博碩士論文 91447003 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:26 、訪客IP:18.204.2.231
姓名 陳慧娟(Hui-Chuan Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 人力資源管理研究所
論文名稱 程序擔責與參考架構訓練對績效考核正確度之影響-動機與能力整合觀點之實驗設計
(Improving the Accuracy of Performance rating: The effects of Process Accountability and Frame of Reference Training)
相關論文
★ 組織精簡與員工態度探討 - 以A公司人力重整計劃為例。★ 訓練成效評估及影響訓練移轉之因素探討----一項時間管理訓練之研究
★ 主管領導風格、業務員工作習慣及專業證照對組織承諾與工作績效之相關研究★ 研發專業人員職能需求之研究-以某研究機構為例
★ 人力資本、創新資本與組織財務績效關聯性之研究★ 企業人力資源跨部門服務HR人員之角色、工作任務及所需職能之研究
★ 新進保全人員訓練成效之評估★ 人力資源專業人員職能之研究-一項追蹤性的研究
★ 影響企業實施接班人計劃的成功因素★ 主管管理能力、工作動機與工作績效之關聯性探討─以A公司為例
★ 影響安全氣候因子之探討-以汽車製造業為例★ 台電公司不同世代員工工作價值觀差異及對激勵措施偏好之研究
★ 不同的激勵措施對員工工作滿足及工作投入之影響性分析★ 工作價值觀、工作滿足對組織承諾之影響(以A通訊公司研發人員為例)
★ 薪資公平知覺與組織承諾關係之探討-以內外控人格特質為干擾變項★ 改善活動訓練成效評量之研究
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 大多數組織的考核系統,缺乏擔責之控制與約束,造成多數考核結果的偏誤。這不但是績效考核失靈的主因,也對後續人力資源管理的影響甚鉅。不同於過去的研究,本研究把焦點放在探討「程序」擔責,對考核者行為產生的影響。另外,試圖驗證參考架構訓練,是否能協助考核者打出更正確的考核結果。最後,本研究整合了考核者動機與能力觀點,了解當考核者同時被要求程序擔責並接受參考架構訓練後,是否對考核品質產生正向的影響。本研究採2(有無承擔考核程序擔責)X 2(考核者訓練)的二因子實驗設計並募集了131名修習組織行為的大學生,對銷售人員進行績效考核。研究結果指出,程序擔責可減緩考核者對考核結果的寬容誤差,並對人際性績效構面之考核正確度有正向顯著的影響。參考架構訓練對各考核構面之考核正確度多有正向顯著的影響。整合考核者之動機與能力觀點,要求考核者程序擔責並接受參考架構訓練後,二者間的交互作用效果對考核正確度亦呈現了正向顯著的影響。最後,本研究針對研究結果進行討論並對後續研究與實務管理提出具體可行的建議。
摘要(英) Most performance appraisal systems lack the force of rater’s accountability. Lacking rater’s accountability leads a lot of rating bias. These results not only affect the function of performance appraisal but also affect the later relevant human resource practices. The main focus of this study is about the relationships between rater’s process accountability , frame of reference training and rating accuracy.One hundred and thirty one raters were assigned to process accountability or no process accountability condition and either to a FOR training or no FOR training condition. Results showed that when raters who were asked to take process accountability,the raters provided less rating leniency compared to raters who were not asked to take process accountability. In training condition, raters who were trained by FOR training provided higher rating accuracy compared to raters who were not trained by FOR training. Process accountability and FOR training both have positive inferences for rating results. The interaction effect of process accountability and FOR training is significant to the rating accuracy.The study results also provide some empirical implications.
關鍵字(中) ★ 考核程序擔責
★ 考核者動機
★ 參考架構訓練與考核正確度
關鍵字(英) ★ Leniency and Halo effect.
