博碩士論文 91532018 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳亮光(Liang-Kuang Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊工程學系在職專班
論文名稱 影像感測器的邊界導向式彩色像素內插法
(An edge directed interpolation method for CCD color filter array)
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摘要(中) 為了降低成本,目前大部份數位相機使用單晶片感光元件及一片三色交錯濾光鏡。每一感光像素只有一種顏色,因此每一顏色頻道必需各自內插出缺少的顏色像素。已有多種內插法被提出,但各種方法各有其優缺點,其中最大的問題在於諸多方法都會產生邊界模糊及彩色雜點等不良現象。
我們提出一個改良的演算法,以偵測邊界為優先,再沿著邊界取鄰近點內插,避免橫跨邊界,以降低邊界模糊及彩色雜點的問題。我們以數張影像作實驗,並與其他數種內插法相比,本方法確實可大幅改善及提昇影像品質。特別是在高頻區域,例如條紋或欄杆等,邊界不僅保持清晰而且彩色雜點的狀況也減少許多。在運算量方面,排除複雜的乘除法運算,適合應用在低成本的硬體上。不論是影像品質或低運算量,我們的方法皆比其他方法有更好的表現。
摘要(英) In order to reduce cost, most digital still cameas use a single-chip sensor and covered with a color filter array. There is only one color at each pixel, so the other two missing color must be interpolated in every color channel. Many interpolation algorithms have been proposed, but they have advantages and disadvantages respectively. The most problem is blurry edge and false color.
We proposed an improved algorithm, which is edge directed and interpolate pixels along the edge to reduce blurry edge and false color. We experiment on several images and compare with other interpolation algorithms. The experiment result shows our proposed soultion surely improve the quality of interpolated images. Especially in high frequent area, the edges keep sharp and false color is reduced. We keep complicated calculation away and the algorithim is suited for apply to low-cost hardware. Our proposed algorithm makes better performance than other ones.
關鍵字(中) ★ 彩色濾波器陣列
★ 影像感測器
★ 像素內插
關鍵字(英) ★ demosaicing
★ bayer pattern
★ color filter array
★ interpolation
論文目次 摘要 iii
Abstract iv
誌謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 系統概觀 4
1.3 論文架構 7
第二章 相關研究 8
2.1 感光元件 8
2.1.1 電荷藕合元件 8
2.1.2 互補性氧化金屬半導體 9
2.2 感光元件彩色成像原理 10
2.2.1 彩色濾光片陣列 11
2.2.2 多晶片 11
2.2.3 三濾鏡 12
2.2.4 三層感光元件 13
2.3 彩色像素內插法 14
2.3.1 雙線性內插法 15
2.3.2 固定色調內插法 16
2.3.3 色彩差異內插法 17
2.3.4 二階修正的線性內插法 19
2.3.5 梯度變量內插法 21
第三章 邊界偵測 24
3.1 邊界性質 24
3.2 邊界檢測方式 26
3.3 檢測值計算法 28
3.4 臨界值設定 30
第四章 色彩內插 32
4.1 垂直向與水平向的內插 32
4.2 不分方向的內插 35
第五章 實驗與討論 37
5.1 臨界值比較 40
5.2 不同方法品質的比較 42
5.3 不同方法PSNR的比較 47
5.4 不同方法運算時間比較 51
5.5 討論 53
第六章 結論及未來展望 54
參考文獻 55
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[2] Adams, J. E. Jr., "Design of practical color filter array anterpolation algorithms for digital cameras," in Proc. SPIE. Real-Time Imaging II, Apr. 1997, vol.3028, pp.117-125.
[3] Bayer, B. E., Color Imaging Array, United States Patent, 3971065, 1976.
[4] Chang, E., S. Cheung, and D. Pan, "Color filter array recovery using a threshold-based variable number of gradients," in Proc. SPIE. Sensors, Cameras, and Applications for Digital Photography, Mar. 1999, vol.3650, pp.36-43.
[5] Chang, L. and Y. P. Tan, "Effective use of spatial and spectral correlations for color filter array demosaicking," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol.50, no.1, 2004.
[6] Cok, D. R., Signal Processing Method and Apparatus for Producing Interpolated Chrominance Values in A Sampled Color Image Signal, United States Patent, 4642678, 1986.
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[8] Go, J., K. Sohn, and C. Lee, "Interpolation using neural networks for digital still cameras," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron, vol.46, no.3, pp.610-616, 2000.
[9] Gunturk, B. K., Y. Altunbasak, and R. M. Mersereau, "Color plane interpolation using alternating projections," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.11, no.9, pp.997-1013, 2002.
[10] Hamilton, J. F. Jr. and J. E. Adams, Adaptive Color Plane Interpolation in Single Sensor Color Electronic Camera, United States Patent, 5629734, 1997.
[11] Hibbard, R. H., Apparatus and Method for Adaptively Interpolating A Full Color Image Utilizing Luminance Gradients, United States Patent, 5382976, 1995.
[12] Hel-Or, Y. and D. Keren, "Demosaicing of color images using steerable wavelets," HP Labs Israel, Tech. Rep, 2002.
[13] Hirakawa, K. and T. Parks, "Adaptive homogeneity-directed demosaicing algorithm," in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, Sep. 2003, vol.3, pp.669-672.
[14] Keys, R. G., "Cubic convolution interpolation for digital image processing," IEEE Trans. Acoustic, Speech and Signal Processing, vol.29, no.6, pp.1153-1160, 1981.
[15] Kimmel, R., "Demosaicing: image reconstruction from color CCD samples," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.8, no.9, pp.1221-1228, 1999.
[16] Li, X. and M. T. Orchard, "New edge directed interpolation," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.10, no.10, pp.1521-1527, 2001.
[17] Pei, S. C. and I. K. Tam, "Effective color interpolation in CCD color filter arrays using signal correlation," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol.13, no.6, pp.503-513, 2003.
[18] Sakamoto, T., C. Nakanishi, and Tomohiro Hase, "Software pixel interpolation for digital still cameras suitable for a 32-bit MCU," IEEE Trans. Consumer Electronics, vol.44, no.4, pp.1342-1352, 1998.
[19] http://r0k.us/graphics/kodak/
[20] http://wikipedia.org
[21] http://www.digital.idv.tw
[22] http://www.foveon.com
[23] http://www-ise.stanford.edu/~tingchen/main.htm
指導教授 曾定章(Din-Chang Tseng) 審核日期 2006-6-26
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