博碩士論文 92229003 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:23 、訪客IP:3.236.82.241
姓名 蔡孟均(Mengchun Tsai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 天文研究所
論文名稱
(Star Formation in the Central Regions of Galaxies)
相關論文
★ 亮紅外線星系ARP 55的CO(J=2-1)和CO(J=1-0)之譜線研究★ 合併中之明亮紅外線星系的次毫米波段觀測
★ 后髮座星系團內相對論性電子能譜的數值計算★ 萊曼α吸收雲的運動學SZ效應所引起之宇宙背景輻射非均向性
★ 類星體-星系對 0248+430 中的原子與分子氣體★ 亮紅外星系 NGC 6090 中分子氣體之研究
★ X射線背景輻射對星系團質量-溫度關係之限制★ AM CVn系統之可見光觀測
★ 利用電波與近紅外線觀測資料研究活躍星系核的性質★ 具有偏極化寬譜線與不具有偏極化寬譜線的西佛二型星系之塵埃型態
★ On the Origin of the Radio Emission of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies★ 使用近紅外波段搜尋高質量X射線雙星的光學對應體
★ 窄線西佛I型星系之電波及紅外線性質★ 合併星系的快速搜尋法
★ 活躍星系中分子雲之物理特性★ 伽瑪射線爆周圍環境探討
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 星系中心區域連結了星系核與宿主星系。如果星系中間的黑洞與其宿主星系有共同的演化過程,則在星系中心區域應該會留下演化證據。我們利用星系中心區域的環境特性,例如恒星形成強度,恒星族群及分子雲分佈,來建構一個可能的星系演化模型。



在這篇論文中,我們首先研究活躍及普通星系中心區域的特性。我們使用星系核周邊的無線電發射強度來表現其星系核的活躍程度,及使用紅外線波段觀測來表現宿主星系中的恒星形成強度及恒星族群的分佈。我們發現到在一千秒差距半徑的區域中,恒星質量及恒星形成強度在活躍星系中較普通星系中高,但兩者有類似的特定恒星形成速度(SSFRs)。我們也發現到在紅外波段影像中有許多活躍星系擁有明顯內部結構的,這些有內部結構的目標多半為西佛星系(Seyfert),而含有低游離核發散線區的星系(Low-Ionisation Nuclear Emission-line Region,LINER)只有極少數有內部結構。我們注意到活躍星系中,擁有內部結構者其星系核的無線電強度與其宿主星系的恒星形成率有正相關,而無內部結構者則為負相關。這些結果可能可以用來解釋恒星形成與活躍星系的演化模型。在這個可能的模型中,活躍星系核可能由星系中心的劇烈恒星形成引起,隨著星系演化,星系核強度伴隨著星系中心區域的恒星形成成長,到了演化末期,活躍星系轉變為低游離核發散線區,且星系中心區域伴隨著較弱的恒星形成。



為了更深入研究內部結構,我們挑選一個最靠近及明亮且有內部結構的西佛 II 型星系來當例子。在這篇論文中,我們呈現西佛 II 型星系NGC1068 中心區域由次毫米波陣列望遠鏡(SMA)所觀測的CO(3-2)及由歐文斯毫米無線電陣列 (OVRO) 所觀測的CO(1-0)資料。這兩條譜線主要於距星系核約5角秒的區域及沿中心旋臂分佈,但其強度分佈有其不同; CO(3-2)分佈圖的峰值靠近星系核而CO(1-0)則主要分佈於旋臂區域。CO(3-2)/CO(1-0)的強度比值在星系核區域約為 3.1 ,相當於四倍旋臂區域的平均比值,表示這些分子雲受到活躍星系核相當程度的影響。另一方面,譜線強度比值在旋臂區域上可能小到0.24,大到2.34,而平均值約為0.75,這樣的數值與恒星形成區可能的譜線強度比值類似,顯示這些分子雲是受到恒星形成所影響。此外,由 Spitzer 8micron 影像所推算出的恒星形成率,我們看到在旋臂區域 CO(3-2)/(1-0) 比值與恒星形成率有相當緊密的關連性。我們也比較了旋臂上不同區域的CO(3-2)/CO(1-0)比值和恒星形成率,隨著距離星系核距離越遠,這兩個數值也逐漸變小。
摘要(英) The galactic central region connects the galactic nucleaeus to the host galaxy. If the central black hole co-evolved with the host galaxies, there should be some evidence left in the central region. We use the environmental properties in the central regions such as star-forming activity, stellar population and molecular abundance to figure out a possible scenario of the evolution of galaxies.



