|| Ian F. Akyildiz, WellJan Su, Yogesh Sankarasubramaniam, and Erdal Cayirci, “A Survey on Sensor Networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 102-114, August 2002.|
 Brad Karp and H.T. Kung., “GPSR: Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing for Wireless Networks,” in Proceedings of the 6th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 243-254, Boston, Mass, USA, August 2000.
 Young-Bae Ko and Nitin H. Vaidya., “Location-aided routing in mobile ad hoc networks,” in Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 66-75, Dallas, Texas USA, October, 1998.
 Wen-Hwa Liao, Jang-Ping Sheu, and Yu-Chee Tseng, “GRID: A Fully Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks”, in Telecommunication Systems, Volume 18, pp. 37-60, 2001.
 Jie Gao, Leonidas J. Guibas, John Hershberger, Li Zhang, and An Zhu, “Geometric Spanner for Routing in Mobile Networks,” in Proceedings of the 2nd ACM Symposium on Mobile Ad Hoc Networking & Computing (MobiHoc), pp. 45-55, Long Beach, CA, USA, October 2001.
 Prosenjit Bose, Pat Morin, Ivan Stojmenovic, and Jorge Urrutia, “ Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Workshop Discrete Algorithms and Methods for Mobile Computing and Communications, pp. 48-55, Seattle, Washington, USA, August. 1999.
 FINN, G. G. “Routing and addressing problems in large metropolitan-scale internetworks,” Technique Report ISI/RR-87-180, Information Sciences Institute, Mar. 1987.
 Yongjin Kim, Jae-Joon Lee, and Ahmed Helmy, ”Impact of location Inconsistencies on Geographic Routing in Wireless Networks,” in Proceedings of the 6th ACM International Workshop on Modeling Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM), pp. 124-127, San Diego, CA, USA. September, 2003.
 Karim Seada, Ahmed Helmy, and Ramesh Govindan. , “On the Effect of Location errors on geographic face routing in sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium in Information Processing in Sensor Networks, pp. 71-80. Berkely, CA, USA, April, 2004.
 Dongjin Son, Ahmed Helmy, and Bhaskar Krishnamachari, “The Effect of Mobility-Induced Location Errors on Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad hoc and Sensor Networks: Analysis and Improvement Using Mobility Prediction, ” in Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), Atlanta, Georgia, USA, March, 2004
 B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins, “Global Positioning System: Theory and Practice,” 4th Edited, Springer Verlag, 1997.
 Tian He, Chengdu Huang, Brian Blum, John A. Stankovic, and Taerk Abdelzaher, “Range-free Location Schemes in Large Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the 9th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. 81-95, San Diego, CA, USA, September, 2003.
 Andreas Savvides, Chih-Chieh Han and Mani B. Strivastave. “Dynamic Fine-Grained Localization in Ad-Hoc Networks of Sensors,” in Proceedings of the 7th Annual ACM/IEEE International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (Mobicom), pp. 166-179, Rome, Italy, July, 2001.
 Paramvir Bahl and Venkata N. Padmanabhan “RADAR: An in-building RF-based User Location and Tracking System,” in Proceedings of 19th Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies, Volume 2, pp. 775-784, Tel-Aviv, Israel, March, 2000.
 Nirupama Bulusu, John Heidemann, and Deborah Estrin. “GPS-less low cost outdoor localization for every for every small devices,” in IEEE Personal Communications Magazine, Special Issue on Networking the Physical World, August, 2000.
 Dragos Niculescu and Badri Nath, “Ad Hoc Positioning System (APS),” in Proceedings of IEEE Global Communications (GLOBECOM), Volume 5, pp. 2926-2931, San Antonio, Texas, November, 2001.
 A.Nasipuri and K. Li., “A Directionality Based Location Discovery Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks,” in First ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA), pp. 105-111, Atlanta, GA, September, 2002.
 N. B. Priyantha, A.Chakraborty, and H. Padmanabhan, “The Cricket Location Support System,” in Proceeding of sixth ACM International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MOBICOM), pp. 32-43, Boston, MA, Augest, 2000
 Yi Shang, Wheeler Rum, Ying Zhang, and M. Fromherz. “Localization from Mere Connectivity,” in Proceedings of International Symposium On Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing (MobiHoc), pp. 201-212, Annapolis, MD, USA, June, 2003.
 Antonio Caruso, Stefano Chessa, Swade De, and Alessandro Urpi, “GPS Free Coordinate Assignment and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in IEEE International Conference on Computer Communication (INFOCOM), Miami, March, 2005.
 Qing Cao, and Abdelzaher. T, “Scalable Logical Coordinates Framework for Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of 25th IEEE International on Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), pp. 349 - 358, Lisbon, Portugal, December, 2004.
 Ananth Rao, Christos Papadimitriou, Scott Shenker, and Ion Stoica, “Geographic Routing Without Location Information,” in Proceedings of the 9th annual international conference on mobile computing and networking, pp. 96-108, San Diego, CA, USA, 2003.
 Srdjan Capkun, Maher Hamdi, and Jean-Pierre Hubaux, “GPS-free Positioning in Mobile Ad Hoc networks, ” in Proceedings of Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 3481-3490, Maui, HW, January, 2001.
 Neal Patwari, Alfred O. Hero, III, Matt Perkins, Neiyer S. Correal, and Robert J. O’Dea, “Relative location estimation in wireless sensor networks,” IEEE Transaction Signal Process. Special Issue on Signal Processing in Networks, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2137-2148, August, 2003.
 Thomas Moscibroda, Regina O’Dell, Mirjam Wattenhofer, and Roger Attenhofer, “Virtual Coordiantes for Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks,” in Proceedings of the ACM Joint Workshop on Foundations of Mobile Computing (DLALM-POMC), pp. 8-16, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, October, 2004.
 Regina Bischoff, and Roger Wattenhofer, “Analyzing Connectivity-based, Muti-hop Ad Hoc Positioning,” in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications (PerCom), pp. 165-176, Orlando, Florida, USA, March, 2004.
 Fikret Sivrikaya and Bulent Yener, “Time synchronization in sensor networks- a survey,” IEEE Network, Vol. 18, Issue 4, pp. 45-50, July/August 2004.