博碩士論文 92126004 詳細資訊




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姓名 吳柏毅(Bo-yi Wu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 藝術武器─喬治‧葛洛茲的政治諷刺圖像
(Art as a Weapon- George Grosz's Political and Satirical Images)
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摘要(中) 二十世紀前半期西方社會經歷著巨大的轉變,工業物質文明前所未有的進展,為人類帶來了巨大的衝擊,具體地以兩次世界大戰為歷史現象,其影響所及橫跨政治、社會、經濟、文化等各個層面。而作為活躍於此階段的藝術家,葛絡茲的藝術創作活動與上述的時代脈絡更有著緊密的互動聯繫,特別是表現在其政治諷刺漫畫的創作,旁則觸及傳統油畫形式,與柏林達達運動下的攝影蒙太奇作品。在此特定歷史時空下,「藝術」與「政治」兩個人類活動的不同範疇,發揮著糾結的辯證關係,一方面是藝術面對政治的批判行為,另一方面則是政治面對藝術的權威支配,而這正是葛絡茲所處理的核心議題。
基於上述背景,本論文將焦點集中在葛絡茲三個階段的文化反叛行為,分別是1920年前受德國表現主義與義大利未來主義的風格影響,於作品內容中描繪現代工業社會下人類內心的慌亂與不安,像是象徵性地描繪都市叢林中,人類互相攻擊殘殺活動下所傳遞的狂野與激烈情感,以及柏林達達活動時期,藉由攝影蒙太奇機械複製技術的創作手法,挪用自報刊雜誌上的照片圖像、商業廣告與政治宣傳口號,去批判一次世界大戰後德國資本主義商業社會。第二階段為1920年到1933年參與德國共產黨活動時期,透過政治色彩濃厚的諷刺漫畫,傳達無產階級工人的革命理念。葛絡茲此時更發表數篇藝術評論,倡導「傾向性藝術」的概念,除了呼籲藝術創作應為特定階級,特別是無產階級服務外,更轉而批評表現主義「藝術為藝術」的理念。第三階段則為1933年赴美定居後,葛絡茲至此完全脫離藝術創作乃為特定政治目的服務的發展脈絡,重新回歸到從藝術自身批判任何人類社會文明體系,與佔據統治地位的意識形態立場。特別是於1920年代後半遭遇來自黨中央的批評後,葛絡茲進而與美國反史達林左派知識份子有著理念上的親密關係,更於其《空位期》作品中,表現出對左右不同政治陣營,對藝術所強加的意識形態箝制情形作出批判。
因此,本論文嘗試以葛絡茲創作生涯三階段為時間縱軸,以文化批判概念為緯,去發掘畫家不同時期,不論是針對顯性的政治事件,或是隱性的文化社會,透過藝術所表現的建設性批判精神。像是兩次大戰間,批判布爾喬亞社會的抽象文化虛構物,或是1933年後,對資本主義或是共產主義價值體系的譴責,皆能發揮批判與匡正集權政治的精神,凸顯了葛絡茲於二十世紀紛雜的藝術潮流中,能引發我們深思藝術與社會互動關係的全新視野。
摘要(英) In the first half of the 20th century, western society has gone through a dramatic transition. The industrial civilization has made a great impact on human beings in all aspects, such as politics, society, economics and culture, and it is particularly embodied by the historical phenomena of two world wars. Being an active artist in this period, Grosz has connected his artistic activities closely with this specific historical condition. This kind of connection is especially shown in his political caricatures, traditional easel paintings and photomontages. In this specific context, we can perceive an entwined dialectical relationship between two different categories of human activities, “art” and “politics.” The relationship consists of art’s criticism of politics and politics’ control over art, which is also the central issue Grosz tries to deal with.
This thesis tries to focus on Grosz’s different cultural subversion in three periods. They are respectively 1) In the time before 1920, Grosz’s style was influenced by German Expressionism and Italian Futurism. He depicted the confusion and anxiety of the people in the modern industrial society, such as the strong sensation provoked by the savageness shown in his paintings of the assaults between people in the urban jungle. Grosz also employed the mechanical reproduction method of photomontages by appropriating photos in mass media, commercial advertisements and political propagandas to criticize German capitalistic society after WWI. 2) During the time between 1920 and 1933, Grosz participated in the activities held by German communist party and conveyed the ideal of proletarian revolution in his political caricatures. He also issued several artistic criticisms to propagate the concept of “tendentious art”, claiming that artistic creativity should be in the service of a specific class, especially the proletariat, and criticized the idea of “art’s for art’s sake” espoused by expressionism. 3) In the time after 1933, Grosz turned away completely from the philosophy of art in the service of politics and returned to art itself as a standpoint to criticize every civilized system and dominant ideology. After being criticized by the communist party in the second half of 1920s, Grosz had developed an intimate relationship with some American anti-Stalinist intellectuals, which could be manifested in his later works published in Interregnum, where he denounced the efforts exercised by different political camps to control artistic activities.