In this thesis at first we investigated the properties of the central regions in the host galaxies of active and normal galaxies. We used radio emission around the nuclei of the host galaxies to represent activity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and used infrared ray (IR) emission to represent the star-forming activity and stellar population of the host galaxies. We determined that active galaxies have higher stellar masses (SMs) within the central kiloparsec radius than normal galaxies do independent of the Hubble types of the host galaxies; but both active and normal galaxies exhibit similar specific star formation rates (SSFRs). We also discovered that certain AGNs exhibit substantial inner stellar structures in the IR images; most of the AGNs with inner structures are Seyferts, whereas only a few LINERs exhibit inner structures. We note that the AGNs with inner structures show a positive correlation between the radio activity of the AGNs and the SFRs of the host galaxies, but the sources without inner structures show a negative correlation between the radio power and the SFRs. These results might be explained with a scenario of starburst-AGN evolution. In this scenario, AGN activities are triggered following a nuclear starburst; during the evolution, AGN activities are accompanied by SF activity in the inner regions of the host galaxies; at the final stage of the evolution, the AGNs might transform into LINERs, exhibiting weak SF activity in the central regions of the host galaxies.



For further investigation about the inner structure, we choose the most nearby and luminous Seyfert galaxy with inner structure as an example.

In this thesis, we present CO(3-2) interferometric observations of the central region of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068 using the Submillimeter Array, together with CO(1-0) data taken with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory Millimeter Array. Both the CO(3-2) and CO(1-0) emission lines are mainly distributed within ~5 arcsec of the nucleus and along the spiral arms, but the intensity distributions show differences; the CO(3-2) map peaks in the nucleus, while the CO(1-0) emission is mainly located along the spiral arms. The CO(3-2)/CO(1-0) ratio is about 3.1 in the nucleus, which is four times as large as the average line ratio in the spiral arms, suggesting that the molecular gas there must be affected by the radiation arising from the AGN. On the other hand, the line ratios in the spiral arms vary over a wide range from 0.24 to 2.34 with a average value around 0.75, which is similar to the line ratios of star-formation regions, indicating that the molecular gas is affected by star formation. Besides, we see a tight correlation between CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratios in the spiral arms and star formation rate surface densities derived from Spitzer 8 micron dust flux densities. We also compare the CO(3-2)/(1-0) ratio and the star formation rate at different positions within the spiral arms; both are found to decrease as the radius from the nucleus increases.

關鍵字(中) ★ 星系
★ 星系核
★ 演化
★ 西佛
★ 星際物質
★ 恒星形成
關鍵字(英) ★ Galaxy
★ AGN
★ Evolution
★ Seyfert
★ ISM
★ Star Formation
論文目次 中文摘要................................................i

Abstract.............................................iii

Contents...............................................v

List of Figures......................................vii

List of Tables........................................ix

1 INTRODUCTION ........................................1

2 DATA SELECTION AND REDUCTION.........................3

2.1 Statistic Data Selection...........................3

2.2 Estimation of Stellar Mass and Star Formation Rate.6

3 RESULTS..............................................9

3.1 Stellar Properties in the Central Regions......... 9

3.2 Spatial Analysis of Stellar Properties............16

3.3 Inner Structures..................................18

4 DISCUSSION..........................................23

5 CASE STUDY..........................................27

6 OBSERVATION AND REDUCTION FOR NGC 1068..............31

6.1 The SMA CO(3-2) Observations......................31

6.2 OVRO CO(1-0) Dataset..............................32

7 THE CENTRAL REGION OF NGC 1068......................33

7.1 CO Distribution...................................33

7.2 CO Line Ratios....................................36

7.3 Molecular Gas Column Density and Mass.............39

7.4 Relation between CO Line Ratio and Star Formation.40

7.5 Summary for NGC 1068..............................46

8 CONCLUSION..........................................49

Reference.............................................53

Appendix..............................................59

參考文獻 Aalto, S., et al. 1994, A&A, 286, 365

Aalto, S., Huttemeister, S., Scoville, N. Z., Thaddeus, P. 1999, ApJ, 522, 165

Antonucci, R. R. J., & Miller, J. S. 1985, ApJ, 297, 621

Baker, A. J. & Scoville, N. Z. 1998, in The central regions of the Galaxy and galaxies, Proceedings

of the 184th symposium of the International Astronomical Union, ed. Y. Sofue (Dordrecht:

