博碩士論文 93126003 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳慧盈(Hui-ying Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 紀實與抒情:黛安.阿勃絲《無題》系列中的社會邊緣人形象
(Documental and Lyrical: The Social Marginalizing People in Diane Arbus’s “Untitled”)
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摘要(中) 作為一名以探索社會邊緣聞名的攝影家,黛安‧阿勃絲(1923-1971)在1969-71年間,以紐澤西州數家療養院中的身心障礙者作為拍攝主題,而成為1995年由其女兒集結出版成冊的《無題》系列。這群心智障礙者因疾病因素,打破了阿勃絲先前與拍攝對象所慣行的溝通模式。因此,本論文聚焦於此系列作品,探討阿勃絲在風格已日漸成熟之時,卻因此題材的特殊性而轉換了表現手法,並從而得到創作理念的深入思考與極致發揮。
人類社會往往以污名作為正常與異常的分水嶺,將具有特殊身體特徵,且行為不符合社會慣習的族群附加標籤,將之推往社會邊緣。因此,本論文從美國社會學家Erving Goffman關於污名的理論,以及60年代反精神醫學運動對於全控機構的批評為《無題》系列提出詮釋。這些理論批判正常與異常的絕對區分,或是對於邊緣的貶抑,而強調對於社會邊緣人應採取尊重的態度。另一方面,本論文以Victor Turner的類閾限(liminoid)概念解釋這些圖像,描述這些影像中偏重於個人思想,各種認知以及意義處於混亂的、斷裂的狀態,而在某些邊緣的、不定形的情境當中,試圖產生某些新的文化。本論文採用這個觀念解釋《無題》系列中一種有別於主流文化,卻又多元而獨特的面貌
再者,本論文延續阿勃絲作品中常常出現的二元性質,以《無題》系列中的紀實性與抒情性作為探討中心。在紀實方面,阿勃絲延續了歐洲藝術家對於畸形人圖像的興趣,並結合60年代以降的美國紀實風格概念,形成在客觀的紀實中蘊藏個人思考的新紀實影像。在抒情方面,這一系列作品成為阿勃絲對於畸形人攝影的鄉愁。阿勃絲在這些社會邊緣人們的身上發現許多怪異的並置,形成怪誕的形象。也因此,這個抒情抒發的是畸形人們的自在,在這個有如童話故事般奇幻的魔力當中,隱喻著這群社會邊緣人形成無視社會眼光的、解放的、負於幻想力的生命。
因此,本論文認為《無題》系列反映了60年代美國社會抗拒威權、看見邊緣、重視多元的思潮。並以降低攝影家對於影像與拍攝對象的干預,而呈現真實、自在的社會邊緣人樣貌。在藝術史的狂愚者圖像中,阿勃絲的《無題》系列成為一種展現社會邊緣人獨特性、尊重差異存在的新型態療養院圖像。
摘要(英) Being a photographer that was famous for exploring the marginalizing society , Diane Arbus(1923-1971)took mentally retarded people from several institutions in New Jersey as the subject , and it became the “Untitled” series collected in books by her daughter in 1995.This group of mental disorders broke the ordinary model of communication that Diane Arbus used with those previous photography objects. Therefore, this thesis focus on this series of works, to detect and discussion when Arbus’ style has been mature day after day but obtained the deep going thought and acme display of creation idea by the transformed expression because of the particular theme.
The human society often takes stigma as the divide of normal and abnormal, labels those whose behaviors do not conform to the society and pushes them toward the marginalization. Therefore, this thesis brings up annotations for the series of "Untitled" from the theory about stigma of American sociologist, Erving Goffman, and the critics to total institution from the anti-psychiatry movement in 60’s.These theories critiqued absolute division of normal and abnormal, perhaps devalue the social marginalizing people, but stressed that we should take the respect manner to the social marginalizing people.On the other hand, this thesis explains the images by the concept of liminoid of Victor Turner, describes in these photographs to stress in individual thought that each kind of cognition as well as the significance are at chaotic, break condition, but attempt to have certain new cultures in certain marginalizing, unformed situations. This thesis uses this idea to explain that there is one kind of appearance that is different with the main stream culture, actually multi-dimensional and unique in the series of “Untitled”.
Furthermore, this thesis continues the duality which appears frequently in Arbus’ works, and takes the documental and lyrical in the series of “Untitled” as the discussion center. In documental aspect, Arbus has continued the European artists’ interest to the image of freaks, and unified the concept of American documental style after the 60’s and formed the new documental image contains individual thought within the objective documental. In lyrical aspect, this series of works became the nostalgia of freaks to Arbus. Arbus discovered much strange juxtaposition on these social marginalizing people that formed the grotesque image. Therefore, what this lyrical expresses is freaks’ comfortableness, in this fantastic magic power like fairy tales, it is the metaphor of this crowd of society social marginalizing people forming lives that disregards the social judgment, released, and rich in the fantasy strength .
