunkara, M., & Duffus, L. M. (1991). Recognition of Traffic Sign Symbols in the Field during Daytime and Nighttime. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society, 35th Annual Meeting, 1058-1062.
33. Jenssen, G. D., Moen, J., Brekke, B., Augdal, A., & Sjohaug, K. (1996). Visual Performance of Fluorescent Retroreflective Traffic Control Devices. Part 1: Human Factors Visibility Study, Report No. STF22 A96606, Sintef Transport Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
34. Burns, D. M., & Johnson, N. L. (1997). The Correlation of Measured Spectral Radiance of Fluorescent Materials to Perceived Conspicuity under Natural Lighting. Die Farbe, 43(4-6), 185-203.
35. De Vos, A. P., Alferdinck, J. W. A. M., & Bakker, P. J. (1998). Fluorescent Retroreflective Signing of Work Zones. Report No. TM-98-C044, TNO Human Factors Research Institute, Soesterberg, the Netherlands, August 1998.
36. Burns, D. M., & Donahue, T. J. (2001). Brightness and Color of Fluorescent Yellow and Fluorescent Yellow Green Retroreflective Signs. In Transportation Research Record 1754, National Research Council, Washington D.C, 48-56.
37. Schnell, T., Aktan, F., & Li, C. (2004). Traffic Sign Luminance Requirements of Nighttime Drivers for Symbolic Signs. In Transportation Research Record 1862, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 24-35.
38. Van der Hulst, M., Rothengatter, T., & Meijman. T. (1998). Strategic Adaptations to Lack of Preview in Driving. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, 1(1), 59-75.
39. Gillespie, T. D. (1992). Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. SAE, Inc., 88-102, USA.
40. 呂岱穎,"汽車系統動態模擬及事故重現",國立中央大學機械工程研究所,碩士論文,民國八十七年六月。
41. 黃毅偉,"車輛動態特性分析及虛擬實境技術應用於汽車駕駛模擬器之研製",彰化師範大學工業教育學系,碩士論文,民國八十九年六月。
42. 周安正,"汽車操控動態模擬與控制",大葉大學機械工程研究所,碩士論文,民國九十一年六月。
43. Velenis, E., Tsiotras, P., Canudas de Wit, C., & Sorine, M. (2003). Dynamic Tire Friction Models for Combined Longitudinal and Lateral Vehicle Motion. Vehicle System Dynamics Draft Article, 43, 4-28.
44. McGehee, D. V., Mazzae, E. N., & Baldwin, G. H. S. (2000). Driver Reaction Time in Crash Avoidance Research: Validation of a Driving Simulator Study on a Test Track. Proceedings of the IEA 2000/HFES 2000 Conference, 3, 320-323.
45. Chrstos, J. P., & Grygier, P. A. (1997). Experimental Testing of a 1994 Ford Taurus for NADSdyna Validation. SAE Paper No. 970563.
46. Chrstos, J. P., & Heydinger, G. J. (1997). Evaluation of VDANL and VDM Road for Predicting the Vehicle Dynamics of a 1994 Ford Taurus. SAE Paper No. 970566.
47. Törnros, J. (1998). Driving Behaviour in a Real and a Simulated Road Tunnel - A Validation Study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30(4), 497-503.
48. Riemersma, J. B. J., Van Der Horst, A. R. A., Hoekstra, W., & Otten, N. (1990). The Validity of a Driving Simulator in Evaluating Speed-Reducing Measures. Traffic Engineering and Control, 31, 416-420.
49. Alicandri, E., Roberts, K., & Walker, J. (1986). A Validation Study of the DOT/FHWA Highway Simulator (HYSIM). U.S.A., Department of Transport, Federal Highway Administration, FHW A/RD-86/067.
50. Godley, S. T. (1999). A Driving Simulator Investigation of Perceptual Countermeasures to Speeding. Ph.D Thesis, Department of Psychology, Monash University.
51. Godley, S. T., Triggs, T. J., & Fildes, B. N. (2002). Driving Simulator Validation for Speed Research. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34, 589-600.
52. 交通部運輸研究所報告,"汽車駕駛模擬系統軟硬體之擴充與測試駕駛行為實例應用之研究",民國九十四年三月。
53. Crane, M. (1996). How to tell patients they are too old to drive. Medical Economics, 73(14), 115–118.
54. Cobb, R. W., & Coughin, J. F. (1998). Are elderly drivers a road hazard? : Problem definition and political impact. Journal of Aging Studies, 12(4), 411–427.