Kluwer), 221

Bower, R. G., Benson, A. J., Malbon, R., et al., 2006, MNRAS, 370, 645

Comerón, S., 2013, A&A, 555, 4

Condon, J. J., Huang, Z.-P., Yin, Q. F., & Thuan, T. X., 1991, ApJ, 378, 65

Condon, J. J. 1992, ARA&A, 30, 575

Cox, T. J., Jonsson, P., Somerville, R. S., et al., 2008, MNRAS, 384, 386

Davies, R. I., Sugai, H., & Ward, M. J. 1998, MNRAS, 300, 388

de Vaucouleurs, G., de Vaucouleurs, A., Corwin, H. G., Jr., Buta, R. J., Paturel, G., & Fouque,

P. 1991, Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies (New York: Springer)

Devereux, N., Taniguchi, Y., Sanders, D. B., Nakai, N., & Young, J. S. 1994, AJ, 107, 2006

Dumke, M., Nieten, Ch., Thuma, G., Wielebinski, R., & Walsh, W. 2001, A&A, 373, 853

Emsellem, E., Fathi, K., Wozniak, H., Ferruit, P., Mundell, C. G., & Schinnerer, E. 2006,

MNRAS, 365, 367

Espada, D., Matsushita, S., Peck, A., Henkel, C., Iono, D., Israel, F. P., Muller, S., Petitpas, G.,

Pihlstrom, Y., Taylor, G. B., Dinh-V-Trung 2009, ApJ, 695, 116

Ferrarese, L. & Merritt, D., 2000, ApJ, 539, L9

Gallimore, J. F., Baum, S. A., O′Dea, C. P., & Pedlar, A. 1996, ApJ, 458, 136

Gallimore, J. F., Baum, S. A., & O′Dea, C. P. 1997, Nature, 388, 852

Gallimore, J. F., Henkel, C., Baum, S. A., Glass, I. S., Claussen, M. J., Prieto, M. A., & Von

Kap-herr, A. 2001, ApJ, 556, 694

Gallimore, J. F., Baum, S. A., & O′Dea, C. P. 2004, ApJ, 613, 794

Garcia-Burillo, S., et al. 2010, A&A, 519, A2

Gebhardt, K. et al., 2000, ApJ, 539, L13

Greenhill, L. J., Gwinn, C. R., Antonucci, R., & Barvainis, R. 1996, ApJ, 472, L21

Haarsma, D. B., Partridge, R. B., Windhorst, R. A., & Richards, E. A., 2000, ApJ, 544, 641

Helfer, T. T., & Blitz, L. 1995, ApJ, 450, 90

Helfer, T. T., Thornley, M. D., Regan, M. W., Wong, T., Sheth, K., Vogel, S. N., Blitz, L., &

Bock, D. C.-J. 2003, ApJS, 145, 259

Helou, G., et al. 2004, ApJS, 154, 253

Ho, P.T.P, Turner, J. L., & Martin, R. N. 1987, ApJ, 322, L67

Ho, L. C., Ulvestad, J. S., 2001,ApJS, 133, 77

Ho, L. C., & Peng, C. Y., 2001, ApJ, 555, 650

Hopkins P. F., Hernquist L., Cox T. J., et al., 2006, ApJS, 163, 1

Hopkins, P. F., Cox, T. J., Kere², D., Hernquist, L., 2008, ApJS, 175, 356

Hsieh, P.-Y., Matsushita, S., Lim, J., Kohno, K., & Sawada-Satoh, S. 2008, ApJ, 683, 70

Hwang, C. Y. & Tsai, M., 2012 JphCS, 372, 2061

Israel, F. P. 2009, A&A, 493, 525

Jackson, J. M., Paglione, T. A. D., Ishizuki, S., & Nguyen-Q-Rieu 1993, ApJ, 418, L13

Jae, W., et al. 2004, Nature, 429, 47

Kaneko, N., Morita, K., Fukui, Y., Sugitani, K., Iwata, T., Nakai, N., & Kaifu, N. 1989, ApJ,

337, 691

Kaneko, N., Morita, K., Fukui, Y., Takahashi, N., Sugitani, K., Nakai, N., & Morita, K.-I. 1992,

