博碩士論文 92322076 詳細資訊




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姓名 蕭妃晏(Fei-Yen Hsiao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 隨機需求下航空快遞貨物裝櫃規劃模式之研究
(A Cargo Container Loading Plan Model for Air Express Delivery under Stochastic Demands)
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摘要(中) 近年來,國際航空快遞業成長迅速且競爭激烈,因此快遞業者在營運上相當重視時效性的掌握,所以良好的貨物裝櫃規劃,除需考量各營運機場的處理成本、相關作業措施等因素外,亦需考量市場需求在營運中的不確定性。然而,以往業界多以經驗法則及人工判斷來做決策,此做法在面臨大型空運中心及複雜的營運環境下,缺乏效率及效果。因此,本研究以航空快遞業者的立場,考量實際營運限制及市場需求之隨機變動狀況,以營運成本最小化為目標,構建確定性及隨機性需求之貨物裝櫃規劃模式。本研究模式期能於未來實務的應用上,提供快遞業者有效的決策工具,以期幫助快遞業者在隨機環境中,規劃最佳的航空快遞貨物裝櫃決策。
本研究利用數學規劃方法構建確定性需求裝櫃模式,並進一步修正確定性需求裝櫃模式中之固定需求值為隨機需求值,建立以模擬為基礎之隨機性需求裝櫃模式。此二模式可定式為非線性混合整數規劃問題,屬於NP-hard問題,求解上利用分段線性技巧、模擬技巧及數學規劃軟體,以求解模式。另為評估確定性與隨機性需求裝櫃模式於隨機環境中營運的績效,本研究發展一模擬評估方法。最後,為測試本研究模式、解法與評估方法的實務營運績效,本研究利用C電腦程式語言撰寫程式,配合CPLEX數學規劃軟體,進行求解,並以一航空快遞公司之亞太地區的營運資料為例進行模式之測試與評估分析,進而提出結論與建議。
摘要(英) In recent years, international air express carriers have grown rapidly. The markets become very competitive for the carriers. International air express carriers rather emphasize on time-definite deliveries. A good cargo container loading plan is therefore essential to international air express carriers’ operating cost, profit and competitive capability in the market. In Order to design a good cargo container loading plan, a carrier not only has to consider the airport operating cost and operations, but also has to consider the uncertainty of the market demand in actual operations. However, in current practice the cargo container loading plan is typically solved in a manual way with staff’s experience, which is neither effective nor efficient, especially for the environment involving large hubs and complicated network operations today. Considering stochastic daily market demands in actual operations, in this research, on the basis of the international air express carriers’ perspective, we try to develop a deterministic-demand and a stochastic-demand cargo container loading model, with the objective of minimizing the operating cost , subject to the related operating constraints. The models are expected to be useful planning tools for international air express carriers to decide on their optimal air cargo loading plans in their operations.
We employed mathematical programming techniques to construct the deterministic-demand cargo container loading model. Then, we further establish the stochastic-demand cargo container loading model by modifying the fixed demand parameters in the deterministic-demand cargo container loading model. These two models are expectedly formulated as nonlinear mixed integer programs that are characterized as NP-hard. We employed piece-wise linear functions, simulation techniques, coupled with a mathematical programming solver and computer programs to solve the problems. To evaluate the models and the solution algorithms under stochastic demands in actual operations, we developed a simulation-based evaluation method. Finally, to evaluate the models, the solution methods and the evaluation method in practice, we performed a case study on personal computers, using real operating data from an international air express carrier, with the assistance of C computer programs and the mathematical programming solver, CPLEX. Then show the conclusions and suggestions.
關鍵字(中) ★ 模擬
★ 隨機需求
★ 非線性混合整數規劃問題
★ 貨物裝櫃規劃
★ 航空快遞業
關鍵字(英) ★ Simulation
★ Stochastic demand
★ Nonlinear mixed integer programs
★ Cargo container loading plan
★ Air express carriers
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要.........................................................I
英文摘要........................................................II
誌謝...........................................................III
目錄............................................................IV
圖目錄.........................................................VII
表目錄........................................................VIII
第一章  緒論................................................... 1
1.1研究背景與動機............................................... 1
1.2研究目的與範圍............................................... 2
1.3研究方法與流程............................................... 3
第二章  文獻回顧............................................. 4
2.1航空快遞與航空貨運之相關研究................................. 4
2.2航空貨運承攬業之相關研究..................................... 6
2.3軸輻式航空網路之相關研究..................................... 6
2.4隨機性需求之相關理論與文獻................................... 8
2.4.1隨機性需求相關理論......................................... 8
2.4.2隨機性需求之相關文獻.......................................11
2.5小結.........................................................15
第三章  現況介紹.............................................16
3.1亞太地區之營運概況...........................................16
3.2機場作業概況.................................................17
3.3貨物運送作業.................................................18
3.4貨物通關作業.................................................19
第四章  模式構建與求解方法...................................21
4.1問題描述.....................................................21
4.2確定性需求裝櫃模式與求解方法.................................22
4.2.1確定性需求裝櫃模式假設.....................................22
4.2.2數學定式...................................................27
4.2.3確定性需求裝櫃模式求解.....................................31
4.3隨機性需求裝櫃模式與求解方法.................................35
4.3.1隨機性需求裝櫃模式.........................................35
4.3.2隨機性需求裝櫃模式求解.....................................38
4.4模擬評估方法.................................................40
4.5小結.........................................................41
第五章  範例測試.............................................42
5.1資料輸入.....................................................42
5.1.1各起迄城市快遞貨物量.......................................42
5.1.2各起站機場處理貨櫃容量限制值...............................44
5.1.3各城市貨機飛抵、飛離空運中心時刻表.........................45
5.1.4空運中心處理亞太地區各起迄混櫃的容量限制值.................47
5.1.5成本資料...................................................47
5.1.6貨機承載貨櫃的型態及容量...................................50
5.1.7其他參數...................................................50
5.2模式發展.....................................................51
5.2.1問題規模...................................................51
5.2.2電腦環境及設定.............................................51
5.3測試結果與分析...............................................52
5.3.1確定性需求裝櫃模式之測試結果...............................53
5.3.2隨機性需求裝櫃模式之測試結果...............................54
5.3.3模式評估分析...............................................54
5.4敏感度分析...................................................59
5.4.1隨機需求模擬日數...........................................59
5.4.2 隨機分配模式..............................................61
5.4.2.1 平均需求變動............................................61
5.4.2.2 標準差變動..............................................64
5.4.3 空運中心純櫃比例增減敏感度分析............................67
5.4.4 單一起站純櫃比例增減敏感度分析............................70
5.5 小結........................................................74
第六章  結論與建議.............................................75
6.1結論.........................................................75
6.2建議.........................................................76
參考文獻........................................................78
附錄............................................................83
附錄一 CPLEX Callable Library Code.............................83
附錄二 航線哩程資料............................................84
附錄三 MD-11機型各航段之飛行時間資料...........................85
附錄四 確定性需求裝櫃模式之測試結果............................86
附錄五 隨機性需求裝櫃模式之測試結果............................89
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指導教授 顏上堯(Shang-Yao Yan) 審核日期 2005-7-20
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