Therefore, this thesis thought that the series of “Untitled” had reflected the American society resisted the authority in 60’s, to see the marginalization, to take multiple ideological trends. And reduced the intervention from the photographer to the photographs and subject , but presents the reality, comfortable social marginalizing people’s appearance. In the mad image of art history, the series of “Untitled” of Arbus became one kind of image of a new state asylum that development distinctive quality of society marginalizing people, respect to the existence of difference.
關鍵字(中) ★ 抒情性
★ 紀實性
★ 狂愚
★ 黛安‧阿勃絲
★ 社會邊緣人
關鍵字(英) ★ madness
★ documental
★ lyrical
★ the social marginalizing people
★ Diane Arbus
論文目次 論文提要 ………………………………………………...……………………….... i
Abstract ………………………………………………...……………………….... ii
致謝辭 ………………………………………………...……………………….... iv
目錄 ………………………………………………...……………………….... v
緒論 ………………………………………………...……………………….... 1
研究動機與主旨 ..………………………………………..……………. 1
文獻概述 ..………………………………………………..……………. 4
論文架構 ..………………………………………………..……………. 13
第一章、探索社會邊緣人的攝影家 ………………………………………………. 16
第一節、 黛安‧阿勃絲的生平 ….. …………...………………………............... 14
第二節、 黛安‧阿勃絲的風格與題材 ……………………...………………….. 26
第三節、 狂愚者的圖像 …………..……………………………………………... 38
第二章、解構的療養院 …………………………………...………………………… 49
第一節、 承載畸形之家的諾亞方舟 ………………………………...………….. 49
第二節、 療養院的流動空間 ……………………………..……………………... 59
第三章、《無題》系列的紀實性與抒情性 ………………………………………… 71
第一節、 《無題》系列的紀實性 ……………………….……………………….. 71
第二節、 《無題》系列的抒情性 …………………….………………………….. 83
結論 …………………………………………………...…………………….... 94
參考書目 …………………………………………………………………………... 99
圖版 …………………………………………………………….…..….……... 102
參考文獻 一、英文書目
Adams, Rachel. Sideshow U.S.A.: Freaks and the American Cultural Imagination, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001.
Arbus, Doon. Laing, and Yolanda Cuomo eds.. Untitled, Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1995.
Arbus, Diane. Diane Arbus: Revelations, New York: Random House, 2003.
Arbus, Doon. and Marvin Israel eds.. Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph, Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1972.
Arbus, Doon. and Marvin Israel eds.. Diane Arbus: Magazine Work, 1960–1971, Millerton, New York: Aperture, 1984.
Avedon, Richard. Nothing Personal, New York: Atheneum Publishers, 1964.
Bosworth, Patricia. Diane Arbus: A Biography, New York: Norton, 1984.
Bolton, Richard. The Contest of Meaning: Critical Histories of Photography, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, c1989.
Clarke, Graham. The Portrait in Photography, London: Reaktion Books Ltd, 1992.
Davis, Lennard J.. The Disability Studies Reader, New York: Routledge, 2006.
Diamond, Hugh W.. “On the Application of Photography to the Physignomic and Mental Phenomena of Insanity” in The Face of Madness and the Origin of Psychiatric Photography, New Jersey: The Citadel Press, 1976, pp. 17-24.
Didi-Huberman, Georges. Invention of Hysteria: Charcot and the Photographic Iconography of the Salpêtrière(1982), trans. Alisa Hartz, Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press, 2003.
Gilman, Sander L.. Disease and Representation: Images of Illness from Madness to AIDS, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988.
Gilman, Sander L.. Seeing the Insane, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
Goffman, Erving. Asylums, New York: Random House, 1961.
Goffman, Erving. Stigma:Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, Simon & Schuster, 1963.
Guimond, James. American Photography and the American Dream, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Kozloff, Max. The Theatre of the Face: Portrait Photography Since 1900, London: Phaidon, 2007.
Laing, R. D.. The Divided Self, New York: Penguin Books, 1959/ 1990.
Lee, Anthony W.. and John Pultz eds., Family Albums, New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003.
Marien, Mary Warner. Photography: A Cultural History, London: Laurence King Publishing, 2006.
Sander, August. August Sander: People of the 20th century, New York: Harry N. Abrams, c2002.
Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness, New York, London: Harper & Row, 1974.
Showalter, Elaine. The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, London: Virago, 1987.
Sobieszek, Robert A.. Ghost in the shell: photography and the human soul, 1850-2000: essays on camera portraiture, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, c1999.
Tellgren, Anna. Portraits: Arbus, Model, Strömholm, London: Thames & Hudson, 2005.