PASJ, 44, 341

Kaumann, G., Heckman, T. M., Tremonti, C., et al., 2003, MNRAS, 346, 1055

Kawakatu, N., & Wada, K., 2008, ApJ, 681, 73

Kennicutt, R. C. 1998, ApJ, 498, 541

Kewley, L. J., Groves, B., Kaumann, G., & Heckman, T., 2006, MNRAS, 372, 961

Koda, J., Scoville, N., Sawada, T, et al. 2009, ApJ, 700, 132

Kohno, K., et al. 2001, ASP Conf. Ser. 249, 672

Kohno, K. 2005, AIP Conf. Proc. 783, 203

Kohno, K., et al. 2008, Ap&SS313, 279

Komugi, S., Kohno, K., Tosaki, T., Nakanishi, H., Onodera, S., Egusa, F., & Sofue, Y. 2007,

PASJ, 59, 55

Kormendy, J., & Kennicutt, R. C., Jr. 2004, ARA&A, 42, 603

Krips, M., Neri, R., Garcia-Burillo, S., Martin, S., Combes, F., Gracia-Carpio, J., Eckart, A.

2008 ApJ, 677,262

Krips, M., Martin, S., Eckart, A., Neri, R., Garcia-Burillo, S., Matsushita, S., Peck, A., Stoklasova,

I., Petitpas, G., Usero, A., Combes, F., Schinnerer, E., Humphreys, E., & Baker, A. J.

2011, 736, 37

Krumholz, M. R. & Thompson, T. A. 2007, ApJ, 669, 289

Laor, A. 2000, ApJ, 543, 111

Leitherer, C., Schaerer, D., Goldader, J. D., et al. 1999, ApJS, 123, 3

Macchetto, F., Capetti, A., Sparks, W. B., Axon, D. J., & Boksenberg, A. 1994, ApJ, 435, L15

Maloney, P. R., Hollenbach, D. J., & Tielens, A. G. G. M. 1996, ApJ, 466, 561

Mao, R.-Q., Schulz, A., Henkel, C., Mauersberger, R., Muders, D., & Dinh-V-Trung 2010, ApJ,

724, 1336

Matsushita, S., et al. 2004, ApJ, 616, L55

Matsushita, S., Muller, S., & Lim, J. 2007, A&A, 468, L49

Matsushita, S., et al. 2009, ApJ, 693, 56

Matsushita, S., Kawabe, R., Kohno, K., Tosaki, T., & Vila-Vilaró, B. 2010, PASJ, 62, 409

Mauersberger, R., Henkel, C., Wielebinski, R., Wiklind, T., Reuter, H.-P. 1995, A&A, 305, 421

Mauersberger, R., Henkel, C., Walsh, W., & Schulz, A. 1999, A&A, 341, 256

Meijerink, R., & Spaans, M. 2005, A&A, 436, 397

Meijerink, R., Spaans, M., & Israel, F. P. 2007, A&A, 461, 793

Melendez, M., Kraemer, S. B., & Schmitt, H. R., 2010, MNRAS, 406, 493

Morganti, R., Tsvetanov, Z. I., Gallimore, J., & Allen, M. G., 1999, A&AS, 137, 457

Müller Sánchez, F., Davies, R. I., Genzel, R., Tacconi, L. J., Eisenhauer, F., Hicks, E. K. S.,

Friedrich, S., & Sternberg, A. 2009, ApJ, 691, 749

Muehleman, D. O. & Berge, G. L. 1991, Icarus, 92, 263

Muraoka, K. et al. 2007, PASJ, 59, 43

Muxlow, T. W. B., Pedlar, A., Holloway, A. J., Gallimore, J. F., & Antonucci, R. R. J. 1996,

MNRAS, 278, 854

Myers, S. T., & Scoville, N. Z. 1987, ApJ, 312, L39

Narayanan, D., Cox, T. J., Shirley, Y., Davé, R., Hernquist, L., Walker, C. K. 2008a, ApJ, 684,

996

Oka, T., Nagai, M., Kamegai, K., Tanaka, K., & Kuboi, N. 2007, PASJ, 59, 15

Orton, G. S., Grin, M. J., Ade, P. A. R., Nolt, I. G., Radostitz, J. V., Robson, E. I., & Gear,

W. K. 1986, Icarus, 67, 289

Padin, S., Scott, S. L., Woody, D. P., Scoville, N. Z., Seling, T. V., Finch, R. P., Giovanine, C.

