博碩士論文 92326012 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳鴻文(Hown-Wen Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 生質燃燒長程傳輸對台灣中部高山氣膠特性及其指標的影響
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摘要(中) 生質燃燒活動會產生大量溫室氣體及氣膠,造成地區性的空氣污染及酸雨,也會影響雲的特性、雲量等,間接影響大氣輻射平衡及全球氣候的變化。
每年春季是亞洲中南半島生質燃燒活動頻繁的時間,在適當的天氣系統傳輸下會將當地的污染物帶到台灣。本研究選擇在台灣中部海拔2,862公尺的鹿林山天文觀測站做為大氣氣膠觀測地點,在2004年秋末及2004年12月中旬進行背景觀測,在2005年4月進行生質燃燒事件日觀測;另外,以實驗模擬近生質燃燒源的活動。分析項目包括氣膠質量濃度、氣膠水溶性離子、碳成分、左旋葡萄糖與二元酸。
本研究發現在受到生質燃燒影響時,細粒徑氣膠質量濃度明顯較背景觀測期間高出3倍之多,生質燃燒事件期間PM2.5濃度平均為15.4 μg m-3。在氣膠水溶性離子組成,背景觀測及生質燃燒事件中,顯著離子物種都是銨根離子、硫酸根離子,另外,鉀離子濃度在生質燃燒事件比背景高出3倍。在氣膠碳成分方面,生質燃燒事件發現揮發裂解碳(OCpy)有明顯增加的情形,元素碳則以低溫元素碳(EC1-OP)為顯著物種。氣膠左旋葡萄糖在生質燃燒事件有較大的濃度值,平均為46.5 ng m-3。在少數雲霧氣膠的觀測,硫酸根離子和元素碳都有增加的情形。
本研究進行的稻草及華山松的燃燒氣膠採樣,顯示近生質燃燒源所產生的氣膠多是以細粒徑氣膠為主,且水溶性離子組成多是以氯離子與鉀離子為主;碳成分分布物種則以高溫揮發有機碳(OC3)所佔比例較多,元素碳為EC1-OP所佔比例較顯著。另外,針對不同燃燒狀態下採集分析的結果,悶燒狀態比燃燒狀態產生較多的細粒徑氣膠,水溶性離子組成多是以燃燒狀態有較高的濃度值;在碳成分方面,分別計算OC各物種佔OC與EC各物種佔EC的比例,發現燃燒狀態在高溫揮發有機碳(OC4)和OCpy所佔比例較悶燒狀態高,而悶燒狀態則是在低溫揮發有機碳(OC2)和OC3佔有較大的比例。
在物種指標方面,生質燃燒氣膠主要的物種有碳成分及鉀離子,利用這些物種進行比值的探討。生質燃燒長程傳輸及近污染源K+/EC的比值分別為0.25、0.36,EC/TC在長程傳輸與近污染源比值分別為0.20、0.09,OC/EC對長程傳輸及近污染源的比值為4.58、9.13。另外,計算總二元酸與左旋葡萄糖的比值,計算得值為4.55。利用左旋葡萄糖與鉀離子的比值判斷不同燃燒狀態,獲得燃燒狀態為0.023,悶燒狀態為0.044。本研究顯示了生質燃燒氣膠近污染源觀測和長程傳輸的對比。
摘要(英) Biomass burning produces a great amount of greenhouse gases and aerosols, which cause not only local air pollution and regional acid rain but also affect the formation of clouds and thus regional radiation balance as well as global climate change.
Every spring season, biomass burning is frequently occurred in the Southeast Asia. Under the transport of an appropriate weather system, the air mass can carry the produced pollutants. This study chose Lu-lin Mountain (2,862 m a.s.l.) situated in central Taiwan for observation on aerosols from long-range transport. The observations include background periods in Autumn and December in 2004 and event period in April 2005. In addition, the experiment was conducted to sample aerosols near the burning source of rice straw and pine. The analyzed aerosol properties include mass concentration, water-soluble ion, carbonaceous content, monosacchride anhydrides, and dicarboxylic acids.
The results show that PM2.5 average in the period of long-range transport biomass burning was 15.4 μg m-3, which was clearly three times than that of the background observation. For water-soluble ions, the dominant species were ammonium and sulfate both in the background observation and in the the period of biomass burning. However, potassium ion observed in the biomass burning was three times more than that of the background. For carbonaceous content, volatility-corrected OC (OCpy) was increased significantly during the biomass burning event. The low temperature (EC1-OP) was dominant in elemental carbon (EC). Aerosol levoglucosan, which is considered as a cellulose burning tracer, was observed higher at an average of 46.5 ng m-3 during the biomass burning event. From the collection of cloud and fog aerosol, both sulfate ion and EC were found higher than background samples.
In the study of near source biomass burning, the results showed that the aerosol produced was predominant in the fine mode. Water-soluble ions were dominated by chloride and potassium ions. In terms of carbon fractions, high-temperature voltilized OC3 was the most important species and EC1-OP was the major species in EC. In addition, the results of different combustion phases showed that smoldering phase emitted more fine aerosols than flaming phase. However, the water-soluble ions were in greater amount for flaming phase than smoldering phase. As for carbonaceous fractions, the ratios of high-temperature voltilized OC4 and OCpy in OC for flaming phase were greater than those of smoldering phase. In contrast, smoldering phase had greater ratios of low-temperature voltilized OC2 and OC3 in OC than those of flaming phase.
