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姓名 劉啟文(Chi-Xen Liu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 大氣物理研究所
論文名稱 亞洲沙塵好發期間雲水化學特性分析
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摘要(中) 本研究旨在探討2002-2004年亞洲沙塵好發期間,陽明山區竹子山雲水化學之特性,並進一步就氣流來源歸類雲水個案,進行多變量統計,以了解不同氣流來源影響下雲水化學組成及特性。最後,利用一雲水個案來估算沙塵中水溶性氣膠微粒受到雲內清除作用之比例。
2002-2004年亞洲沙塵好發期間,Ca2+離子濃度在非沙塵及沙塵事件時雲水中之比例分別為3%及6%,兩者相差將近一倍,顯示沙塵對雲水化學造成明顯影響。進一步區分沙塵期間不同氣流來源影響下雲水化學結果則顯示,沙塵期間受到來自中國中部與北方一帶氣流影響時,雲水中SO42-、NO3-與Ca2+離子濃度及雲內負荷量皆有最高值;SO42-、NO3-離子濃度及雲內負荷量部分為非沙塵時之1.3倍,Ca2+離子甚至可達四倍之多,顯示在此氣流來源下,雲水受到人為排放污染物及沙塵影響甚鉅。
此外,估算沙塵中水溶性氣膠微粒受到雲內清除作用之比例結果可得知,在2004/2/5-8日受沙塵影響雲水事件中,當沙塵伴隨雲系移入台灣時,沙塵中主要致酸SO42-、NO3-及致鹼NH4+、Ca2+的水溶性氣膠微粒分別有41%、52%及41%、55%會受到雲內清除作用之影響而從大氣中移除。
摘要(英) The purpose of this study is to characterize the cloud chemistry observed during the prevailing seasons of Asian dust in 2002-2004. Based on backward trajectory analysis, cloud events were categorized to study the relationship between dust source regions and cloud chemistry. Furthermore, one cloud event was studied to estimate the scavenging efficiency of water-soluble aerosol particles by clouds.
The contribution of Ca2+ to total ions in cloud water is 3% and 6% for non-dust and dust events, respectively. For dust events, highest SO42-,NO3- and Ca2+ ion concentrations and their cloud
loadings were associated with the air mass
originated from northern and central China. The SO42-, NO3- ion concentrations and their dust loadings for dust events were 30% greater than those for non-dust events, even more than four times for Ca2+.
In one case study, the in-cloud scavenging of water-soluble aerosol particles was estimated.
The result showed that 41, 52, 41 and 55% of SO42-, NO3-, NH4+ and Ca2+ were scavenged by cloud droplets, respectively.
關鍵字(中) ★ 雲內清除作用
★ 氣膠
★ 沙塵
關鍵字(英) ★ Aerosol
★ In-cloud scavenging
★ Dust
論文目次 摘要..............................................................I
致謝............................................................III
目錄.............................................................IV
表目錄...........................................................VI
圖目錄.........................................................VIII
第一章 前言.......................................................1
1.1 研究動機 ..................................................1
1.2 研究目的...................................................2
第二章 文獻回顧...................................................3
2.1 沙塵暴........................................................3
2.1.1沙塵暴簡介..............................................3
2.1.2沙塵中氣膠微粒經長程傳輸的演變..........................4
2.1.3沙塵暴對環境及降水化學之影響............................4
2.2 雲霧特性...................................................7
2.2.1 台灣冬季雲霧之生成.....................................7
2.2.2 雲霧內轉化機制.........................................7
2.2.3 雲水中離子種類.........................................9
2.2.4 雲水中物質之貢獻源....................................10
2.3 氣流軌跡應用與水溶性氣膠微粒清除率估算....................10
2.3.1 多變量統計方法結合氣流軌跡............................10
2.3.2 水溶性氣膠微粒受到雲內清除作用影響之比例..............11
第三章 研究方法..................................................12
3.1 實驗時間與地點…..........................................12
3.2 實驗設備與採樣原理........................................13
3.3 化學分析..................................................13
3.4 理論導電度估計............................................14
3.5 氣流軌跡模式簡介..........................................14
3.6 氣流來源分類..............................................16
3.7 資料處理..................................................16
3.8 多變量統計分析模式簡介....................................17
3.9 雲之清除效率估算..........................................19
3.9.1 估算雲內沙塵含量......................................19
3.9.2 雲內清除作用..........................................19
第四章 結果與討論................................................21
4.1沙塵與非沙塵雲水觀測化學特性分析...........................21
4.1.1 雲水pH值及導電度......................................21
4.1.2 雲水化學成分..........................................21
4.2沙塵事件雲水化學特性:氣流來源之影響.......................22
4.2.1 pH值.................................................22
4.2.2 導電度................................................23
4.2.3 海鹽離子(Na+、Cl-).........................................24
4.2.4 硫酸根離子(SO42-)..........................................24
4.2.5 硝酸根離子(NO3-)...........................................25
4.2.6 nss-SO42-/ NO3- 比值.......................................26
4.2.7 銨與鈣離子(NH4+、Ca2+).....................................26
4.2.8 離子間當量濃度比...........................................27
4.2.9 離子間比值關係.............................................28
4.2.10雲內污染負載量.............................................29
4.3 因子分析..................................................30
4.4 聚類分析..................................................33
4.5雲內沙塵含量及水溶性氣膠微粒清除率之估算......................34
4.5.1 雲內沙塵含量...............................................34
4.5.2水溶性氣膠微粒清除率之估算..................................35
4.6 個案分析.....................................................36
4.7 各國雲霧水結果比較...........................................38
第五章 結論與展望................................................41
5.1 結論......................................................41
5.2 展望......................................................43
參考文獻.........................................................44
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指導教授 林能暉(Neng-Huei Lin) 審核日期 2005-7-21
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