To sum up, based on the three periods of Grosz’s artistic life and the idea of cultural criticism, this thesis tries to explore the constructive critical spirit revealed in his criticisms either of some obvious political events or of the latent cultural society. For example, this spirit could be manifested in artist’s criticism of the fabrication of cultural fictions in a bourgeois society during two world wars, or of authoritarianism espoused by capitalism and communism in politics after 1933. Hence, Grosz’s spirit leads us to open a new field for reconsidering the interaction between art and society.
關鍵字(中) ★ 共產主義
★ 柏林達達
★ 傾向性藝術
★ 文化政治
關鍵字(英) ★ communism
★ Berlin Dada
★ tendentious art
★ cultural politics
論文目次 中文提要…………………………………….…………i
英文提要………………………………………………ii
誌謝……………………………………………………iv
目錄……………………………………………………v
緒論……………………………………………………1
研究動機與主旨………………………………………1
文獻回顧………………………………………………6
章節架構………………………………………………9
第一章、一個騷動的時代─一次大戰前後葛洛茲的藝術活動
…………………………………………………………11
第一節、葛洛茲早年的藝術活動(1909-1914)…………………………………………………………11
第二節、從表現主義到柏林達達─不同的文化反叛進路
…………………………………………………………14
第三節、第一屆國際達達博覽會與攝影蒙太奇
…………………………………………………………23
小結
…………………………………………………………31
第二章、藝術與政治─共產主義意識權威下的藝術創作
…………………………………………………………32
第一節、藝術混帳!十一月革命下不同藝術團體的回應
…………………………………………………………32
第二節、德國無產階級文化的發展
…………………………………………………………38
第三節、1921年後德共藝術政策的轉變與葛洛茲的政治漫畫
…………………………………………………………42
小結
…………………………………………………………50
第三章、激情過後─葛洛茲後期的藝術認同問題
…………………………………………………………51
第一節、共產國際與布爾什維克化運動的影響
…………………………………………………………51
第二節、美國左翼文化圈的發展
…………………………………………………………60
第三節、《空位期》作品分析
…………………………………………………………68
小結
…………………………………………………………73
結論
…………………………………………………………74
藝術、行動、批判
…………………………………………………………75
寫實的批判傳統
…………………………………………………………81
問題的延伸
…………………………………………………………83
參考資料
…………………………………………………………84
圖版
…………………………………………………………88
參考文獻 一、英文書目
Ades, Dawn, Photomontage. London: Thames and Hudson, 1976.
Angress, Werner T., Stillborn Revolution: The Communist Bid for Power in Germany, 1921-1923. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.
Baigell, Matthew & Julia Williams ed., Artists Against War and Fascism: Papers of The First American Artists’ Congress. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1986.
Beaumont, Matthew ed., Adventures in Realism. Oxford: Blackwell, 2007.
Berger, John, About Looking. New York: Vintage, 1980.
Bergius, Hanne, “Dada Triumphs!” Dada Berlin, 1917-1923: Artistry of Polarities Montages-Metamechanics-Manifestations. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 2003.
Borchardt-Hume, Achim ed., Albers and Moholy-Nagy: From the Bauhaus to the New World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.
DeSchong, Andrew W., The Theatrical Designs of George Grosz. Ann Arbor: UMI Research press, 1982.
Dickerman, Leah and Matthew S. Witkovsky ed., The Dada Seminars. Washington: The National Gallery of Art, 2005.
Dos Passos, John, “Satire as a Way of Seeing.” in Interregnum. New York: Black Sun Press, 1936.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila, The Commissariat of Enlightenment: Soviet Organization of Education and the Arts under Lunacharsky. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1970.
Flavell, M. Kay, George Grosz: A Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
Foster, Stephen C. ed., Dada: The Coordinates of Cultural Politics. New York: G.K. Hall & Co., 1996.
Fowkes, Ben, Communism in Germany under the Weimar Republic. London: Macmillan, 1984.
Gale, Mathew, Dada & Surrealism. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1997.
Gough, Maria, The Artist as Producer: Russian Constructivism in Revolution. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.
Grosz, George: A Little Yes and a Big No: The Autobiography of George Grosz, translated by Lola Sachs Dorin. New York: The Dial Press, 1946.
Hess, Hans, George Grosz. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.
Kiaer, Christina, Imagine No Possessions: The Socialist Object of Russian Constructivism. MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2005.
Killen, Andreas, Berlin Electropolis: Shock, Nerves, and German Modernity. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2006.
Kranzfelder, Ivo, George Grosz 1893-1959, translated by Michael Hulse. Cologne: Taschen GmbH, 2001.
Lavin, Maud, Cut with the Kitchen Knife: The Weimar Photomontages of Hanna Höch. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
Lewis, Beth Irwin, George Grosz: Art and Politics in the Weimar Republic. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1971.
Lidtke, Vernon L., The Alternative Culture: Socialist Labor in Imperial Germany. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.
