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姓名 葉南慶(nan-ching Yeh)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 太空科學研究所
論文名稱 衛星資料在夏季午後對流潛勢環境之初步分析
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摘要(中) 摘 要
台灣地區夏季期間,常有劇烈午後熱對流的發生,這種對流系統發生的機制,是氣象學家及預報人員相當感到興趣的議題之一。由於午後熱對流發展快速,單單從傳統的觀測資料是不容易做到事前的預警,因此往往造成人、事、物的損傷。尤其台灣地區四面臨海,建立衛星觀測資料之應用能力更顯得重要。本研究主要目的是,建立一套適合台灣附近區域使用的NOAA(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)繞極衛星大氣溫濕垂直剖面反演方法,並將其結果應用在夏季午後熱對流發生之有利大氣條件分析。
在大氣溫濕剖面反演結果顯示,NOAA衛星反演850、700、500、400及300 hPa大氣溫度(露點)的均方根誤差及相關係數分別為2.47(4.43)、2.18(3.13)、1.76(5.07)、1.97(5.73)、2.05 °C(3.73 °C)及0.83、0.82、0.71、0.76、0.67。在溫度方面,雲覆蓋量小於50%的情況下,各層均方根誤差平均約2.0 °C,標準差約0.5°C,在露點方面,雲覆蓋量小於50%的情況下,各層均方根誤差平均約4.3°C,標準差約0.9°C。
本研究利用衛星資料計算台灣地區附近大氣穩定指數及500 hPa水氣含量,並將其結果應用在實際的個案分析之中,結果顯示:大氣水氣含量的多寡及穩定度的狀態,對夏季午後對流系統的生成與發展同樣的重要。此外藉由2003年6 ~ 9月441個樣本分析,計算出大氣穩定度配合水氣資訊所訂定預測對流降水的門檻值,將此門檻值應用於非2003年的470個獨立個案,也有相當不錯的結果,初步的分析結果顯示,其定量預報對流降水準確率可達約85%,此結果似乎可以提升午後熱對流的預報能力。
摘要(英) Intense convections often occur over the Taiwan area during the afternoons of summer. The relevant mechanisms behind this weather phenomenon is one of the various issues that strongly attracts the attention of meteorologists and forecasters. As the afternoon convection development is very rapid, data observed by traditional methods alone can not produce an early warning, which often results in serious damages to the environment and livelihood of people. Due to the lack of traditional radiosonde observational data near the waters of the Taiwan area, it further emphasizes the importance of the applications in satellite monitoring. The major purpose of this research is to establish a method for the polar-orbiting NOAA-15 satellite in retreiving temperature and dew point profiles over the Taiwan area, then we apply this result in convention environment during the afternoon in summer.
The results of retrieval using temperature and dew point profiles show that the root mean square errors and correlation coefficients of temperature (the dew point) are 2.47 (4.13) 、2.18 (3.13) 、1.76 (5.07) 、1.97 (5.73) 、2.05 (3.73) and 0.83、0.82、0.71、0.76、0.67. About temperature, the r.m.s. error in each layer is nearly 2.0 degrees when the cloud coverage is less than 50% and the standard deviation is about 0.5 degree. Besides, about dew point, the r.m.s. error in each layer is nearly 4.3 degrees when the cloud coverage is less than 50% and the standard deviation is about 0.9 degree.
In this study, we utilize the NOAA satellite data to estimate the atmospheric stability around Taiwan area and moisture at 500 hPa and also apply the results to real cases. It shows that the same importance of both atmospheric moisture content and stability in convention system during the afternoon in summer. Additionally, by using the samples form 2003 June to September (441 cases), we predict the threshold of convective precipitation from atmospheric stability and moisture data and apply to the 470 cases of 2002 also shows good agreements. In elementary analysis, we can get accuracy about 85 % of quantification prediction in precipitation. It shows that the results can improve the prediction of convention system during the afternoon in summer.
關鍵字(中) ★ 大氣穩定指數
★ 水氣含量
★ 溫濕剖面
關鍵字(英) ★ NOAA
論文目次 目錄
目錄 III
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
一、前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 午後熱對流研究回顧 2
1.3 反演大氣溫濕剖面之應用回顧 4
1.4 論文架構 6
二、基礎理論 7
2.1 微波輻射遙測原理 7
2.2 大氣穩定指數 10
三、資料收集與處理 12
3.1 衛星資料 12
3.1.1 AMSU簡介 12
3.1.2 AMSU資料處理 13
3.2 探空資料 15
3.3 GOES雲圖與測站逐時觀測資料 16
3.4 NCEP全球網格資料 18
四、研究方法 19
4.1 研究步驟 19
4.2 客觀分析 21
五、結果分析與討論 23
5.1 系統性誤差 23
5.2 溫濕剖面比較 25
5.3 個案分析 29
5.4 定量分析 34
六、結論與展望 41
參考文獻 43
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指導教授 陳哲俊、劉振榮
(Jer-Jiunn Chen、Gin-Rong Liu)
審核日期 2005-7-14
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