博碩士論文 93126006 詳細資訊




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姓名 王涵智(Han-chih Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 美國之道──Stephen Shore的公路攝影
(Exploring the American Way: Stephen Shore's Road Photographs)
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摘要(中) 本論文主要將探究美國的公路攝影,「美國之道」(the American way)的「道」不僅直指美國的公路,也指涉一種獨到的美國文化和美學。另外,它更可能暗示了一種美國特有的攝影類型,攝影史中一種充滿美式價值的藝術內容。主要的中心論旨有二:首先,提出公路攝影作為一種攝影類型的可能性,使其成為一種觀看和理解方式。其次,以此攝影類型作為研究基礎,將提供內涵與線索而有助於解讀Stephen Shore(1947- )的公路攝影系列《美國表面》(American Surfaces)和《不尋常之處》(Uncommon Places),兩者如何構成Shore自身創作歷程與公路攝影類型的脈絡性?
本文首先將耙梳公路攝影的傳統,包括了1930年代的Dorothea Lange(1895-1965)和其《美國出谷記:一部人類蝕化的紀錄》,以及在二戰之後1950年代的Robert Frank(1924- )和其《美國人》。透過回溯兩個不同的時代,將提供公路攝影發展的脈絡,以作為我們探究Shore的作品之索引。接續則討論Shore在1960年代的藝術養成和1970年的《公路》專題展對於公路藝術的關注。從Shore的《美國表面》不僅可看出普普藝術的後續效應,作品也傾向隨機性的展現,有如業餘的快拍。而從《美國表面》到《不尋常之處》間Shore的拍攝手法與問題意識有所轉變,構成了不同的觀看方式。另外,公路的流行圖像也對於公路攝影家有所啟發。Shore藉由《不尋常之處》的主題內容延續了先前的公路攝影傳統,並且拓展新局,體現真切的公路情境。最後,本文將處理1970年代與Shore同時期的攝影家對於在地風景的呈現,包括與Shore共同參與《新地誌:一種人為改變之風景的相片》的Robert Adams(1937- ),以及和Shore同時期將藝術攝影彩色化的William Eggleston(1939- ),還有Joel Sternfeld(1944- )同樣藉由公路旅行與大型相機拍攝的《美國眺望》。透過參照彼此的相互關係,幫助我們重現當時的時代氛圍,並推敲出Shore在攝影史中的關鍵地位。
公路攝影是複雜的,它蘊含了美國歷史、文化、社會等層面的問題,並且持續進行著,呈現出和公路相關的各種觀察與體驗。Shore的公路攝影展現其時代性,也證實了美國攝影既有的公路傳統與持續演化的形式語彙。
摘要(英) This thesis focuses on the American road photography. The title “The American way” implies both American highway and the typical American culture and aesthetic. It also suggests a unique genre of Americanism in the history of photography. My arguments are as follows. First, the road photography should be considered as a genre, and it can provide a way of viewing and perception. Second, the study of this genre also offers implications and clues to interpret Stephen Shore’s road photographs in his American Surfaces and Uncommon Places and the contextualization constructing in Shore’s own artistic career and the history of road photography.
The first chapter examines the tradition of the road photography, including both Dorothea Lange’s (1895-1965) American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion (1939) in the 1930s and Robert Frank’s (1924- ) Les Américains (1958) / The Americans (1959) in the 1950s postwar period. By retracing the work from two different decades, the study offers the contexts of the development of the road photography and guides us to analyze Shore’s works. In the second chapter, we will discuss Shore’s artistic experiences in the 1960s, the Highway: An Exhibition in 1970 and Shore’s later American Surfaces. Shore’s American Surfaces infers a follow-up of the Pop art. It reveals spontaneity and intentionally resembles the amateurish snapshots. However, Shore’s photographic approach and concern, which have partially changed from American Surfaces to Uncommon Places, composes a different way of viewing. Besides, the popular images upon the road also inspire road photographers. Through Uncommon Places, Shore maintained the tradition established by his predecessors. He also explored the frontiers and embodied the authentic situation on the road. In the last chapter, I will argue the demonstration of the vernacular landscape in 1970s presented by Shore and his contemporaries. It includes Robert Adams (1937- ) and the exhibition New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-altered Landscape (1975) which contains both Robert Adams’s and Shore’s works. In addition, it is William Eggleston (1939- ) that brought color into the art photography together with Shore at the same time. Furthermore, Joel Sternfeld’s (1944- ) American Prospects (1987) is completed by similar road trips and the large format camera with Shore. By comparing the interrelation of these photographers do help us not only reconstruct the atmosphere of that time, but also clarify Shore’s key position in the history of photography.
