博碩士論文 91523022 詳細資訊




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姓名 彭湘茹(Hsiang-Ru Peng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 通訊工程學系
論文名稱 具有限數量波長轉換節點的分波多工網路之群播波長分配與容量計算研究
(Study of Wavelength Assignment and Capacity Calculation in DWDM Network with Finite Wavelength Conversion Nodes)
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摘要(中) 近年來,隨著高速多媒體應用的出現,例如:視訊會議、隨選視訊等,使得網路訊務大量增加。以分波多工技術為基礎的光網路之高頻寬特性可以滿足此需求。而這些新興的多媒體應用都需要使用群播技術以完成資料的傳輸,因此,必須在光網路中提供群播傳輸服務。
波長是光網路中重要的資源之一,因此波長分配的恰當與否將會是影響光網路容量的主要因素。相關研究指出使用波長轉換可以更有效地使用波長進而提升網路有效使用率,但是波長轉換器較為複雜且成本較高,所以在網路架構設計時所使用的波長轉換器是有限的。
在本論文中,我們分析在具有限數量波長轉換器的分波多工網路上的群播連線之波長分配,並以計算影響網路容量多寡的方式來分析不同的波長分配對網路的影響。本論文透過分段的方式提出影響最小優先(Minimum-Effect-First)的波長分配方法,利用此方法選擇群播路徑之波長,可降低對網路容量的影響。同時我們也將模擬結果與首次適合(First-Fit)及隨機(Random)選取等波長分配的方法進行網路容量減少多寡的比較。由模擬結果看出,無論在任何情況下,本論文所提出的影響最小優先的波長分配方式都可以得到較佳的效能。
摘要(英) Recently, the advent of high-speed multimedia applications, such as video-conferencing and video-on-demand, has made internet traffic increased dramatically. By using Wavelength Division Multiplexing, optical links provide higher capacity than traditional network and can meet the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth. Those applications need multicast to deliver information for multiple destinations simultaneously, so the multicast capability in optical network is required.
Wavelength is one of important resource in optical network. Wavelength assignment is mainly an influential factor that affects the network capacity. Employing wavelength conversion can arrange wavelength more effectively to increase network utilization. But the wavelength converter is still complex and expensive. Thus, currently, it is not possible to have all network nodes be equipped with wavelength conversion capability. The number of wavelength converters is finite in practical design of network architecture.
In this thesis, we analyze multicast wavelength assignment in DWDM network with finite wavelength converters nodes and analyze network state for different wavelength assignment by calculating network residual capacity. We propose a Minimum-Effect-First (MEF) wavelength assignment algorithm to decrease the effect of effective network capacity. We compare MEF to First-fit and Random on network capacity. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MEF scheme illustrates better performance than First-Fit and Random in any condition.
關鍵字(中) ★ 群播
★ 分波多工
★ 網路容量
★ 波長分配
★ 波長轉換
關鍵字(英) ★ Network capacity
★ Multicast
★ WDM
★ Wavelength assignment
★ Wavelength conversion
論文目次 目錄
摘要 i
目錄 iii
圖目錄 v
表目錄 v
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究動機 1
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 相關文獻回顧 4
2.1 光網路 4
2.1.1 光網路之發展 4
2.1.2 分波多工/密集分波多工(WDM/DWDM) 5
2.1.3 光元件技術 8
2.1.4 通用多重通訊協定標籤交換(GMPLS) 10
2.2 路由與波長分配(RWA) 13
2.2.1 光路徑(Lightpath) 14
2.2.2 路由 16
2.2.3 波長分配 16
2.2.4 波長轉換 17
2.3 群播波長分配(Multicast Wavelength Assignment) 19
2.3.1 光樹(Light-tree) 19
2.3.2 網路容量最大化的波長分配(WA-MNC) 20
2.3.3 最大化網路容量的群播波長分配(MWA-MNC) 21
第三章 系統架構及演算法 24
3.1 系統架構 24
3.2 分段切割 25
3.2.1 分段容量 26
3.2.2 有效分段 28
3.2.3 群播樹群組 32
3.3 波長分配與容量計算 35
3.3.1 網路容量計算 35
3.3.2 波長選擇方式 37
3.4 具有限波長轉換器DWDM網路的群播波長分配 38
第四章 模擬環境及結果分析 45
4.1 模擬環境與假設說明 45
4.2 模擬結果分析 46
4.2.1. 模擬一:分析波長分配與可能連線請求數量的關係 47
4.2.2. 模擬二:分析波長分配與目的節點數量的關係 51
4.2.3. 模擬三:波長分配與可用波長數量的關係 56
第五章 結論與未來研究 59
參考文獻 61
參考文獻 [1] Walter Goralski, “Optical Networking & WDM,” McGraw-Hill, 2001
[2] B.M ukherjee, “WDM optical networks: progress and challenges,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol.18, no.10, Oct. 2000, pp. 1810-1824.