55. Shinar, D. (1993). Traffic safety and individual differences in drivers’ attention and information processing capacity. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving, 9(3-4), 219-237.
56. Horne, J. A., & Reyner, L. A. (1995). Sleep related vehicle accidents. British Medical Journal, 310(4), 565–567.
57. Zomer, J., & Lavie, P. (1990). Sleep related automobile accidents - when and who? In Horne JA (Ed.), Sleep ’90, Bochum, Pontenagel Press, 448–451.
58. Connor, J., Norton, R., Ameratunga, S., Robinson, E., Civil, I., Dunn, R., et al. (2002). Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study. British Medical Journal, 324, 1125–1128.
59. Morrow, P. C., & Crum, M. R. (2004). Antecedents of fatigue, Close calls, and crashes among commercial motor-vehicle drivers. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 59-69.
60. McCartt, A. T., Rohrbaugh, J. W., Hammer, M. C., & Fuller, S. Z. (2000). Factors associated with falling asleep at the wheel among long-distance truck drivers. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32, 493–504.
61. Stutts, J. C., Wilkins, J. W., Osberg, J. S., & Vaughn, B. V. (2003). Driver risk factors for sleep-related crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 321-331.
62. 交通部運輸研究所報告,"疲勞因素對飛航安全之影響評估與對策",民國九十三年一月。
63. 洪啟源,"運用大客車駕駛模擬器探討駕駛疲勞對大客車司機員之影響分析",中華大學運輸科技與物流管理學系,碩士論文,民國九十五年八月
64. 蘇昭銘等人,"國道客運駕駛疲勞因素分析",交通安全與執法研討會,民國九十四年九月。
65. Lumley, M., Roehrs, T., Asker, D., Zorick, F., & Roth, T. (1987). Ethanol and caffeine effects on daytime sleepiness/alertness. Sleep, 10(4), 306–312.
66. Nilsson, T., Nelson, T. M., & Carlson, D. (1997). Development of fatigue symptoms during simulated driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 29(4), 479–488.
67. Hack, M. A., Choi, S. J., Vijayapalan, P., Davies, R. J., & Stradling, J. R. (2001). Comparison of the effects of sleep deprivation, alcohol and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) on simulated steering performance. Respiratory Medicine, 95(7), 594–601.
68. Wesensten, N. J., Belenky, G., Kautz, M. A., Thorne, D. R., Reichardt, R. M., & Balkin, T. J. (2002). Maintaining alertness and performance during sleep deprivation: modafinil versus caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 159(3), 238–247.
69. McCartt, A. T., Ribner, S. A., Pack, A. I., & Hammer, M. C. (1996). The scope and nature of the drowsy driving problem in New York State. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28(4), 511–517.
70. Sagberg, F. (1999). Road accidents caused by drivers falling asleep. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(6), 639–649.
71. Campagne, A., Pebayle, T., & Muzet, A. (2004). Correlation between driving errors and vigilance level: influence of the driver's age. Physiology & Behavior, 80(4), 515–524.
72. Kecklund, G., & A˚kerstedt, T. (1993). Sleepiness in long distance truck driving: an ambulatory EEG study of night driving. Ergonomics, 36(9), 1007–1017.
73. Brookhuis, K. A., & De Waard, D. (1993). The use of psychophysiology to assess driver status. Ergonomics, 36(9), 1099–1110.
74. Van der Hulst, M., Meijman, T., & Rothengatter, T. (2001). Maintaining task set under fatigue: study of time on task effect in simulated driving. Transportation Research Part F, 4, 103–118.
75. Thiffault, P., & Bergeron, J. (2003). Monotony of road environment and driver fatigue: a simulator study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35(3), 381–391.
76. O’Hanlon, J. F., & Kelly, G. R. (1977). Comparison of performance and physiological changes between drivers who perform well and poorly during prolonged vehicular operation. NATO Conference Series 3, 87–100.
77. Harris, W. (1977). Fatigue, circadian rhythm, and truck accidents. Vigilance: Theory, Operational Performance, and Physiological Correlates (ed. Mackie, R.). New York, NY: Plenum Press, 133–146.
