博碩士論文 92326006 詳細資訊




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姓名 沈政儒(Jheng-Ru Shen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 焚化飛灰與下水污泥灰共熔之操作特性 與卜作嵐材料特性之研究
(Characteristics study on co-melting and slag's pozzolanic from municipal solid waste fly ash and sewage sludge ash )
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摘要(中) 本研究係利用焚化飛灰與四種不同工程性質之下水污泥灰依不同比例摻配,進行鹽基度調質以降低灰渣熔流溫度,並進行調質灰組成份與鹽基度對熔流溫度迴歸分析,以探討都市垃圾焚化飛灰與下水污泥灰共同熔融之操作條件對熔流溫度之影響。另外,為建立共熔熔渣之基本材料特性,亦探討熔渣取代部分水泥之卜作嵐反應行為,包括熔渣水泥漿體抗壓強度、水化產物種類,水化程度,微結構觀察等。
實驗結果顯示,調質灰之組成份CaO、SiO2、Al2O3量對於熔流溫度R2分別為0.91、0.75、0.74。另外,調質灰熔流溫度隨CaO量之提高而逐漸增加,但隨SiO2和Al2O3提高則有降低之趨勢。調質灰CaO、SiO2、Al2O3三成份對熔流溫度之多變數迴歸方程式為FT = 1189.6+4.19 CaO-0.96 SiO2-4.33 Al2O3,R2為0.91。7種鹽基度對熔流溫度之R2介於0.84~0.91之間,鹽基度1具有簡單判定及高相關性之優點,其中又以鹽基度5相關性最佳。整體而言,鹽基度低於1以下熔流溫度較低,超越1~1.2之後熔流溫度明顯呈現上升之趨勢。
XRF分析顯示,各熔渣之主要成分為CaO、SiO2、Al2O3、P2O5,接近於高爐爐石與class C fly ash,屬於延遲水化膠結材料。熔渣卜作嵐活性佳,介於87.9~103.2%之間,重金屬溶出濃度相當低且符合法規標準值。
取代量10及20%熔渣水泥漿體,養護28天後強度發展趨勢較純水泥漿體快,且經90天水化後熔渣水泥漿體強度與純水泥漿體相當或超越之,其中又以NH熔渣水泥漿體強度較高,而JJ與BL強度發展相當。XRD和FTIR分析顯示,水化產物主要包括CH、C-S-H、Tobermorite、Hydroganet、Gismodine。NMR分析顯示,隨齡期發展C-S-H 結構的聚合程度逐漸提高,且齡期90天時水化程度與聚矽陰離子長度皆大於OPC漿體,顯示熔渣晚期卜作嵐反應有助於漿體矽酸鹽類之聚合。SEM觀察發現,隨卜作嵐反應持續進行,C-S-H 膠體形成緻密的網狀結構,並與其他水化產物C-A-H和C-A-S-H等交結在一起,進而增加漿體的緻密度並提升物理強度。
摘要(英) The melting of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is currently being practiced for recycling purposes under the sustainable waste management policy. Due to increasing concerns regarding the energy-intensivity of the process, in practice the basicity of MSW fly ash has been modified by the addition of sewage sludge ash (SSA),which lowers the melting temperature. However, it is essential that engineers and operators have a better understanding of how the basicity of the starting mixture affects the pouring point and the characteristics of the slag product produced by the co-melting process. Thus this study investigates the effects of the basicity on the pouring point of the fly ash-SSA mixture by using four kinds of SSAs as modifiers, which were collected from several primary and secondary sewage treatment plants (STPs) and were produced by different processes and sludge conditioning alternatives.The effects on the co-melted slags were determined by studying the slag’’s pozzolanic activity and its reactivity as a pozzolans in the slag-blended-cement (SBC) pastes.
The results indicate that the pouring point of the mixture increased with increasing basicity, within the range from 0.65-1.90. As defined by Murakami Basicity=(MgO+CaO+Fe2O3+K2O+Na2O)/(SiO2+Al2O3). The pouring point is affected by the contents of the mixtures (CaO, SiO2, Al2O3 and the flux). It is suggested that an increase in the CaO content tended to increase the pouring point; whereas an increase in the SiO2 and/or the Al2O3 contents reacted adversely.
The mineral compositions of the co-melted slags were determined by XRF analysis. Results indicate that the main components of the composition, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3 and P2O5 were close to those of the blast furnace slag and the class C fly ash. The co-melted slags also showed a high pozzolanic activity ranging from 87.9-103.2%, so could be classified as latent hydraulic materials. In addition, TCLP
testing for the targete heavy metals indicate that all the slag samples in this study met the US EPA’’s regulatory thresholds.
The pozzolanic reactivity of slag is determined by the compressive strength development of the SBC pastes and the product of the calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) in the pastes. SBC pastes with a replacement of cement by up to 20% showed a compressive strength at 90 days similar to or surpassing that of ordinary portland cement (OPC) paste. In particular, the SSA from Neihu STP,which was characterized by a high CaO content, due to the conditioning of the sludge by lime, outperformed the OPC paste in terms of compressive strength development. On the other hand, calcium hydroxide (CH), C-S-H, tobermorite, hydroganet and gismodine were confirmed by the XRD techniques,to be the main hydration products in the SBC pastes. NMR analyses also indicate that the formation of C-S-H in the SBC pastes increased with age, so that the degree of hydration and the growing length of the C-S-H at 90 days outperformed that of the OPC paste, as indicated by pozzolanic reactions in the slag at a later age. The pozzolanic reactions were further confirmed by SEM observation. A dense network of C-S-H which interpenetrated other hydrates, such as calcium aluminate hydrate (C-A-H) and calcium aluminate silicate hydrate (C-A-S-H) formed as the pozzolanic reactions proceeded.