★ Process accountability
★ FOR training
★ Rater’s motivation
★ and Rating accuracy
論文目次 目 錄 頁 次
授權書 ………………………………………………………………………… I
中英文摘要 ………………………………………………………………………… II
誌謝 ………………………………………………………………………… III
表目錄 ………………………………………………………………………… VII
圖目錄 ………………………………………………………………………… IX
第一章 緒論………………………………………………………………… 1
第一節 研究背景……………………………………………………………… 1
第二節 研究動機……………………………………………………………… 2
第三節 研究問題……………………………………………………………… 7
第四節 研究目的……………………………………………………………… 8
第五節 研究預期貢獻……………………………………………………… 8
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………… 10
第一節 企業績效考核之品質與人力資源管理…………………………… 10
第二節 擔責的定義與類型………………………………………………… 17
第三節 考核擔責的影響…………………………………………………… 30
第四節 參考架構訓練的內涵對考核結果的影響………………………… 41
第五節 考核擔責與參考架構訓練之交互作用效果對考核品質的影響-考核者之動機與能力整合觀點………………………………
46
第三章 研究方法…………………………………………………………… 49
第一節 英語課程銷售人員之工作內容與所需職能……………………… 49
第二節 實驗參與者…………………………………………………………. 50
第三節 實驗設計與程序…………………………………………………… 50
第四節 變數與衡量………………………………………………………… 56
第五節 實驗操弄檢測……………………………………………………… 61
第四章 研究結果…………………………………………………………… 64
第一節 實驗之描述性統計結果…………………………………………… 64
第二節 程序擔責與參考架構訓練二因子變異數分析…………………… 72
第三節 各組多重比較之結果………………………………………………… 76
第四節 自變項對各別考核項目正確度影響之變異數分析結果 ?
77
第五章 結論與討論………………………………………………………… 80
第一節 結論與討論…………………………………………………………… 80
第二節 管理意涵…………………………………………………………… 83
第三節 研究限制與建議…………………………………………………… 85
參考文獻 …………………………………………………………………… 87
?
附錄 ………………………………………………………………………… 99
附錄一 英語課程銷售人員績效評估表…………………………………… 99
附錄二 考核者訓練…………………………………………………………… 101
附錄三 績效考核程序引導書面手冊……………………………………… 102
附錄四 程序擔責之書面報告……………………………………………… 103
附錄五 訓練組受試對象之訓練用教材…………………………………… 108
附錄六 銷售人員之銷售技巧考核之錄音內容…………………………… 115
附錄七 英語課程銷售人員之績效評估表格……………………………… 122
附錄八 英語課程銷售人員職能定義與尺度……………………………… 123
附錄九 專家對英語課程銷售人員之績效考核評分結果………………… 131
附錄十 英語課程銷售人員的績效指標之程度…………………………… 132
附錄十一 本實驗之操弄檢測…………………………………………………… 134
表目錄
表2-1 國內績效考核正確度或有效性之相關研究整理……………… 14
表2-2 擔責的定義…………………………………………………………… 20
表2-3 擔責的來源…………………………………………………………… 25
表2-4 擔責類型之整理……………………………………………………… 26
表2-5 考核擔責類型對績效考核結果影響之實證研究………………… 34
表2-6 結果擔責及程序擔責對決策行為影響之相關研究……………… 39
表2-7 參考架構訓練對考核者之影響的相關研究……………………… 44
表3-1 本各實驗組別與人數……………………………………………… 51
表3-2 三種錄音內容之腳本設計及專家評分平均分數………………… 54
表3-3 英語課程銷售人員績效考核表格………………………………… 59
表4-1 各實驗組別之描述性統計資料…………………………………… 64
表4-2 各實驗組別之年齡分佈…………………………………………… 65
表4-3 程序擔責之操弄檢測結果………………………………………… 66
表4-4 參考架構訓練之操弄檢測結果…………………………………… 66
表4-5 程序擔責X訓練組之程序擔責操弄檢測結果…………………… 66
表4-6 程序擔責X訓練組之參考架構訓練操弄檢測結果……………… 66
表4-7 四組原始考核分數之平均數與標準差…………………………… 67
表4-8 四組依變項之平均數與標準差…………………………………… 68
表4-9 程序擔責組觀察及記錄之績效行為類別………………………… 71
表4-10 變異數分析結果……………………………………………………… 72
表4-11 各組依變項之平均數多重比較(採LSD法)……………………… 75
表4-12 自變項對各別考核項目(正確度)影響之變異數分析…………… 78
圖目錄
圖1-1 本研究概念圖………………………………………………………… 7
圖2-1 影響擔責之過程的整合模型………………………………………… 24
圖2-3 考核者動機與能力的交互作用對考核品質的影響………………… 47
圖4-1 四組績效考核正確度分數比較……………………………………… 67
圖4-2 有無程序擔責之月暈效果、寛容誤差及正確度比較……………… 69
圖4-3 有無參考架構訓練之月暈效果、寛容誤差及正確度比較………… 70
圖4-4 程序擔責與參考架構訓練對考核正確度之交互作用圖………… 74
參考文獻 參考文獻
一、中文部份
﹝1﹞王國欽,1999,服務業員工績效考核正確度研究-從評估者觀點探討,私立中國文化大學國際企業管理研究碩士論文。
﹝2﹞王文博,1992,員工績效考核之探討,人事月刊,第十四期,頁56-61。
﹝3﹞林欽榮,1987,知覺對績效考核的影響,人事月刋, 第二十四期, 頁10-19。
﹝4﹞邱晧政,2006,量化研究與統計分析-SPSS中文視窗版貟料分析範例解析,五南出版社。
﹝5﹞高孔廉,1988, 客觀考核改進績效,現代管理月刋,第一三四期, 頁78-79。
﹝6﹞余坤東,1998,影響績效考核品質之因素探討認知的觀點,東吳經濟商學學報,第二十二期,頁101-120。