78. Dinges, D. F. (1995). An overview of sleepiness and accidents. Journal of Sleep Research, 4(2), 4–14.
79. Desmond, P. A., & Matthews, G. (1998). Task-induced fatigue effects on simulated driving performance. In A. Gale et al. (Eds), Vision in Vehicles VI (Amsterdam: North-Holland).
80. Philip, P., Taillard, J., Quera-Salva, M. A., Bioulac, B., & A˚kerstedt, T. (1999). Simple reaction time, duration of driving and sleep deprivation in young versus old automobile drivers. Journal of Sleep Research, 8(1), 9–14.
81. Mitler, M., Carskadon, M., Czeisler, C., Dement, W., Dinges, D., & Graeber, R. (1988). Catastrophes, sleep and public policy: consensus report. Sleep, 11(1), 100–109.
82. Benoit, O., & Foret, J. (1988). Circadian regulation of the sleep–wake cycle. Neurophysiol Clin, 18(5), 403–431.
83. Pack, A. I., Pack, A. M., Rodgman, E., Cucchiara, A., Dinges, D. F., & Schwab, C. W. (1995). Characteristics of crashes attributed to the driver having fallen asleep. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 27(6), 769–775.
84. Garbarino, S., Nobili, L., Beelke, M., De Carli, F., Balestra, V., & Ferrillo, F. (2001). Sleep related vehicle accidents on Italian highways. Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia, 23(4), 430-434.
85. Smiley, A. (1998). Fatigue management: lessons from research. In: Hartley, L. (Ed.), Managing Fatigue in Transportation, Elsevier, Oxford, 1–23.
86. Knipling, R. R., & Wang, J. S. (1994). Crashes and fatalities related to driver drowsiness/fatigue. Research Note from the Office of Crash Avoidance Research, Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 1–8.
87. Karrer, K., Vöhringer-Kuhnt, T., Baumgarten, T., & Briest. S. (2004). The role of individual differences in driver fatigue prediction. Paper at the 3rd International Conference on Traffic & Transport Psychology, 5–9.
88. Otmani, S., Pebayle, T., Roge, J., & Muzet, A. (2005). Effect of driving duration and partial sleep deprivation on subsequent alertness and performance of car drivers. Physiology & Behavior, 84(5), 715–724.
89. Johns, W. M. (2000). A sleep physiologist’s view of the drowsy driver. Transportation Research Part F3, 241-249.
90. Lawrence, T. L. (2004). Environmental factors associated with crash-related mortality injury among taxi drivers in New South Wales. Australia. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36, 905–908.
91. Hanowski, R. J., Wierwille, W. W., & Dingus, T. A. (2003). An on road study to investigate local / short haul trucking. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 35, 153-160.
92. Li, Z., Jiao, K., Chen, M., & Wang, C. (2004). Reducing the effects of driving fatigue with magnitopuncture stimulation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36(4), 501–505.
93. Kumashiro, M. (2005). Practical measurement of psychophysiological functions for determining workloads. Evaluation of Human Work, In: J.R. Wilson and N. Corlett (Eds.), London: Taylor and Francis, 605–627.
94. Borg, G. A. V. (1982). Psychological bases of perceived exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14(5), 377-381.
95. Otmani, S., Roge, J., & Muzet, A. (2005). Slepiness in professional drivers: Effect of age and time of day. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37, 930–937.
96. Lal, S. K. L., & Craig, A. (2001). A critical review of the psychophysiology of driver fatigue. Biological Psychology, 55(3), 173–194.
97. Philip, P., Taillard, J., Klein, E., Sagaspe, P., Charles, A., Davies, W. L., et al. 2003. Effect of fatigue on performance measured by a driving simulator in automobile drivers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55(3), 197–200.
98. Wylie, C. D., Shultz, T., Millar, J. C., Mitler, M. M., & Mackie, R. R. (1996). Commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue and alertness study: Project report. Technical Report FHWA-MC-97-002, Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC.
99. Philip, P., Sagaspe, P., Moore, N., Taillard, J., Charles, A., Guilleminault, C., et al. (2005). Fatigue, sleep restriction and driving performance. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 37(3), 473-478.
100. Philip, P., Sagaspe, P., Taillard, J., Moore, N., Guilleminault, C., Sanchez-Ortuno, M., et al. (2003). Fatigue, sleep restriction, and performance in automobile drivers: a controlled study in a natural environment. Sleep, 26(3), 277-280.
101. Yang, C. M., Lin, F. W., & Spielman, A. J. (2004). A standard procedure enhances the correlation between subjective and objective measures of sleepiness. Sleep, 27(2), 329-332.