Wells, Liz. The Photography Reader, New York: Routledge, 2003.
Wells, Liz. Photography : a Critical Introduction, London: New York, Routledge, 2004.
二、中文書目
Arthur Rothstein著,李文吉譯,《紀實攝影》,台北市:遠流,2004。
Clifford Geertz著,楊德睿譯,《地方知識》,台北市:麥田,2005。
Conard Phillip Kottak著,徐雨村譯,《文化人類學-多樣性的探索》,台北市:巨流,2005。
Erving Goffman著,徐江敏、李姚軍譯,《日常生活的自我表演》(The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life),台北市:桂冠,1992。
Michel Foucault著,林志明譯,《瘋狂與非理性:古典時代瘋狂史》(Folie et déraison: Histoire de la folie à l’âge classique),台北市:桂冠,1996。
Michel Foucault著,劉北成、楊遠嬰譯,《規訓與懲罰》,台北市:桂冠,1992。
Susan Sontag著,黃翰荻譯,《論攝影》,台北市:唐山,1997。
Vilém Flusser著,李文吉譯,《攝影的哲學思考》,台北市:遠流,1994。
王志弘著,《流動、空間與社會:1991-1997論文選》,台北:田園城市,1998。
簡瑛瑛編,《女性心/靈之旅:女族傷痕與邊界書寫》,台北:女書文化,2003。
黃應貴編,《見證與詮釋》,台北市:正中,1998。
三、期刊論文
Adams, Rachel. “Bringing out the Dead: Inside the Arbus Archive,” American Quarterly 57: 1(March 2005), pp. 207-21.
Alexander, M. Darsie. “Diane Arbus: A Theatre of Ambiguity,” History of Photography, 19: 2 (Summer 1995), pp. 120-3.
Armstrong, Carol. “Biology, Destiny, Photography: Difference According to Diane Arbus,” October 66 (Autumn 1993), pp. 29-54.
Budick, Ariella. Subject to Scrutiny: Diane Arbus’s American Grotesque (Ph.D. Diss., New York University, 1996).
Coleman, A. D.. “Why I’m Saying No To This New Arbus Book,” New York Observer, 9: 37 (2 October 1995), p. 25.
Goldin, Amy. “Diane Arbus: Playing with Conventions,” Art in America (March/ April 1973), p. 73.
Goldman, Judith. “Diane Arbus: The Gap between Intention and Effect,” Art Journal (Fall 1974), pp. 30-5.
Gross, Frederick. Fairy Tales for Grown-Ups: Diane Arbus’s Social Panorama (Ph.D. Diss. New York: The City University, 2005).
Hulick, Diane Emery. “Diane Arbus’s Expressive Methods,” History of Photography, 19:2 (Summer, 1995), pp. 107-16.
Jeffrey, Ian. “Diane Arbus and the Past When She was Good” History of Photography, 19: 2 (Summer 1995), pp. 95-9.
Kramer, Hilton. “Diane Arbus: From Fashion to Freaks,” The New York Times Magazine (5 November 1972), p. 38.
Kozloff, Max. “The Uncanny Portrait: Sander, Arbus, Samaras,” Artforum 11(June 1973), pp. 58-66.
Magid, Marion. “Diane Arbus in ‘New Documents,’” Arts Magazine (April 1967), p.54.
Mary Kathryn Shields. Masking in Photography and the Art of Diane Arbus and Ralph Eugene Meatyard, (Ph.D. Diss. Virginia Tech, 2001).
McPherson, Heather. “Diane Arbus’s Grotesque ‘Human Comedy’,” History of Photography, 19: 2 (Summer 1995), pp. 117-20.
Rice, Shelley. “Essential Difference: A Comparison of the Portraits of Lisette Model and Diane Arbus,” Artforum 18: 9 (May 1980), pp. 69-70.
Warburton, Nigel. “Diane Arbus and Erving Goffman: The Presentation of Self,” History of Photography, 16 (Winter 1992), pp. 401-4.
劉瑞琪,〈荻安.阿勃斯的驚異萬聖節:唐式症女人的返魅與融聚〉,《國立台灣大學美術史研究集刊》,第26期,2009年3月。(排印中)
游本寬,〈拍照紀錄的藝術〉,《現代美術》,第101期,2004年4月,第18-27頁。
四、網路資料
http://www.ntnu.edu.tw/fna/arthistory/articals_sct_1.htm
林志明,〈紀錄風格與紀錄攝影〉,瀏覽時間:2007/10/11。
http://disable.yam.org.tw/resource/life/down/presch/ch01.htm
身心障礙者服務資訊網,瀏覽時間:2008/12/ 7。
指導教授 曾少千(Shiao-chien Tseng) 審核日期 2009-2-4
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