博碩士論文 92322088 詳細資訊




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姓名 林后駿(Hou-Jiun Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 三維房屋模型實景紋理影像製作與敷貼之研究
(Near Photo-realistic Texture Mapping On 3D Building Models)
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摘要(中) 傳統的二維地理資訊,無法貼切描述真實世界概況,加入資料空間屬性,以三維虛擬空間展示資訊,可增加資訊管理的效率並提升使用資料的便利度。利用電腦構建相仿於真實世界之虛擬空間,讓使用者感受置身於實境,進行動態瀏覽與查詢,已成為時下熱門的研究主題之一。
當下已有許多研究參與三維房屋模型建置過程,其技術已達成熟階段。下個階段,主要為紋理的產生與敷貼。大部分現有商業軟體支援面狀紋理敷貼主要是以多邊形的方式快速將紋理敷貼至對應的模型面,為重建三維房屋模型之方便工具。完整的紋理影像往往無法從單張影像中取得,故本研究利用多張影像進行鑲嵌,得到完整的紋理影像。首先利用人工圈選興趣區域 (Area of Interest, AOI),使遮蔽區紋理不進入鑲嵌程序,接著選取足量的影像共軛點,建立工作座標系,並找出影像重疊區。透過邊界條件與權重條件產生數學調校模式,調整影像重疊區光影效應,產生幾何性良好與光影連續之鑲嵌影像。透過線性與參數式的轉換,將紋理影像敷貼到正確的空間座標上,最後在三維虛擬空間中展示敷貼成果。
摘要(英) Three dimensional geo-information is a fast developing topic in remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems. Using the technology of remote sensing, 3D building models could be constructed to resemble real buildings. However, currently, most building models do not have sufficient texture characteristics. The lack of texture not only makes 3D building models less realistic, it also fails to provide needed information, especially for complex applications such as cyber city implementation.
The purpose of this study was to produce accurate texture mapping on building models. The textures were generated from mosaic of digital pictures taken from different angles and distances. Because of different picture-taking conditions, individual pictures might have different brightness, shadings, and other properties. All of them needed to be addressed before the mosaiced pictures can be mapped onto building models. This study developed a procedure to integrate digital pictures and correctly mapped them to corresponding objects in building models. The procedure first excluded shadows in the pictures. Then, overlapped regions were identified using tie points to develop mathematical relationship of the target objects across pictures. The developed mathematical models were then used to merge the pictures to generate a smooth and seamless image of the target object. Finally, the mosaic images were mapped to correct building facets (walls) using linear transformation and parametric transformation. The resultant building models should have a more accurate texture and improve the reality and practicality of cyber city implementation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 數碼城市
★ 影像鑲嵌
★ 紋理敷貼
關鍵字(英) ★ cyber city
★ image mosaic
★ texture mapping
論文目次 中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1背景介紹 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧及研究流程介紹 5
2.1文獻回顧 5
2.2 研究流程介紹 9
2.3 論文架構 12
第三章 影像與模型之空間關係 14
3.1 空間關係介紹 14
3.2影像空間對紋理空間之幾何轉換 16
3.2.1 像空間對像空間註冊 16
3.2.2 像空間對物空間註冊 22
3.2.3 不規則結構物牆面校正 26
3.3紋理空間對物體空間之幾何轉換 33
第四章 光影與遮蔽效應之處理 35
4.1 光影與遮蔽效應簡介 35
4.1.1 遮蔽效應 35
4.1.2 光影效應 38
4.2 Area of interest (AOI) 38
4.2.1 AOI之介紹 39
4.2.2 利用AOI界定資訊區域 40
4.3 光影調校 43
4.3.1 光影調校方法介紹 44
4.3.2 質心絛件 44
4.3.3 邊界條件 46
第五章 材質敷貼轉換 50
5.1 敷貼方法介紹 50
5.1.1 正向貼圖(Forward Mapping) 51
5.1.2影像材質建置(Inverse Mapping) 51
5.2 材質空間與物體空間之聯結 52
5.2.1線性轉換 52
5.2.2參數式轉換與敷貼 53
第六章 實驗成果與分析 55
6.1 實驗資料 55
6.2 研究流程介紹 58
6.3影像鑲嵌測試 59
6.3.1 光影測試 59
6.3.2 遮蔽測試 63
6.3.3 非平面牆面校正 65
6.4材質敷貼與成果展示 76
第七章 結論與未來展望 79
參考文獻 83
參考文獻 傅秉綱,2002年,"三維建物模型表面影像敷貼自動化之研究(Automatic Perspective Texture Mapping on 3D Building Models) ",國立成功大學測量工程研究所碩士論文
王正忠,2002年,"以近景攝影測量進行模型式建物重建(Model-based Building Reconstruction Using Close-Range Photogrammetry)",國立成功大學測量工程研究所碩士論文
黃文利,2001年,"近景攝影測量應用於三維建物模型側面影像敷貼之研究(A Study of Façade Texture Mapping on 3D Building Model by Close-Range Photogrammery)",國立成功大學測量工程研究所碩士論文
曾世傑,2003年,"View-Dependent Morphing on Clustering Based Level-of-Detail與觀察者有關的Morphing研究",天主教輔仁大學資訊工程研究所碩士論文
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指導教授 蔡富安(Fuan Tsai) 審核日期 2005-7-14
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