102. Oron-Gilad, T., & Hancock, P. A. (2005). Road environment and driver fatigue. Proceedings of the 3rd International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design. Rockport, Maine, USA, 318-324.
103. Eriksson, M., & Papanikolopoulos, N. P. (2001). Driver fatigue: a vision-based approach to automatic diagnosis. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 9(15), 399-413.
104. Summala, H., Hakkanen, H., Mikkola, T., & Sinkkonen, J. (1999). Task effects on fatigue symptoms in overnight driving. Ergonomics, 42(6), 798-806.
105. Roge, J., Pebayle, T., & Muzet, A. (2001). Variations of the level of vigilance and of behavioural activities during simulated automobile driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33(2), 181-186.
106. Verwey, W. B., & Zaidel, D. M. (1999). Preventing drowsiness accidents by an alertness maintenance device. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(3), 199–211.
107. Gillberg, M., Kecklund, G., & A˚kerstedt, T. (1996). Sleepiness and performance of professional drivers in a truck simulator - comparisons between day and night driving. Journal of Sleep Research, 5, 12-15.
108. Fairclough, S. H. (1997). Monitoring driver fatigue via driving performance. In: Noy, Y.I. (Ed.), Ergonomics and Safety of Intelligent Driver Interfaces, Human Factors in Transportation, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 363–379.
109. A˚kerstedt, T., Peters, T., Anund, A., & Kecklund, G. (2005). Impaired alertness and performance while driving home from the night shift - a driving simulator study. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(1), 17–20.
110. Ranney, T. A., Simmons, L. A., & Masalonis, A. J. (1999). Prolonged exposure to glare and driving time: effects on performance in a driving simulator. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(6), 601–610.
111. Davies, D. R., & Parasuraman, R. (1982). The Psychology of Vigilance. London, England: Academic Press.
112. Wierwille, W. W., Rahimi, M., & Casali, J. G. (1985). Evaluation of 16 measures of mental workload using a simulated flight task emphasizing mediational activity. Human Factors, 27, 489-502.
113. Kramer, A. F. (1991). Physiological Metrics of Mental Workload: A Review of Recent Progress. In Damos, DL ed. Multiple-Task. Performance, Taylor and Francis, London, 279-328.
114. Kroemer, K. H. E., & Grandjean, E. (1999). Fitting the task to the human – A textbook of occupational ergonomics. 5th ed., London, Taylor & Francis.
115. A˚kerstedt, T., & Gillberg, M. (1990). Subjective and objective sleepiness in the active individual. International Journal of Neuroscience, 52(1-2), 29-37.
116. Lemke, M. (1982). Correlation between EEG and driver's actions during prolonged driving under monotonous conditions. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 14(1), 7-17.
117. Borg. G. V. (1970). Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale. Retrieved on March 22, 2007, from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/physical/measuring/perceived_exertion.htm.
118. Yoshitake, Y., MiyazakiM, U. H., & Moritani, T. (2001). Assessment of Lower - Back Muscle Fatigue using Electromyography, Mechanomyography, and near-infrared spectroscopy. European journal of applied physiology, 84(3), 174-179.
119. Perry, S. R., Housh, T. J., Johnson, G. O., Ebersole, K. T., Bull, A. J., Evetovich, T. K., et al. (2001). Mechanomyography, Electromyography, Heart rate, and Ratings of Perceived Exertion during Incremental Cycle Ergometry. Journal Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 41, 183-188.
120. Reyner, L. A., & Horne, J. A. (1998). Evaluation "in-car" countermeasures to sleepiness: cold air and radio. Sleep, 21(1), 46–51.
121. Durkin, J. L., Harvey, A., Hughson, R. L., & Callaghan, J. P. (2006). The effects of lumbar massage on muscle fatigue, muscle oxygenation, low back discomfort, and driver performance during prolonged driving, Ergonomics, 49(1), 28-44.
122. Parkes, A. M., Sexton, B. F., Burton, S., Hu, H. L., Shaw, J. A., Daggy, B. P. (2001). An evaluation of the effects of a functional energy drink on post-lunch and early evening driving performance. First International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, Aspen, Colo., 70-75.
