博碩士論文 92249001 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:4 、訪客IP:3.239.95.36
姓名 夏志浩(Chih-Hao Hsia)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 天文研究所
論文名稱 行星狀星雲中心星為雙星系統的研究
(A Study of Binary Origin in the Nuclei of Planetary Nebulae)
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摘要(中) 行星狀星雲(Planetary Nebulae; PNe)在恆星演化上是中、小質量恆星(0.8~8M☉)
演化至末期所產生出來的結果,自從1992 年哈伯太空望遠鏡(HST)升空之後,天文
學家從一些影像中發現— 許多的行星狀星雲呈現著獨特的雙極形(Bipolar)的結
構,探究其雙極形構造所形成的原因,最有可能是行星狀星雲的中心星為雙星系統
所構成的;就以一個具有典型的雙極形行星狀星雲Hubble 12 (Hb 12)為例子:針對其
中心星而採用高時間分辨率的光度觀測,我們發現了Hb 12 的中心星有著食雙星
(eclipsing binary)的光度變化,且變化的週期約為3.4 小時,另外,我們也使用了中
國科學院國家天文台(NAOC) 2.16 m 望遠鏡對於行星狀星雲Hb 12 的中心星進行低
色散光譜的觀測,結果發現在其中心星的連續光譜上發現了CN, G band, 以及Mg b
這些出現在晚期恆星才有的特徵吸收譜線,這也支持我們從光度變化所得出來的結
論:行星狀星雲Hb 12 的中心星可能為一組雙星系統所組成的 (Hsia et al., 2006)。
此外, 我們也在行星狀星雲Hb 12 的雙極形波瓣上發現了9 個(5 個在北邊,4
個在南邊) 幾乎互相對應的環狀結構,這些環狀結構是沿著這對波瓣的方向排列
著,環與環之前的角距離是0.3 角秒 (arcsec),換算成實際上的物理距離約為1000 AU
左右(假設Hb 12 距離我們2.8 Kpc);因此,我們認為這些環狀結構可能是Hb 12
的快速恆星風(Fast wind)與其周圍漸進巨星分支(Asymptotic Giant Branch;AGB)
的環星物質交互作用的結果,其雙極形波瓣的形成有可能是中心星為雙星系統所導
致 (Kwok & Hsia, 2007)。
由於我們找到了Hb 12 的中心星可能為雙星系統的這個例子,我們不禁要問:
是否所有行星狀星雲的中心星為雙星系統?於是開始嘗試藉由光度學或是光譜學來
尋找行星狀星雲的中心星為雙星系統候選者;首先我們對於7 個已知行星狀星雲中
心星為雙星系統的進行光譜觀測,結果我們發現,這7 個已知行星狀星雲中心星為
雙星系統的其連續譜不是顯示擁有晚期恆星才有的特徵吸收譜線(CN, G band, Mg b
以及TiO)就是呈現晚期恆星的光譜分佈(Spectral Energy Distribution; SED),而這兩
個的特徵似乎也成為判定行星狀星雲中心星是否為雙星系統在光譜學上的重要依
據;我們同時間也利用一些開放式的光度資料庫(比如:USNO B1,NOMAD)來
進行星狀星雲中心星為雙星系統的研究,分別把已知中心星為雙星系統的行星狀星
雲、中心星可能是雙星系統的行星狀星雲、以及中心星不是雙星系統的行星狀星雲
畫在V-R 及B-I 為縱軸的雙色圖(Two Color Diagram)上,我們發現大部分的已知中
心星為雙星系統的行星狀星雲以及中心星可能是雙星系統的行星狀星雲分佈在V-R
> 0 以及B-I > -0.5 的範圍裡,也因此我們將V-R > 0 以及B-I > -0.5 拿來當作我們篩
選行星狀星雲中心星是雙星系統候選者的條件(Selection criteria),接著我們利用這個
條件針對全天約1500 個行星狀星雲的中心星進行篩選,只有257 個行星狀星雲中心
星合乎這個條件。然後我們對12 個行星狀星雲中心星進行光譜觀測,結果發現其中
8 個擁有晚期恆星才有的特徵吸收譜線或是呈現晚期恆星的光譜分佈的特徵並且其光度合乎V-R > 0 以及B-I > -0.5 的條件,另外兩個雖然光譜中呈現晚期恆星的光譜
分佈但其光度不大吻合V-R > 0 以及B-I > -0.5 的條件,這可能是資料庫的系統誤差
所造成的,最後兩個目標既沒有擁有晚期恆星才有的特徵吸收譜線或是呈現晚期恆
星的光譜分佈,也不符合V-R > 0 以及B-I > -0.5 的條件;所以我們認為這9 個行星
狀星雲(83%)可能為雙星系統的候選者;以我們光度上的篩選條件而言(V-R > 0 以
及B-I > -0.5),雙星系統候選者的準確率約為80%;由此也證實了我們在光度上的
篩選條件是成功的。而這257 個候選者是否為雙星系統有待人們更進一步的觀測(光
度變化、視向速度變化等)來證實。
摘要(英) Young planetary nebulae play an important role in the stellar evolution of intermediateto
low-mass stars (0.8-8 M⊙) from the proto-planetary nebula phase to the planetary
nebula phase. Many young planetary nebulae display distinct bipolar structures as
they evolve away from the proto-planetary nebula phase. One possible cause of
their bipolarity could be a binary origin for their energy source. We report on our
detailed investigation of the young planetary nebula Hubble 12, well-known for its
extended hourglass-like envelope. We present evidence (in the form of time-series
photometric observations) for the existence of an eclipsing binary at the center of
Hubble 12. In addition, low-resolution spectra of the central source show absorption
features such as CN, G band, and Mg b, which could be suggestive of the low-mass
nature for the secondary component.