Road photography is complex due to various aspects of history, culture and society of the United States. It is still an ongoing art which displays observations and experiences related to the highway. Shore’s road photographs manifest the zeitgeist, and also demonstrate the tradition on the road and the visual vocabularies that continue to develop.
關鍵字(中) ★ 公路攝影
★ Stephen Shore
★ 美國研究
★ 視覺文化
★ 紀錄攝影
★ 風景攝影
關鍵字(英) ★ Road Photography
★ American Study
★ Visual Culture
★ Documentary Photography
★ Landscape Photography
★ Stephen Shore
論文目次 中文摘要 …………………………………………………………………… i
英文摘要 …………………………………………………………………… ii
誌謝 …………………………………………………………………… iv
目錄 …………………………………………………………………… vi
緒論
一、 研究動機與問題意識…………………………………………… 1
二、 文獻探討與研究方法…………………………………………… 4
1. 一路向西………………………………………………………… 6
2. 公路的框作與浪漫情懷………………………………………… 8
3. 探尋美國──1936-76 年間源自公路的攝影…………………… 12
4. Stephen Shore 的公路旅行與攝影……………………………… 17
三、 章節架構………………………………………………………… 19
第一章 遷徙與流浪:公路攝影的傳統…………………………… 21
一、 Dorothea Lange 與其《美國出谷記》…………………………… 21
二、 Robert Frank 與其《美國人》…………………………………… 28
三、 小結……………………………………………………………… 36
第二章 世俗且深邃的《美國表面》……………………………… 40
一、 出於普普──從與Andy Warhol 的共事談起…………………… 40
二、 《公路》作為一種時代精神與藝術氛圍的體現……………… 44
三、 《美國表面》的深層意涵……………………………………… 46
四、 小結……………………………………………………………… 54
第三章 《不尋常之處》:對司空見慣的凝視………………… 57
一、 從「瞥視」到「凝視」………………………………………… 57
二、 流行圖像的啟發………………………………………………… 60
三、 不尋常的理由…………………………………………………… 64
四、 小結……………………………………………………………… 73
第四章 同時代的映照:在地風景的呈現………………………… 77
一、 新西部與《新地誌》…………………………………………… 78
二、 William Eggleston 的公路本色………………………………… 83
三、 Joel Sternfeld 的《美國眺望》………………………………… 87
四、 小結……………………………………………………………… 92
結論 …………………………………………………………………… 96
參考資料 …………………………………………………………………… 102
圖版 …………………………………………………………………… 107
附錄 …………………………………………………………………… 136
參考文獻 英文書目:
American Automobile Association. Americans on the Highway. Washington, American Automobile Association, 1937.
Bliss, Carey S. Autos across America: A Bibliography of Transcontinental Automobile Travel, 1903-1940. Austin: Jenkins & Reese, 1982, 1972.
Borhan, Pierre, Dorothea Lange. Dorothea Lange: The Heart and Mind of A Photographer. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 2002.
Bryson, Norman. Vision and Painting: The Logic of the Gaze. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
Bruce Silverstein Gallery. Topographics: Photographs from 1844 to the Present. New York, N.Y.: Bruce Silverstein Gallery, 2004.
Clair, David J. St. The Motorization of American Cities. New York; London: Praeger, 1986.
Cohan, Steven, Ina Rae Hark eds. The Road Movie Book. London; NY: Routledge, 1997.
Cross, Andrew. Along Some American Highways. London: Black Dog, 2003.
Crouch, David, Nina Lübbren. Visual Culture and Tourism. Oxford; New York: Berg, 2003.
Eauclaire, Sally. The New Color Photography. New York: Abbeville Press, 1981.
Eauclaire, Sally. New Color / New Work: Eighteen Photographic Essays. New York: Abbeville Press, 1984.
Editors of Time-Life Books. Documentary Photography. New York: Time-Life Books, 1972.