﹝7﹞李弘暉,吳瓊治,2004提昇績效考核可靠度品質之探討, 品質月刊,第四十之一期,頁93-97。
﹝8﹞吳清山、林天佑,2003,創新經營,教育資料與研究,頁134-135。
﹝9﹞羅火地,2001,績效考核制度-關鍵成功因素,資訊系統應用,國立台灣科技大學企業管理系碩士論文, 台北。
﹝10﹞羅淑惠,1987,如何使績效考核更為切實有效,人事月刊,第二十七期,頁30-34
二、英文部分
Ackerman, L., and Humphreys,L. G.(1990) “Individual differences theory in industrial and organizational psychology.” In M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough(eds) Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2nd E, 1, (pp.223-282.)CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Adelberg, S. and Baston, C. D. (1978).”Accountability and helping : when needs exceed resources. ”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36:343-350.
Antonioni, D. (1994). “The effects of feedback accountability on upward appraisal ratings. “ Personnel Psychology, 47:349-356
Arkes, H.R.,(1991). “Cost and benefits of judgemnet errors: Implications for debasing. Psychological Bulletin ,110:.486-498.
Athey, T. R., and McIntyre, R. M. (1987). “Effects of rater training on rater accuracy: levels -of-processing theory and social facilitation theory perspectives.” Journal of Applied psychology, 72:567-572.
Baumeister, R. F., and Leary, M. R. (1995). “The need to belong: desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.” Psychological Bulletin, 117:497-529.
Baumeister, R. F. (1982). “A. self-presentational view of social phenomena.” Psychological Bulletin, 9:3-16.
Beach, L.R., and Mitchell, T. R. (1978). “A contingency model for the selection of decision strategies.” Academy of Management Review, 3:439-449.
Beckner. D., and Highhouse, S., Hazer. J. T. (1998). “Effects of upward accountability andrating purpose on peer-rater inflation anddelay: a field experiment. ”Journal of Organizational Behavior. 19:209-214.
Bernardin, H. J., and Buckley, M. R. (1981). “Strategies in rater training. “ Academy of Management Review, 6:205-212
Bernardin, H. J., Buckley, M. R. , Tyler, C. I. and Wiese,D. S. (2001) “ A reconsideration of strategies for rater training.” In Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management. 221-274.
Bernardin, H. J., and Orban, J. A. (1990).”Leniency effect as a function of rating format, purpose for appraisal, andrater individual differences. ” Journal of Business and Psychology, 5:197-211.
Beu, D., and Buckley, M.R. (2001), “The hypothesized relationship between accountability and ethical behavior”, Journal of Business Ethics, 34:57-73.
Blumberg, H. H. (1972).” Communication of interpersonal evaluations.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23:157-162.
Bonner, S. E., Hastie, R., Sprinkle, G. B., and Young, S. M. (2000) “ A review of the effects of financial incentives on performance in laboratory tasks” Implications for Management accounting. 12:19-64.
Bradford , B.(2002) An examination of the instructional ,motivational andemotional elements of error training , Michigan State University, PHD Dissertation.
Brtek, M. D., and Motowidlo S. J.(2002). “Effects of procedure and outcome accountability on interviews validity”. Journal of Applied Psychology , 87:185-191.