[3] S. Subramania and R. Barry, “Wavelength assignment in fixed routing WDM networks,” Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Communications, vol. 1, 1997, pp. 406–410.
[4] J. Wang and B. Chen, “Dynamic Wavelength Assignment for Multicast in All-Optical WDM Networks to Maximize the Network Capacity,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 21, no. 8, Oct. 2003, pp. 1274-1284.
[5] Eric Mannie et al., “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching Architecture,” Internet Draft, work in progress, May, 2003.
[6] P. Iovanna et al., “A Traffic Engineering System for Multilayer Networks Based on the GMPLS Paradigm,” IEEE Network, March/April 2003, pp.28-37.
[7] Debanjan Saha et al., “The optical network control plane: state of the standards and deployment,” IEEE Optical Communications, Aug. 2003, pp.S29-S34.
[8] L. Berger et al., “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Resource ReserVation Protocol-Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) Extensions,” IETF, RFC 3473, Jan. 2003.
[9] P. Ashwood-Smith et al., “Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Signaling Constraint-based Routed Label Distribution Protocol (CR-LDP) Extensions,” IETF, RFC 3472, Jan. 2003.
[10] I. Chlamtac, A. Ganz, and G. Karmi, “Lightpath Communications: A Novel Approach to High Bandwidth Optical WANs,” IEEE Transactions on Communications vol. 40, no. 7, July 1992, pp. 1171-1182.
[11] H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A Review of Routing and Wavelength-Assignment Approaches for Wavelength-Routed Optical WDM Networks,” Optical Network, vol. 1, no. 1, Jan. 2000, pp. 47–60.
[12] R. Ramaswami and G. Sasaki, “Multiwavelength Optical Networks with Limited Wavelength Conversion,” IEEE Transactions on Network, vol. 6, no. 6, Dec. 1998, pp. 744-754.
[13] S. Subramaniam, M. Azizoglu, and A. K. Somani, “All-Optical Networks with Sparse Wavelength Conversion,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking, vol. 4, no. 4, Aug. 1996, pp. 544-557.
[14] B. Li, X. W. Chu, and K. Sohraby, "Routing and Wavelength Assignment vs. Wavelength Converter Placement in All-Optical Networks," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 41, no. 8, August 2003, pp. S22-S28.
[15] J. Strand, R. Doverspike, and G. Li, “Importance of Wavelength Conversion in an Optical Network,” Optical Networks Magazine, May/June 2001, pp. 33-44.
[16] J. He, S. Chan, and D. Tsang, “Routing and Wavelength Assignment for WDM Multicast Networks,” in Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conf., vol.3, Nov. 2001, pp.1536–1540.
[17] X. Jia, X. Hu, L. Ruan, and J. Sun, “Multicast Routing, Load Balancing, and Wavelength Assignment on Tree of Rings,” IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 6, no. 2, Feb. 2002, pp.79–81.
[18] L. H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light-trees: Optical Multicasting for Improved Performance in Wavelength-Routed Networks,” IEEE Commun.Mag., vol. 37, no. 2, Feb. 1999, pp. 67–73.
[19] G. N. Rouskas, “Optical Layer Multicast: Rationale, Building Blocks, and Challenges,” IEEE Network, Jan. /Feb. 2003, pp. 60-65.
[20] R. Malli, X. Zhang, and C. Qiao, “Benefit of Multicasting in All-Optical Networks,” In Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 3531, Nov. 1998, pp. 209–220.
[21] K. Zhu, H. Zang, B. Mukherjee, “A Comprehensive Study on Next-Generation Optical Grooming Switches,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 21, no. 7, Sep. 2003, pp. 1173-1186.
[22] Y. Zhu, G. N. Rouskas, and H. G. Perros, “A Comparison of Allocation Policies in Wavelength Routing Networks,” Photonic Network Communications Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, Aug. 2000, pp.265–293.
指導教授 陳彥文(Yen-Wen Chen) 審核日期 2004-7-12
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