Eggleston, William. William Eggleston: Los Alamos. Zürich; New Yok: SCALO; New York City: Distributed by DAP, 2003.
Eggleston, William. William Eggleston’s Guide. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2002.
Frank, Robert, Alain Bosquet. Les Américains. Paris: R. Delpire, 1958.
Frank, Robert. The Americans. New York: SCALO, 2000.
Galassi, Peter, Andreas Gursky, Museum of Modern Art. Andreas Gursky. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 2001.
Green, Jonathan. American Photography: A Critical History 1945 to the Present. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1984.
Greenough, Sarah, Philip Brookman. Robert Frank: Moving Out. Washington: National Gallery of Art; Zurich; New York: SCALO, 1994.
Gregory, James N. American Exodus:Tthe Dust Bowl Migration and Okie Culture in California. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Guimond, James. American Photography and the American Dream. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.
Hayward, Susan. Key Concepts in Cinema Studies. New York: Routledge, c.1996.
Hopper, Edward, Lloyd Goodrich. Edward Hopper. NY: H. N. Abrams, 1993.
Jackson, John Brinckerhoff. Discovering the Vernacular Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1984.
Janis, Eugenia Parry, Wendy MacNeil, eds. Photography within the Humanities. Danbury, N.H.: Addison House Publishers, 1977.
Jenkins, William. New Topographics: Photographs of a Man-altered Landscape. Rochester, N.Y.: International Museum of Photography at George Eastman House, 1975.
Keller, Judith, Anne Lacoste, J. Paul Getty Museum. Where We Live: Photographs of America from the Berman Collection. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 2006.
Keller, Ulrich. The Highway as Habitat: a Roy Stryker Documentation, 1943-1955. Santa Barbara: University Art Museum, 1986.
Krim, Arthur J, Denis Wood. Route 66: Iconography of the American Highway. Santa Fe, N. M.: Center for American Places, 2005.
Lackey, Kris. RoadFrames: The American Highway Narrative. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1997.
Laderman, David. Driving Visions: Exploring the Road Movie. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2002.
Lange, Dorothea, Paul S. Taylor. An American Exodus: A Record of Human Erosion. Paris: Jean-Michel Place, 1999.
Langmuir, Erika, Norbert Lynton. The Yale Dictionary of Art and Artists. New Haven; London: Yale University Press, 2000.
Laufer, Marilyn. In Search of America: Photography from the Road, 1936-76. Ph. D Dissertation, Washington University, Saint Louis, 1992.
Leman, Robin. The Oxford Companion to the Photograph. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Lent, Tina Oslin. Situating “The Americans”: Robert Frank and the Transformation of American Photography. Thesis Ph. D, University of Rochester, 1994.
Lewis, David Lanier, Laurence Goldstein. The Automobile and American Culture. Ann Arbor: university of Michigan Press, 1983.
Lyden, Anne M. Railroad Vision: Photography, Travel, and Perception. Los Angeles: The J. P. Getty Museum, 2003.
Lyon, Danny. The Bikeriders. San Francisco: Cronicle Books; Vancouver: Distributed in Canada by Raincoast Books, 2003, 1968.
Marien, Mary Warner. Photography: A Cultural History. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2002.
McNichol, Dan. The Roads that Built America: The Incredible Story of the U.S. Interstate System. New York: Sterling Pub., 2006.
Naylor, Colin, ed. Contemporary Photographers. Chicago: St. James Press 1988.
Nederlands Foto Instituut. (Un)common Places: Stephen Shore, Korrie Besems, Eugène Atget. Rotterdam: Nederlands Foto Instituut, 1997.
Orvell, Miles. American Photography. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Papageorge, Tod. Walker Evans and Robert Frank: An Essay on Influence. New Haven: Yale University Art Gallery, 1981.
Parr, Martin. Boring Postcards USA. London: Phaidon, 2004.
Patton, Phil. Open Road: A Celebration of the American Highway. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
Phillips, Lisa. The American Century: Art & Culture, 1950-2000. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art, 1999.
Phillips, Sandra S., San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Crossing the Frontier-Photographs of the Developing West, 1849 to the Present. San Francisco, Calif.: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, 1996.
Primeau, Ronald. Romance of the Road: The Literature of the American Highway. OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1996.