McCloskey, Barbara, George Gorsz and the Communist Party: Art and Radicalism in Crisis, 1918 to 1936. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1997.
Nesbit, Peter ed., German Realist Drawings of the 1920s. Cambridge: Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1986.
Nochlin, Linda, Realism. London: Penguin, 1971.
Ottanelli, Fraser M., The Communist Party of the United States: From the Depression to World War II. New Brunswik: Rutgers University Press, 1991.
Peukert, Detlev J. K., The Weimar Republic: The Crisis of Classical Modernity, translated by Richard Deveson. New York: Hill and Wang, 1987.
Preziosi, Donald, ed., Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sandqvist, Tom, Dada East: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire. MA: The MIT Press, 2006.
Schrader, Bärbel and Jürgen Schebera, The “Golden” Twenties: Art and Literature in the Weimar Republic, translated by Katherine Vanovitch. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988, first published in the German Democratic Republic by Edition Leipzig 1987.
Shapiro, David ed., Social Realism: Art as a Weapon. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1973.
Smith, Paul and Carolyn Wilde ed., A Companion to Art Theory. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002.
Teitelbaum Matthew, Montage and Modern Life: 1919-1942. MA: The MIT Press, 1992.
Waldfogel, Melvin, Beth Irwin Lewis and Sidney Simon, Grosz/Heartfield: The Artist as Social Critic. Minnesota: University of Minnesota, 1980.
Weinstein, Joan, The End of Expressionism: Art and the November Revolution in Germany, 1918-19. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Whitford, Frank ed., The Berlin of George Grosz: Drawings, Watercolours and Prints 1912-1930. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.
Willett, John, Art and Politics in the Weimar Period: The New Sobriety, 1917-1933. New York: Da Capo Press, 1996, unabridged republication of the edition published in New York in 1978.
Willett, John, The Weimar Years: A Culture Cut Short. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1984.
Wood, Paul, Francis Frascina, Jonathan Harris, Charles Harrison, Modernism in Dispute: Art since the Forties. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
Zammito, John H., The Great Debate: ‘Bolshevism’ and the Literary Left in Germany, 1917-1930. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1984
二、中文書目
Toby Clark著,吳霈恩譯,《藝術與宣傳》(台北:遠流,2003)
彼得‧蓋伊(Peter Gay)著,劉森堯譯,《威瑪文化》(台北:立緒,2003)
石計生,《藝術與社會:閱讀班雅明的美學啟迪》(台北:遠足文化,2003)
福科、哈貝瑪斯、布爾迪厄等著、周憲譯,《激進的美學鋒芒》(北京:中國人民大學出版社,2003)
亨利‧貝阿爾、米歇爾‧卡拉蘇著,陳聖生譯,《達達:一部反叛的歷史》(桂林:廣西師範大學出版社,2003)
Herschel B. Chipp著,余珊珊譯,《現代藝術理論I》(台北:遠流,1995)
Hal Foster主編,呂健忠譯,《反美學》(台北:立緒,1998)
Jeffrey C. Alexander、Steven Seidman主編,《文化與社會》(台北:立緒,1997)
Stephen C. Foster策劃,Estera Milman、賴瑛瑛策劃助理,《達達的世界》(台北:台北市立美術館,1988)
三、期刊論文
Benson, Timothy O., “Mysticism, Materialism, and the Machine in Berlin Dada,” Art Journal, Vol. 46, No. 1, Mysticism and Occultism in Modern Art. (Spring, 1987), pp. 46-55.
Clemons, Leigh, “Serious Fun: Berlin Dada’s Tactical Engagement with German National Narration,” Theatre Research International, vol. 28, no.2, pp.143-156.
Doherty, Brigid, “The Work of Art and the Problem of Politics in Berlin Dada,” OCTOBER 105, Summer 2003, pp.73-92.
White, Michael, “The Grosz Case: Paranoia, Self-hatred and Anti-Semitism,” Oxford Art Journal, 30.3 2007, pp.431-453.
Simmons, Sherwin, “Chaplin Smiles on the Wall: Berlin Dada and Wish-Images of Popular Culture,” New German Critique, No.84. (Autumn, 2001), pp.3-34.
Flavell, M. Kay, “Art and Politics in the Correspondence between Grosz and Brecht, 1934-36,” The Modern Language Review, Vol.79, No.4. (Oct., 1984), pp.859-876.
Botar, Oliver A. I., “From the Avant-Garde to ‘Proletarian Art’,” Art Journal, Vol.52, No.1, Political Journals and Art, 1910-40. (Spring, 1993), pp.34-45.
四、線上網路資源
http://sdrc.lib.uiowa.edu/dada/ (美國愛荷華大學國際達達檔案中心)
http://www.moma.org/research/ (美國當代美術館線上資料搜尋,DADABASE)
指導教授 曾少千(Shao-chien Tseng) 審核日期 2008-7-22
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