Carnevale, P. J. D.(1985) “Accountability of group representative and intergroup relations.” Advances in Group Processes, 2:227-246.
Chaiken, S. (1980). “Heuristic versus systematic information processing andthe use of source versus message cues in persuasion.” Journal of personality and Social Psychology, 39:752-766.
Chatman, J. A.(1989) “Improving international organizational research: A model of person-organization fit.” , Academy of Management Review, 14:333-349.
Chirico, K. E., Buckley, M. R.,Wheerler, A. R., Facteau, J. D., ,Bernardin, H. J., Beu, D. S.( 2004) “A note on the need for true scores in frame-of-reference (FOR) Training Research.” Journal of Managerial Issues, 16:382-395
Cialdini, R., Levy, L. B., Herman, C. P., Kozlowski, L., and Petty, R. E. (1976) .”Elastic Shifts of opinion: determinants of direction anddurability”, Journal of Personality andSocial Psychology, in press.
Conlon, E. J., and Wolf, G.(1980). “The moderating effects of strategy visibility, andinvolvement on allocation behavior: an extension of staw's escalation paradigm, “,Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 26:172-192.
Cronbach, L. J. (1955). “Processes affecting scores on understanding of others and assumed similarity.” Psychological Bulletin, 52:177-193.
Cummings, L. L., andAnton, R. J. (1990). “The logical andappreciative dimensions of accountability” , in Srivastva, S., Cooperrider, DL. et al (Eds), Appreciative management andleadership: the power of positive thought andaction in organizations, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, 257-86.
Curtis. A. B., Harvey R. D., Ravden. D. (2005). “Source of political distortions in performance appraisals :appraisal purpose andrater accountability.” Group and Organization Management, 30:.42-60
Cvetkovicsh, G. (1978)” Cognitive accommodation , language, and social responsibility.” Social Psychology, 2:149-155.
Decenzo, D.A., and Robbins, (2005). Fundatmentals of Human Resource Management(8th ed) ,Hobbken, New Jersey, Wiley.
Dobbins, G., and Russell, J. (1986). “The biasing effects of subordinate likableness on leaders' responses to poor performers: A laboratory anda field study.” Personnel Psychology, 39:759–777.
Doney, P.M., and Armstrong, G.M. (1996). “Effects of accountability on symbolic information search andinformation analysis by organizational buyers”, Journal of Academy of Marketing Science, 24:pp. 57-65.
Dose, J. J., and Klimoski, R. J. (1995). “Doing the right thing in the workplace: responsibility in the face of accountability ", Employee Rights andResponsibilities Journal, 8:35-56.
Escalas, J. E., and Luce, M. F.(2004). “Understanding the effects of process-focused versus outcome-focused thought in response to advertising”, Journal of Consumer Research, 31:274-285.
Fandt, P. M., and Ferris, G. R. (1990) “The management of information and impressions: when employees behave opportunistically.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 45:140-158.
Feldman (1994) “On the synergy between theory andapplication social cognition and performance appraisal “. In R. S. Wyer andT. K. Srull(Eds).Handbook of social cognition 2nd ed. 2 (pp.339-397). Hillsdale NJ. Erlbaum.
Ferris, G. R., Mitchell, T. R., Canan, P. J. Frink, D. D., and Hopper, H. (1995). "Accountability in human resources systems." In: G. R. Ferris, S. D. Rosen, and D. T. Barnum(Eds.) Handbook of Human resource management (pp. 175-196).Oxford, UK: Blackwell publishers.
Festinger, L. (1964). Conflict, decision, anddissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Fisher, C.D. (1979). "Transmission of positive and negative feedback to subordinates: a laboratory investigation", Journal of Applied Psychology, 64:533-40.
Fletcher, C., and Perry, E. I. (2001) "Performance appraisal andfeedback: A consideration of national culture anda review of contemporary research andfuture trends." Eds N. Anderson, D. S. Ones, II. K. Sinangil and C. Viswesvaran. In Handbook of Industrial , Work and Organizational Psychology(Vol. 1) :Personnel Psychology (pp.127-144.)
Ford, J. K., and Weldon, E. (1981).”Forewarning andaccountability: effects on memory-based interpersonal judgments.” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7:264-268.
Fox, F.V., and Staw, B.M. (1979) “The trapped administrator: effects of job insecurity andpolicy resistance upon commitment to a course of action”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 24:449-71.