Sanders, Don, Susan Sanders. The American Drive-In Movie Theater. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1997.
Shore, Stephen. The Nature of Photographs. New York: Phaidon, 2007.
Shore, Stephen. American Surfaces. London; New York: Phaidon, 2005.
Shore, Stephen. Stephen Shore: Uncommon Places, the Complete Works. NY: Aperture, 2004.
Shore, Stephen. Stephen Shore: Photographs 1973-1993. London: Schirmer Art Books, 1995.
Shore, Stephen, Lynne Tillman. The Velvet Years: Warhol’s Factory, 1965-67. New York: Thunder’s Mouth Press, 1995.
Shore, Stephen. Michael Auping. Stephen Shore Photographs: John and Mable Ringling Museum of Art, September 4-October 11, 1981, Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach, November 27-December 27, 1981, Polk Public Museum, January 11-Feburary 3, 1982. Sarasota, Fla.: J. and. M. Ringling Museum of Art, 1981.
Spring, Justin. The Essential Edward Hopper. NY: Harry N. Abrams, 1998.
Sternfeld, Joel. Joel Sternfeld: American Prospects. New York: D.A.P., 2004
University of Pennsylvania, Institute of Contemporary Art; Akron Art Institute; Rice University, Institute for the Arts. The Highway: An Exhibition. Philadelphia: The Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 1970.
Tucker, Anne Wilkes ed. Robert Frank: New York to Nova Scotia. Boston: Little, Brown; Houston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1986.
Turner, Frederick Jackson. The Frontier in American History. New York: Henry Holt and Campany, 1962.
Wallis, Michael. Route 66: The Mother Road. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990.
Warhol, Andy, Christoph Heinrich, Candice Breitz. Andy Warhol Photography. Zürich; New York: Edition Stemmle, 1999.
Warren, Lynne ed. Encyclopedia of 20th-century Photography. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Westerbeck, Colin, Joel Meyerowitz. Bystander: A History of Street Photography. Boston, Mass.: Bulfinch, 2001.
Wolf, Sylvia. Ed Rucha and Photography. NY: Whitney Museum of American Art, 2004.
中文書目:
Axelrod, Alan.《美國史──深入淺出普及本》(臺北市:臺灣商務,2005)。
Baudrillard, Jean.《美國》(台北市:時報,1999)。
De Tocqueville, Alexis.《民主在美國》(臺北縣新店市:左岸文化,2005)。
Kerouac, Jack.《旅途上──叛逆與反抗世代永遠不滅的名著》(臺北市:臺灣商務,1999)。
Rothstein, Arthur.《紀實攝影》(台北:遠流,1993)。
Steinbeck, John.《憤怒的葡萄》(臺北市:志文,1983)。
Wenders, Wim.《一次:影像和故事》,(臺北市:田園城市,2005)。
張四德,《美國史》(臺北市:大安,2001)。
期刊資料:
王涵智,〈美國公路攝影初探(1935-1980)〉,《議藝份子》8,2006,頁117-139。
Beaumont Newhall, “Documentary Approach to Photography”, Parnassus, 10: 3, (March 1938): 5
George Cotkin, “The Photographer in the Beat-Hipster Idiom: Robert Frank’s Americans.” American Studies 26:1 (Spring 1985)
Jno Cook, “Robert Frank: Dissecting the American Image” in Exposure, 24:1, (Spring 1986): 39
Lynne Tillman, “Accounting for Days,” Artforum, Vol.45, Iss.10, Summer, 2007, pp. 460-467.
影音資料:
Almereyda, Michael.《現實世界中的William Eggleston》(William Eggleston in the Real World, 2005)。
Ford, John.《怒火之花》(Grapes of Wrath, 1940)。
Hopper, Dennis.《逍遙騎士》(Easy Rider, 1969)。
Howard, Ron.《遠離家園》(Far and Away, 1992)。
Lasseter, John.《汽車總動員》(Cars, 2006)。
McTiernan, John.《獵殺紅色十月》(The Hunt for the Red October, 1990)。
Wender, Wim.《巴黎.德州》(Paris, Texas, 1984)。
陳懷恩,《練習曲:單車環島日誌》(2007)。
指導教授 曾少千(Shao-chien Tseng) 審核日期 2008-1-10
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