博碩士論文 92622015 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳美伶(Mei-Ling Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球物理研究所
論文名稱 台灣海峽及台灣西部平原之沈積層速度構造
(Sediment Velocity Structures in the Taiwan Strait and the Coastal Plain of west Taiwan)
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摘要(中) 地球物理探勘多使用反射震測法瞭解地下構造形貌,然而震測剖面展示的是震波走時,需用速度加以轉換成地下深度。本研究使用井下與震測資料以及V0-k方法,建立台灣海峽及西部平原的沈積層速度構造。首先,假設岩層之波傳速度隨著深度加深呈線性遞增的趨勢(即V0-k方法,V0表岩層在海床或地表之震波速度,k表速度隨深度遞增的幅度),接著對每筆資料作速度與深度的迴歸分析,而得到V0(截距)、k(斜率)值,網格化這些值可得到V0與k的空間分佈。V0值的側向變化可反映表層沈積層特性:盆地內的V0值較低;而在西部麓山帶的V0值較高。k值變化則反映側向岩性差異與構造分佈,在難以壓縮之基盤高區具有異常高的k值。將V0、k和深度經過運算得到三維速度分佈,發現垂向速度變化主要受控於沈積物的深埋壓密作用;側向速度變化主要受控於斷陷作用與抬升作用;在垂直剖面的等速度曲線可反映地下構造幾何形貌。最後,利用井下鑽遇的漸新世分離不整合面深度,及其於震測剖面上顯示的時間轉換成深度,測試此三維速度構造之準確度。轉換深度的平均誤差百分比為4.78 %,顯示三維速度構造合理可信。
摘要(英) The method of reflection seismic imaging displays subsurface structures in time rather than in depth. One therefore needs to know the 3-D distribution of subsurface velocity in order to convert seismic time into depth and obtain 3-D subsurface depth structures. I use borehole and seismic data to compute a 3-D sediment velocity structure in the Taiwan Strait and the coastal plain in west Taiwan by using V0-k method. The V0-k method assumes that velocity increases with increasing depth in a linear form, in which V0 is the initial velocity at the seabed or on the ground surface, and k represents the rate of increase of the velocity with increasing depth. Fitting velocity with depth to a linear form for each data set obtains V0 (intercept) and k (slope) pairs, and gridding these values obtains the spatial distribution of V0 and k. The lateral variation of V0 reflects sediment characteristics with lower values in the basin and higher values in the western foothills. The variation of k correlates to the lithology difference and lateral structural variation. The value of k is exceptionally high in the areas of hardly compactible basement highs. Parameters of V0 and k were gridded in a 3-D depth volume. Comparing the velocity depth structures to seismic images, one finds that (1) the vertical velocity variation is mainly controlled by burial compaction of sediments; (2) the lateral velocity variation is caused by stratal offset resulted from major normal or reverse faulting; and (3) the isovelocity curves shown on cross-sections may reflect the geometry of the basement structure. Finally, I use the drilled depths of the Oligocene breakup unconformity (generally < 4 km in depth) and its corresponding depths as converted from seismic data and using the proposed velocity model to test the validity of the 3-D velocity model. The comparison yields a value of 4.78% of mean percentage error between drilled and predicted depths, indicating that the proposed velocity model predicts subsurface velocity reasonably well down to, at least, 4 km in depth.
關鍵字(中) ★ 台灣海峽
★ V0-k方法
★ 沈積層速度
關鍵字(英) ★ Taiwan Strait
★ V0-k method
★ sediment velocity
論文目次 中文提要 i
英文提要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目 vi
表目 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1-1研究動機 1
1-2岩石速度的物理性質及測定方法 4
1-2-1影響岩石速度分佈的物理性質 4
1-2-2常用岩石速度測定方法 7
1-3區域地質背景 13
1-3-1新生代大地構造 13
1-3-2新生代盆地之空間分佈及時間演化 15
第二章 V0-k方法 39
2-1速度函數 39
2-2 V0-k方法假設與公式推導 42
第三章 速度分析 46
3-1井下速度試驗 46
3-2資料來源與計算步驟 52
3-3 V0、k分佈 53
3-4三維速度分佈 58
第四章 討論 85
4-1時深轉換誤差分析 85
4-2其他速度函數比較 90
第五章 結論 97
參考文獻 99
附錄 105
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指導教授 林殿順(Andrew Tien-Shun Lin) 審核日期 2006-10-30
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