123. Horne, J. A., & Baulk, S. D. (2004). Awareness of sleepiness when driving. Psychophysiology, 41, 161–165.
124. 交通部運輸研究所報告,"先進安全車輛系統發展之推動與研究",民國九十四年六月。
125. Von Jan, T., Karnahl, T., Seifert, K., Hilgenstock, J., & Zobel, R. (2005). Don't sleep and drive-VW's fatigue detection technology. In Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Washington, DC.
126. Rau, P. S. (2005). Drowsy driver detection and warning system for commercial vehicle drivers: field operational test design, data analyses, and progress, In Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, 6-9.
127. Rimini-Doering, M., Manstetten, D., Altmueller, T., Ladstaetter, U., & Mahler, M. (2001). Monitoring driver drowsiness and stress in a driving simulator. First International Driving Symposium on Human Factors in Driver Assessment, Training and Vehicle Design, 58–63.
128. Loughborough University. (2008). Retrieved on June 09, 2008, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/
129. Mobileye. (2007). Retrieved on June 09, 2008, http://www.mobileye.com/
130. Delphi Corporation. (2007). Retrieved on June 09, 2008, http://www.delphi.com/
131. Seeing Machines. (2008). faceLAB. Retrieved on June 09, 2008, from http://www.seeingmachines.com/
132. Williamson, A., & Chamberlain, T. (2005). Review of on-road driver fatigue monitoring devices. Research & Reports, NSW Injury Risk Management Research Centre, University of New South Wales.
133. Forbes, T. W. (1981). Human Factors in Highway Traffic Safety Research. Malabar, Florida: Robert E, Krieger Pub, 54.
134. Hoddes, E., Zarcone, V., Smythe, H., Phillips, R., & Dement, W. C. (1973). Quantification of sleepiness: A new approach. Psychophysiology, 10(4), 431–436.
135. Stein, A. C. (1995). Detecting fatigued drivers with vehicle simulators. In: Hartley, L. (Ed.), Driver Impairment, Driver Fatigue and Driving Simulation. Taylor & Francis, London, 133–148.
136. Brown, I. D. (1997). Prospects for technological countermeasures against driver fatigue. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 29(4), 525–531.
137. Jasper, H. H. (1958). The ten-twenty Electrode Systems of the International Federation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 371-375.
138. Hostens, I., & Ramon, H. (2005). Assessment of muscle fatigue in low level monotonous task performance during car driving. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 15, 266-274.
139. Cohen, R. A., & Sparling-Cohen, Y. A. (1993). Response selection and the executive control of attention. In R.A. Cohen (Ed.), the neuropsychology of attention. New York: Plenum Press, 49–73.
140. Lal, S. K. L., and Craig, A. (2002). Driver fatigue: Electroencephalography and psychological assessment. Psychophysiology, 39, 313-321.
141. Sallinen, M., Harma, M., Akila, R., Holm, A., Luukkonen, R., Mikola, H., et al. (2004). The effects of sleep debt and monotonous work on sleepiness and performance during a 12-h dayshift. Journal of Sleep Research, 13(4), 285-294.
142. Lee, H. C. (2002). The validity of Driving Simulator to Measure On-Road Driving Performance of Older Drivers. Presented at 24th Conference of Australian Institutes of Transport Research, Sydney, Australia, 4–6.
143. Lin, C. T., Wu, R. C., Liang, S. F., Chao, W. H., Chen, Y. J., & Jung, T. P. (2005). EEG-based Drowsiness Estimation for Safety Driving Using Independent Component Analysis. IEEE Trans on Circuits and Systems I, 52(12), 2726–2738.
144. Lumley, M., Roehrs, T., Asker, D., Zorick, F., & Roth, T. (1987). Ethanol and caffeine effects on daytime sleepiness & alertness. Sleep, 10, 306–312.
145. Wesensten, N. J., Belenky, G., Kautz, M. A., Thorne, D. R., Reichardt, R. M., & Balkin, T. J. (2002). Maintaining alertness and performance during sleep deprivation: modafinil versus caffeine. Psychopharmacology, 159(3), 238-247.
146. Patat, A., Rosenzweig, P., Enslen, M., Trocherie, S., Miget, N., Bozon, M. C., et al. (2000). Effects of a new slow release formulation of caffeine on EEG, psychomotor and cognitive function in sleep-deprived subjects. Human Psychopharmacology-Clinical and Experimental, 15, 153-170.
指導教授 鄭銘章、黃俊仁
(Ming-Chang Jeng、Jiun-Ren Hwang)
審核日期 2008-7-14
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明