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姓名 王嘉珍(Chia-chen Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊管理學系
論文名稱 知識團隊之成員多樣化與團隊績效之研究—團隊認知及知識整合之中介效果
(A Study on the Role of Team Member Diversity on Team Performance — The Mediating Roles of Team Cognition and Knowledge Integration)
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摘要(中) 隨著知識經濟時代的來臨,與全球化競爭的日益激烈,企業所面對的產業環境已完全不同。為了因應快速變遷的環境與需求,資訊與知識的應用,成了企業活動中,不可或缺的要角。在過去的研究中,學者們亦將知識視為組織最重要的資源之一,而知識的應用與吸收能力,也就成了組織最重要的能力。另一方面,團隊是組織用以面對外在激烈競爭的一個機制,其結合了擁有不同知識廣度與深度的人員,透過人員間知識的整合與協同合作,提升任務完成的效益及效率。包括了新產品開發、顧問、資訊系統開發等工作,都需要來自不同功能部門的知識,這也促成了跨功能團隊的形成。這些跨功能團隊的成員,存在更高的異質性。這些背景、經驗、專長等各不相同的成員,對於任務的認知往往也存在差異,如何促成這些人的合作,以發揮一加一大於二的效益,也就成了另一個組織必須考量的重要課題。
本研究即以組織內的知識工作團隊作為研究對象,探討團隊成員多樣化與團隊績效的關係。首先,多樣化的成員間必須建立一致的團隊認知,包括對成員彼此專業知識的認知,以及如何完成團隊任務的認知。其次,團隊成員應該要整合這些成員的能力與知識,以完成團隊任務。本研究利用I-P-O模式,探討團隊工作績效如何受到團隊成員組成的影響。兩個主要的中介變數為團隊認知及團隊內的知識整合。最後,以團隊內溝通的有效性作為調節變數,進一步分析其如何改變成員多樣化對團隊認知的影響。
本研究針對組織內知識工作者所組成的專案團隊發放網路問卷,每組團隊需有至少3位成員進行填答,才能計算為一組有效問卷。共回收了含215位填答者之71組有效問卷。本研究使用PLS以團隊分數進行資料分析,獲得以下四個重要結果。首先,對知識團隊而言,知識整合與任務協同是影響專案績效的兩個重要的團隊流程。其次,對團隊成員與團隊任務的共識,有助於團隊成員進行知識整合與任務協同。第三,團隊成員多樣化與團隊認知間存在正向關係。進一步分析後發現,只有性別多樣化與專業知識異質性與團隊認知有顯著的正相關,其餘的多樣化指標與團隊認知間都沒有顯著的關係。第四,溝通是促成團隊建立共識的重要機制,同時也調節了年資及教育程度多樣化與團隊認知間的關係。當溝通有效性低時,年資多樣化與任務共識間,存在顯著的負向關係;當溝通有效性高時,教育程度的多樣化與團隊可靠性認知有顯著的正向關係。
摘要(英) Organizations face a whole new competitive environment in the knowledge era. Ever escalating global competition and the rapid changing environment result in a situation where the application of information technologies and knowledge play a critical role in organizational activities. Prior researches reveal knowledge as an important resource in organizations, and knowledge utilization and absorptive capacity are important organizational capabilities. In addition, task force or work-team becomes an important mechanism to respond to heavy competition. Teams are social networks that combine people who have different knowledge breath and depth. Team efficiency and effective are improved through integration of knowledge and collaboration among members within a team. Moreover, cross-functional teams are formed to deal with tasks which require knowledge from different functional unit in an organization, such as new product development, consulting, and information systems development. Members in many cross-functional teams are supposedly heterogeneous in their background, experience, and expertise. They usually have different opinions toward the tasks assigned to them. How to facilitate their cooperation and achieve synergy become critical managerial issues.
This study focuses on knowledge work-teams in organizations and tries to explore how team member diversity affects team performance. First, members with heterogeneous capabilities have to build mutual team cognition. Both team-related cognition and task-related cognition are important. Team-related cognition means the knowledge about other members’ expertise, while task-related cognition is the agreement on how team task should be done. Next, team members’ knowledge and capability should be combined to finish task. Besides, the characteristics of team task might affect how related knowledge and abilities are applied. This study adopts the I-P-O model to discuss the effects of team member diversity on team performance. Two major mediators are team cognition and knowledge integration within the team. Finally, communication effectiveness is employed as a moderator that moderates the effects of team member diversity on team cognition.
Questionnaire was administered to knowledge teams in organizations via the Internet. A valid sample consists of at least 3 team members in the same team. Data were collected from 215 respondents, participating in 71 project teams (samples). Data was analyzed using PLS. There are four major findings in this study. First, to knowledge teams, knowledge integration and task coordination are both positively associated with team performance. Second, both team-related cognition and task-related cognition are helpful to knowledge integration and task coordination. Third, member diversity is positively related to the formation of team cognition. Further analysis shows that only gender diversity and expertise heterogeneity are positively related to team cognition. Finally, communication effectiveness is important to the formation of team cognition; and meanwhile, it moderates the relationship between member diversity and team cognition. Tenure diversity is negatively related to task understanding when the degree of communication effectiveness is low. On the other hand, when the degree of communication effectiveness is high, the relationship between education diversity and team cognition is positive.
關鍵字(中) ★ 知識整合
★ 團隊認知
★ 成員多樣化
★ 團隊績效
關鍵字(英) ★ knowledge integration
★ team co
★ member diversity
論文目次 1. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景 1
1.2. 研究動機及目的 3
1.3. 研究範圍及研究進行程序 4
2. 文獻探討 6
2.1. 團隊組成與績效的相關理論 6
2.2. 知識團隊 8
2. 3 團隊認知 (TEAM COGNITION) 15
2.4. 知識整合 (KNOWLEDGE INTEGRATION) 19
2.5. 任務協同 (TASK COORDINATION) 24
3. 研究模型與假說推論 26
3.1. 研究架構 26
3.2. 研究假說 26
4. 研究方法 38
4.1. 研究設計 38
4.2. 問卷設計 39
5. 資料分析 48
5.1. 敘述性統計 48
5.2. 個別資料之信度及效度分析 52
5.3. 組內一致性分析 55
5.4. 團隊資料之信度及效度分析 58
5.5. 假說檢定 61
6. 討論 69
6.1. 研究發現 69
6.2. 研究貢獻 76
7. 結論 77
7.1. 學術意涵 77
7.2. 管理意涵 79
7.3. 研究限制與未來研究方向 80
參考文獻 83
附錄 97
A.1. 問卷 97
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指導教授 范錚強(Cheng-kiang Farn) 審核日期 2009-7-14
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