J., & Lawrence, R. P. 1991, PASP, 103, 461

Padin, S., et al. 1993, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, 42, 793

Paglione, T. A. D., et al. 2001, ApJS, 135, 183

Papadopoulos, P. P., & Seaquist, E. R. 1999, ApJ, 516, 114

Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P., Spaans, M., van der Tak, F. F. S., Aalto, S., Garcia-Burillo, S., Fuente,

A., Usero, A. 2009, A&A, 503, 459

Petitpas, G. R., & Wilson, C. D. 2000, ApJ, 538, L117

Petitpas, G. R., & Wilson, C. D., 2002, ApJ, 575, 814

Planesas, P., Gómez-González, J. & Martín-Pintado, J. 1989, A&A, 216, 1

Planesas, P., Scoville, N., & Myers, S. T. 1991, ApJ, 369, 364

Pogge, R. W. 1988, ApJ, 328, 519

Sakamoto, S. 1994, PASP, 106, 1112

Sakamoto, S., Hasegawa, T., Handa, T., Hayashi, M., & Oka, T. 1997, ApJ, 486, 276

Sakamoto, K., Ho, P. T. P., Mao, R.-Q., Matsushita, S., & Peck, A. B. 2007, ApJ, 654, 782

Schinnerer, E., Eckart, A., Tacconi, L. J., Genzel, R., & Downes, D. 2000, ApJ, 533, 850

Schmidt, M., 1959, ApJ, 129, 243

Scott, S. L. & Finch, R. P. 1992, in Proceedings of a Workshop on Remote Observing, eds. D.

T. Emerson & R. G. Clowes (Singapore: World Scientic), 93

Scoville, N. Z., Young, J. S. & Lucy, L.B. 1983, ApJ, 270, 443

Scoville, N. Z., Matthews, K., Carico, D. P., & Sanders, D. B. 1988, ApJ, 327, L61

Scoville, N. Z., Carlstrom, J. E., Chandler, C. J., Phillips, J. A., Scott, S. L., Tilanus, R. P. J.,

& Wang, Z. 1993, PASP, 105, 1482

Shepherd, M. C. 1997, in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems VI, eds. G. Hunt

& H. E. Payne (San Francisco: ASP), 77

Silk, J., & Rees, M.J., 1998, A&A, 331, 1

Simões Lopes, R.D., StorchiBergmann, T., de Fástima Saraiva, M., & Martini, P., 2007, ApJ,

655, 718.

Solomon, P. M., Rivilo, A. R., Barrett, J., & Yahil, A. 1987, ApJ, 319, 730

Sternberg, A., Genzel, R., & Tacconi, L. 1994, ApJ, 436, L131

Tacconi, L. J., Genzel, R., Bleitz, M., Cameron, M., Harris, A. I., & Madden, S. 1994, ApJ, 426,

L77

Tan, J. C., 2000, ApJ, 536, 173

Taniguchi, Y., 1999, ApJ, 524, 65

Telesco, C. M., Becklin, E. E., Wynn-Williams, C. G., & Harper, D. A. 1984, ApJ, 282, 427

Telesco, C. M., & Decher, R. 1988, ApJ, 334, 573

Thean, A., Pedlar, A., Kukula, M. J., Baum, S. A., & O′Dea, C. P. 2000, MNRAS, 314, 573

Thronson, H. A., Jr., et al. 1989, ApJ, 343, 158

Tsai, M., Hwang, C. Y., Matsushita, S., et al., 2012, ApJ, 746, 129

Tully, R. B. 1994, VizieR Online Data Catalog, VII/45 (originally published by Cambridge

University Press, 1988)

Turner, B. E., 1993, ApJ, 411, 219

Umemura, M., Fukue, J., & Mineshige, S., 1998, MNRAS, 299, 1123

Usero, A., García-Burillo, S., Fuente, A., Martín-Pintado, J., & Rodríguez-Fernández, N. J. 2004,

A&A, 419, 897

Veron-Cetty, M.-P., & Veron, P., 2006, A&A, 455, 773

Vogel, S. N., Kulkarni, S. R., & Scoville, N. Z., 1988, Nature, 334, 402

Wei , A., Neininger, N., Huttemeister, S., Klein, U. 2001, A&A, 365, 571

Wilson, C. D. 1995, ApJ, 448, L97

Wilson, A. S., & Ulvestad, J. S. 1983, ApJ, 275, 8

Wu, H., Cao, C., Hao, C.-N., Liu, F.-S., Wang, J.-L., Xia, X.-Y., Deng, Z.-G., & Young, C. K.-S.

2005, ApJ, 632, L79

Young, J. S. & Scoville, N. Z. 1991, ARA&A, 29, 581

Young, J. S. et al. 1995, ApJS, 98, 219

Zhu, Y.-N., Wu, H., Li, H.-N., & Cao, C., 2010, RAA, 10, 329

指導教授 黃崇源(Chorng-Yuan Hwang) 審核日期 2015-8-27
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明