Frink, D. D., and Ferris, G. R. (1998). “Accountability, impression management andgoal setting in the performance evaluation process. “ Human Rlations, 51:1259-1283.
Frink, D. D., and Klimoski, R. J. (1998). “Toward a theory of accountability in organization andHuman resource management.” In G. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel andhuman resources management. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Geen, R. G.,(1991).” Social motivation. “Annual Review of Psychology, 42:377-399.
Ginzell, L. E., Kramer, R. M., and Sutton R. I. (1992). “OIM as a reciprocal influence process: The neglected role of the organizational audience.” Research in Organizational Behavior, 15:pp.227-266.
Glen, R. M. (1990). “Performance appraisal: An unnerving yet useful process.” Public Personnel Management, 19: pp.1-10.
Gordon, R. A., Rozelle, R. M.and Baxter, J. C. (1998). “The effect applicant age, job level andaccountability on the evaluation of job applicants. “ Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 41:20-33.
Gordon, R., and Stuecher, U. (1992).”The effect of anonymity andincreased accountability on the linguistic complexity of teaching evaluations.” Journal of Psychology, 12:639-649.
Grover, V. (1993). “An empirically derived model for the adoption of customer-based interorganizational systems”, In Decision Sciences , 24:603-639
Heider, F. (1958). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hui, M. K., Zhao, X.,Fan, X., andK. Au.(2004). “When does the service process matter? A test of two competing theories”, Journal of Consumer Research, 31:465-75
Ilgen, D. R., and Knowlton, W. A. (1980). “Performance attribution effects on feedback from supervisors. “, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 25:441-456.
Jaramillo, F., and Marshall, G. W. (2004) . “Critical success factors in the personal selling process: An empirical investigation of Ecuadorian salespeople in the banking industry” .The International Journal of Bank Marketing, 22 :9-25
Jawahar, I. M., and Williams, C. R. (1997). “Where all the children are above average: The performance appraisal purpose effect.” Personnel Psychology, 50:905-925
Jensen, M., and Meckling. (1976). “Theory of the firm: managerial behavior, agency costs, andcapital structure”, Journal of Financial Economics, 3:305-360.
Jones, R. G. (1992). Attention allocation choices as an influence on accuracy and discriminant validity of observational ratings: When are we diligent? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, ColumbusJones, E.E., and Wortman, C. (1973). Ingratiation: An attributional approach. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
Katz, D., and Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley.
Keefe, T. J.(1988) Frame of reference training : A Cognitive Approach. Ph. D Dissertation University of New York a Buffalo.
Kiesler, C.A. (1971) The Psychology of Commitment, Academic Press, New York, NY.
Klimoski, R. J.(1972) “The effects of intragroup forces on intergroup conflict resolution.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision process, 41:20-33.
Klimoski, R. J., and Ash, R. A.(1974) “Accountability andnegotiator behavior. “,Organizational Behavior and Human Performance , 11:409-425.
Klimoski, R., and Inks, L. (1990). “Accountability forces in performance appraisal. “,Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process, 45:194-208.
Lerner. J. S., and Tetlock, P. E.(1999) “Accounting for the effects of accounatbility. “,Psychological Bulletin, 125:255-275.
Levin, I. P, Schneider, S. L.andGaeth, G. J.(1998) “All frames are not created equal: A typology and critical analysis of framing effects”,Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 76:149-88.
Lievens, F., and Sanchez. J. I., (2007) “Can training improve the quality of inferences made by raters in competency modeling? A quasi-experiment “, Journal of Applied Psychology,  92:812 -829.
Locke, E.A., and Latham .G. P., (1990) Goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
London, M., Smither, J. W., and Adsit, D. J. (1997)” Accountability :the Achilles’ heel of multisource feedback. “ ,Group and Organization Magement , 22:162-184.
Long, C. P., Burton ,R. M. and Cardinal, L. B.(2002) “Three controls are better than one: Computational modelof complex control ”, Computational and Mathematical Organizational Theory, 8:197-220
Longenecker, C. O. (1989) “Truth or consequences: Politics and performance appraisals. “,Business Horizons, 32:76-82.
Longenecker, C. O., and Gioia, D. A. (1994).” The politics of executive appraisals.”, Journal of Compensation and Benefits, 10:.5-11.