For aerosol tracer study, potassium ion and carbons were found useful in comparing aerosols from near source and long-range transport. The K+/EC values for long-range transport and near source of biomass burning were 0.25 and 0.36, respectively. Meanwhile, the values of EC/TC for long-range transport and near source of biomass burning were 0.18 and 0.09, respectively. For OC/EC, the values were 4.58 and 9.13, respectively, for long-range transport and near source of biomass burning. Furthermore, the ratio of total dicarboxylic acids to levoglucosan was calculated at around 4.55. In using the ratio of levoglucosan to potassium ion as a reference for assessing different phases of biomass burning, the value was 0.023 for flaming phase and 0.044 for smoldering phase. In summary, this study demonstrates a contrast of aerosol properties from biomass burning between near source and long-range transport.
關鍵字(中) ★ 生質燃燒氣膠
★ 長程傳輸氣膠
★ 近污染源氣膠
★ 氣膠指標
關鍵字(英) ★ biomass burning aerosols
★ long-range transport
★ near source aerosols
★ aerosol tracers
論文目次 第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 氣膠的來源與特性 4
2.1.1 氣膠的類型、來源及生成 4
2.1.2 氣膠的特性 5
2.1.2.1 物理特性 5
2.1.2.2 化學特性 7
2.2 高山氣膠特性 10
2.3 生質燃燒 11
2.3.1 生質燃燒來源 12
2.3.2 生質燃燒過程 14
2.3.3 生質燃燒氣體特性 14
2.3.4 生質燃燒氣膠的生成 15
2.3.5 生質燃燒氣膠光學特性 15
2.3.6 生質燃燒氣膠物理特性 16
2.3.7 生質燃燒氣膠化學特性 16
2.3.7.1 水溶性離子 17
2.3.7.2 元素成分 18
2.3.7.3 碳成分 19
2.3.7.4 氣膠有機物 20
2.3.8 亞洲污染物與生質燃燒傳輸機制 25
2.3.9 不同燃燒狀態-悶燒與燃燒 26
2.3.10 燃燒煙霧氣膠長程傳輸特性 27
2.3.10.1 新生成煙霧氣膠 27
2.3.10.2 老化煙霧氣膠 28
2.4 生質燃燒氣膠對人體及環境的影響 31
2.4.1 對人體的影響 31
2.4.2 對環境的影響 31
第三章 研究方法 33
3.1 採樣地點描述 35
3.2 採樣設備 37
3.2.1 人工採樣器 37
3.2.2 自動監測儀器 39
3.3 生質燃燒源頭採樣實驗 40
3.4 農廢燃燒事件現地採樣 41
3.5 樣本分析方法 41
3.5.1 氣膠質量秤重分析 41
3.5.2 氣膠水溶性離子分析 42
3.5.3 氣膠碳成分分析 43
3.5.4 氣膠有機成分分析 45
3.6 氣膠污染來源及貢獻量的評估 50
3.7 判斷生質燃燒發生的方法 54
第四章 結果與討論 57
4.1 鹿林山高山氣膠特性(背景氣膠) 58
4.1.1 天氣、環境狀況及軌跡線描述 58
4.1.2 高山氣膠質量濃度 61
4.1.3 高山氣膠水溶性離子特性 63
4.1.4 高山氣膠碳成分特性 67
4.1.5 高山氣膠有機成分特性 73
4.1.6 高山氣膠相關研究的比較 75
4.1.7 雲霧氣膠 79
4.2 生質燃燒氣膠特性 81
4.2.1 天氣、環境狀況及軌跡線描述 84
4.2.2 生質燃燒影響時間 85
4.2.3 生質燃燒氣膠質量濃度影響程度 87
4.2.4 生質燃燒氣膠水溶性離子特性 90
4.2.5 生質燃燒氣膠碳成分特性 94
4.2.6 生質燃燒氣膠有機成分特性 104
4.2.7 生質燃燒事件影響期間特殊事件 108
4.3 背景與生質燃燒事件日氣膠特性比較 109
4.3.1 氣膠質量濃度的影響 109
4.3.2 氣膠水溶性離子及結合型態 114
4.3.3 氣膠碳成分 124
4.3.4 氣膠有機成分 131
4.4 各軌跡類型氣膠特性探討 137
4.4.1 軌跡類型分類 137
4.4.2 各軌跡類型氣膠質量濃度 139
4.4.3 水溶性離子 141
4.4.4 碳成分 145
4.4.5 有機成分 149
4.4.6 各氣流軌跡傳輸類型離子比值 152
4.5 近生質燃燒源頭氣膠特性 153
4.5.1 燃燒狀態氣膠特性 154
4.5.2 悶燒狀態氣膠特性 168
4.5.3 燃燒及悶燒狀態氣膠特性比較 183
4.5.4 華山松氣膠特性 201
4.5.5 不同種類植物燃燒氣膠特性 209
4.6 農廢物現地燃燒氣膠特性 218
4.6.1 採樣地點描述及天氣情況 218
4.6.2 新生氣膠 220
4.6.3 老化氣膠 232
4.6.4 新生與老化氣膠特性比較 242
4.6.5 近污染源及長程傳輸生質燃燒氣膠特性 250
第五章 結論與建議 257
5.1 結論 257
5.2 建議 259
參考文獻 261
附錄一 口試委員意見及回覆 275
附錄二 鹿林山觀測期間700 hPa氣流場 278
附錄三 鹿林山觀測期間850及700 hPa垂直上升速度場 288
附錄四 鹿林山生質燃燒事件日觀測期間美國自然災害網每日火點發生地點照片 308
附錄五 台灣及鹿林山地理位置圖 311
參考文獻 黃希爾,2004。東亞生質燃燒對台灣高山氣膠特性的影響。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文
秦若鈺,2004。大氣常見有機物分析及有機/無機混合氣膠含水特性之研究。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文
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指導教授 李崇德(Chung-Te Lee) 審核日期 2006-1-25
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