From the results of this study concluded that the modification of basicity of MSW fly ash by the addition of SSA to lower the pouring point leading to a energy-efficient melting process is feasible, and the SBC which incorporated the co-melted slag has a comparable engineering performance to that at the OPC pastes.
關鍵字(中) ★ 焚化飛灰
★ 下水污泥灰
★ 共同熔融
★ 熔渣
★ 卜作嵐反應
關鍵字(英) ★ slag
★ co-melting
★ pozzolanic
★ MSW fly ash
★ sewage sludge ash
論文目次 第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起與目的 1
1-2 研究內容及方向 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 都市垃圾焚化灰渣來源及物化特性 3
2-1-1 都市垃圾焚化灰渣來源 3
2-1-2 都市垃圾焚化飛灰物化特性 6
2-1-3 焚化飛灰重金屬含量 9
2-2 下水污泥來源、產量及物化特性和污泥灰組成 12
2-2-1 下水污泥來源及產量 12
2-2-2 下水污泥物化特性 15
2-2-3 下水污泥灰之組成份 16
2-2-3-1灰份組成之分析 16
2-2-3-2灰份組成間之關係 17
2-2-3-3不同下水排除方式之灰份組成 18
2-3 熔融處理 20
2-3-1 熔融處理之原理 20
2-3-2 熔融處理操作之因子 22
2-3-2-1 灰渣鹽基度 22
2-3-2-2 灰渣粒徑大小及分怖 24
2-3-2-3 熔融操作時間 24
2-3-2-4 熔融操作溫度 25
2-3-2-5 熔融爐氣氛條件 25
2-3-2-6 相圖 26
2-3-2-7 熔融液黏度 28
2-3-3 下水污泥灰組成與熔流點之相關性 28
2-3-3-1氧化物之熔融溫度 28
2-3-3-2 SiO2與鹽基度對熔流溫度之關係 30
2-3-3-3 污泥灰鹽基度與熔融溫度之特性 32
2-3-3-4 有機及無機系污泥灰之熔融特性 32
2-3-4 熔融處理之應用及處理效應之指標 39
2-3-4-1 熔融處理之應用 39
2-3-4-2 熔融處理效率之指標 40
2-3-5 熔渣種類及資源化 43
2-3-5-1熔渣種類 43
2-3-5-2 熔渣之資源化 45
2-4 卜作嵐材料 48
2-4-1卜作嵐材料之類型 50
2-4-2卜作嵐材料之反應機制及應用 51
2-4-2-1 卜作嵐材料與C3S之反應 51
2-4-2-2 卜作嵐材料C3A與之反應 52
2-4-3卜作嵐反應之相態平衡 55
2-4-4卜作嵐材料品質控制指標 57
2-4-5卜作嵐反應活性之評估指標 59
2-4-6卜作嵐材料取代部分水泥之應用 62
第三章 實驗材料與方法 66
3-1 實驗流程 66
3-1-2 飛灰與下水污泥灰共同熔融操作條件配置 70
3-1-3 共熔熔渣水泥漿體試驗條件配置 73
3-2 實驗材料與分析設備及方法 75
3-2-1 實驗材料 75
3-2-2 實驗設備 80
3-2-3 分析儀器 82
3-2-4 分析方法 84
第四章 結果與討論 96
4-1 焚化飛灰與下水污泥及灰渣基本性質分析 96
4-1-1 飛灰與污泥及灰渣之物化性質 96
4-1-2 飛灰與污泥及灰渣之物種型態 105
4-1-3 飛灰與污泥及灰渣之重金屬總量與TCLP試驗 108
4-2 飛灰與下水污泥灰共同熔融操作因子之影響 110
4-2-1調質灰組成份與熔流溫度之迴歸分析 110
4-2-1-1 調質灰CaO成份對熔流溫度之迴歸分析 110
4-2-1-2 調質灰SiO2成份對熔流溫度之迴歸分析 112
4-2-1-3 調質灰Al2O3成份對熔流溫度之迴歸分析 113
4-2-1-4調質灰組成對熔流溫度之多變數迴歸分析 115
4-2-1-5 調質灰等熔流溫度分佈 116
4-2-2 調質灰鹽基度與熔流溫度之迴歸分析 117
4-3 熔渣基本性質分析 123
4-3-1 熔渣之物化性質 123
4-3-2 熔渣之重金屬總量與TCLP試驗 130
4-4 熔渣水泥漿體之巨觀分析 133
4-4-1 凝結行為 133
4-4-2 卜作嵐活性指數 135
4-4-3 抗壓強度發展 136
4-4-3-1 熔渣取代量於抗壓強度發展之影響 136
4-4-3-2 熔渣水泥漿體比強度 141
4-5 熔渣水泥漿體水化產物之分析 143
4-5-1 熔渣水泥漿體XRD分析 143
4-5-2 熔渣水泥漿體FTIR分析 153
4-6 熔渣水泥漿體之水化程度與膠體空間比分析 157
4-6-1 水化程度 157
4-6-2 膠體空間比 162
4-7 熔渣水泥漿體NMR分析 167
4-7-1 熔渣水泥漿體特徵峰變化 167
4-7-2 熔渣水泥漿體水化程度與聚矽陰離子長度之變化 175
4-8 熔渣水泥漿體SEM觀察 180
4-9 綜合討論 183
4-9-1 調質對熔流溫度之影響 183
4-9-2 熔渣水泥漿體巨微觀性質分析 188
第五章 結論與建議 191
5-1 結論 191
5-2 建議 194
參考文獻 195
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指導教授 王鯤生、林凱隆
(Kuen-Sheng Wang、Kai-Long Lin)
審核日期 2005-6-16
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