Longenecker, C. Ï., Sims, H. P., and Gioia, D. A. (1987). “Behind the mask: The politics of performance appraisal.” Academy of Management Executive, 1:188-193.
Maier, N.R.F. (1955). Psychology in industry. Boston, MA: Houghton - Mifflin.
McAlister, D. W., Mitchell, T.R.and Beach, L. R. (1979), “The contigency model for the selection of decision strategies: An empirical test of the effects of significance , accountability, andreversibility. “Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 24:228-244.
Mero, N. P., and Motowidlo, S. J. (1995). “Effects of rater accountability on the accuracy andthe favorability of performance ratings.” Journal of Applied Psychology, 80:517-524.
Mitchell, T. W., and Klimoski, R. (1984). “Accountability bias in performance appraisal”(Working Paper Series in Industrial/Organizational Psychology). Columbus: Ohio State University.
McIntyre R. M. and Smith, D. E. and Hassett, C.E.(1984). “Accuracy of Performance Ratings as Affeted by Rater Training and Perceived Purpose of Rating.”Journal of Applied Psychology, 69:147-156
Murphy, K. R., and Cleveland, J. N. (1995). Performance Appraisal : An organizatioanl perspective. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Murphy, K. R.,and Cleveland, J. N. (1995). Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, andgoal-based perspectives. ThousandOaks, CA: Sage.
Murphy, K. R. and Kellam K. L.(1984)."Effects of the Purpose of Rating on Accuracy in Observing Teacher Behavior and Elvaluating Teaching Performance.”Journal of Educational Psychology, 76:45-54.
O’ Reilly, C. A. III and Chatman , J.A.(1994) ”Working smarter and harder :A Longitudinal Study of Managerial Success. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39:603-627.
Ouigley, N. R., Tesluk, P. E., Locke, E. A., Bartol, K. M, (2007) ”A multilevel investigation of the motivational mechanisms underlying knowledge sharing andperformance. “ Organization Science, 18:71-91.
Palmer, J.K., and Feldman, J. K. (2005). “Accountability and need for cognition effects on contrast, halo, and accuracy in performance ratings.”, The Journal of Psychology , 3:127-139
Pesta, B. J. ,  Kass, D. S. ,  Dunegan, K. J. (2005) “ Image theory and the appraisal of employee performance: To screen or not to screen?” Journal of Business and Psychology, 19:341-360 
Pinder,C. (1984) Work motivation: theory issues and applications . Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.
Pulakos, E. D. (1984) “A comparison of rater trainign programs. error training andaccuracy training.”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 69:581-588.
Pulakos, E. D. (1986) “The development of training programs to increase accuracy with different rating tasks.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Process. 38:79-91
Roch, S. G., Ayman Roya, Newhouse Noelle, Harris, M. (2005). “Effect of indentifiability, rating audience, andconscientiousness on rating level”, International Journal of Selection andAssessment ,13:53-69
Roch, S.G., and Woehr, D. J. (1997). “The effect of rater motivation on the accuracy of performance appraisal:” an NPI approach poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Chicago, IL, August.
Roberts, G. E. ( 1998) “Perspectives on enduring andemerging issues in performance appraisals.”, Public Personnel Management, 27:301-320.
Roberts, N. (2002). “Keeping public officials accountable through dialogue: resolving the accountability paradox. “Public Administration Review, 62:658-669.
Rozelle, R.M., and Baxter, J. C.(1981). “Influence of role pressures on the perceiver: Judgments of videotaped interviews varying judge account ability andresponsibility.” Journal of Applied psychology, 66:437-441.
Salvemini, N. J., and Reilly, R. R.(1993). “The influence of rater motivation on assimilation effects andaccuracy in performance ratings.” Organizational behavior and Human Decision Process, 55:41-60.
Scherer, R. F,  Owen,C. L ,Brodzinski, J. D .(1991) ”rater andratee sexeffects on performance evaluations in a field setting a multivariate analysis: Method participants performance appraisal instrument andprocedure results discussion andsupplementary analysis conclusions references. “ , Management Communication Quarterly,  5:174-192
Schleicher, D. J., and Day, D. V. (1998). “A cognitive evaluation of frame-of-reference rater training : content andprocess Issues. “ Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 73:76-101
Schlenker, B. R. (1980). Impression Management : The self concept, social identity, andinterpersonal relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks /Cole.