In addition, we also discuss a series of two-dimensional rings along a common axis
aligned with the bipolar lobes found in the planetary nebula Hb 12. The rings have
a separation of about 0.3 arcsec, which can be translated into a physical separation
of ∼ 1000 AU, or a time separation of the order of 50 yr. We suggest that the
existence of the rings is a manifestation of the interaction between a time-variable,
collimated fast outflow with the circumstellar envelope created by the stellar wind
of an asymptotic giant branch star.
We also search for binary candidates using spectroscopic identification and photometric
classification. Based on the understanding of the common characteristics
of the known binary nuclei of PNe and determined by the photometric selection criteria
of V-R > 0 and B-I > -0.5, we found that a significant fraction (83%) of PNe
might be of binary origin. We selected about 80 % new binary candidates using the
selection criteria. Further observations and more time are needed to confirm these
binary candidates.
關鍵字(中) ★ 雙星系統
★ 行星狀星雲
關鍵字(英) ★ Binary system
★ Planetary Nebulae
論文目次 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the study of planetary nebulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 New discoveries of planetary nebulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.1 Planetary nebulae represent an important phase of stellar evolution 5
1.2.2 Search for and the identification of planetary nebulae . . . . . 6
1.3 Origin of planetary nebulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 Formation of planetary nebulae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.4.1 Morphological classifications of planetary nebulae . . . . . . . 13
1.4.2 Theoretical models for planetary nebulae . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.5 Main Goals of this work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2 Observations and Data Reduction 22
2.1 High-resolution narrow-band images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
2.2 Time-series broadband photometric imaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.3 Optical spectroscopy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.3.1 Absorption lines identified in the spectra of the central star of Hb 12 28
2.3.2 Spectroscopic observations for the binary candidates . . . . . 30
3 A Butterfly in the making - Hubble 12 37
3.1 Evidence for a binary origin of the bipolarplanetary nebula Hubble 12 38
3.1.1 Search for periodicities in the lightcurves . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.1.2 Stellar properties of the binary components . . . . . . . . . . 45
3.1.3 Spectra of NSV 26083 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.1.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
3.2 Multiple Coaxial Rings in the Young Bipolar Nebula Hubble 12 . . . 50
3.2.1 Physical parameters of the multiple coaxial rings . . . . . . . 51
3.2.2 Comparison with other Bipolar Planetary Nebulae . . . . . . . 54
3.2.3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
3.3 Summary and Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
4 Searching for Binary Planetary Nebulae Candidates 63
4.1 Spectral features of known PN binaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
4.1.1 Reddening correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.1.2 Identifying late-type features in the composite spectra . . . . . 66
4.1.3 Results for individual sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.2 Photometric Identification of Binary Candidates from Archival Data . 79
4.2.1 Photometric characteristics of known binary PNe . . . . . . . 79
4.2.2 Selection of binary candidates based on the new criteria . . . . 85
4.3 Verification of the sample selection criteria based on the spectroscopy of a test sample 94
4.3.1 Notes on interesting binary candidates . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
4.3.2 Objects with an uncertain origin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
4.3.3 Non-Binary objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
5 Summary and Conclusions 106
6 Future Work 108
A List of Papers 119
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指導教授 葉永烜、李金增
(Wing-Huen Ip、Jin-Zeng Li)
審核日期 2008-7-20
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