Schlenker, B. R. (1982).” Translating actions into attitudes: An identity-analytic approach to the explanation of social conduct”. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 15:151-181. New York: Academic Press.
Siegel-Jacobs, K., and Yates, J. F.(1996). “Effects of procedural andoutcome accountability on judgement quality.”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65:1-17.
Simonson, I., and Nye, P. (1992). “The effect of accountability on susceptibility to decision errors.”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 51:416-446.
Simonson. I., and Nye. P. (1992). ” Deescalation strategies: A comparison of techniques for reducing commitment to losing courses of action.”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 77:419-426.
Simonson, I., and Staw. B. M. (1992). “Escalation Strategies : A comparison of Techniques for reducing for commitment to losing course of action. “, Journal of Applied Psychology, 77:419-426.
Smith, D.E. (1986). “Training programs for performance appraisal” A Review of Management, 28-40.
Smith, V. L., and Walker, M. (1993) “Monetary rewards and decision cost in experimental economics, Economic Inquiry, 31:245-261.
Spencer, Jr. L. M., & Spencer S. M. (1993) Competence at Work. New York: Wiley.
Stamoulis, D.T., and Hauenstein, N. M. A. (1993). “rater training andrating accuracy: training for dimensional accuracy versus training for ratee differentiation “. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78:994-1003.
Staw, B., and Ross, J. (1980). “Commitment in an experimenting society: A study of the attribution of leadership from administrative scenarios. “ Journal of Applied Psychology, 65:249-260.
Sulsky, L. M., and Balzer. W. K. (1988).” Meaning and measurement of performance rating accuracy: some methodological andtheoretical concerns. “ Journal of Applied Psychology , 73:pp.497-506.
Sulsky, L. M., and Day, D. V. (1992). “Frame training andcognitive categorization: An empirical investigation of rater memory Issues”, Journal of Applied Psychology,77:501-510.
Tessor, A., and Rosen, S. (1975).”The reluctance to transmit bad news”, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , 8:193-232.
Tetlock, P. E., (1983a). “Accountability andcomplexity of thought”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45:74-83.
Tetlock, P. E., (1983b). “Accountability andthe perseverance of first impressions.” Social Psychology Quarterly, 46:285-292.
Tetlock, P. E., (1985) “Accountability: The neglected social context of judgement andchoice.” In B.M.Staw and L. Cumings (Eds,) Research in Organizational Behavior , 7:297-332 Greenwich.l C.T: JAAI press.
Tetlock, P.E. (1985). “Accountability: The neglected social context of judgment andchoice: toward a social contingency model”, In M. P. Zanna(ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25:331-377.
Tetlock, P. E. (1992) “The Impact of accountability on judgment andchoice: toward a social contigency model”, In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25:331-376.
Tetlock, P.E., and Boettger, R. (1989). “Accountability: social magnifier of the dilution effect.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57:388-398.
Tetlock, P. E., Skitka, L., andBoettger, R. (1989) “Social andcognitive strategies for coping with accountability: conformity, complexity, andbolstering “, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57:632-640.
Tetlock, P.E. and Kim, J. I. (1987) “Accountability andjudgment processes in a personality prediction task”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52:700-9.
Tyler, K. (1997). “Preparing managers to become career coaches”, HR Magazine, 42:98-101.
Uggerslev, K. L, and Sulsky, L. M.(2008) “ Using frame-of-reference training to understandthe implications of rater idiosyncrasy for rating accuracy”
Journal of Applied Psycholog, 93: 711 -734
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: Wiley.
Weigold, M. E, and Schlenker, B. R. (1991). “Accountability andrisk taking” ,Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17:25-29.
Williams, K. J., DeNisi ,A. S., . Blencoe, A. G.,Cafferty, L. (1985). “The role of appraisal purpose: Effects of purpose information acquisition andutilization.” Organization/al Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35:314-339.
Woehr, D. J. (1994). “understanding fram-of-reference Training: the of training on recall of performance information “ Journal of Applied Psychology, 79:525-534.
Woehr, D. J., and Huff, A. I. (1994) “Rater training for performance appraisal: A quantitative review.” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67:189-205.
Zhang, Y. L., and Mittal, V. (2005). “Decision difficulty: effects of procedural andoutcome accountability” . Journal of Consumer Research, l:465-462.
指導教授 林文政(Wen-Jen Lin) 審核日期 2009-7-12
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明