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姓名 王瑞菁(Jui-Ching Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所在職專班
論文名稱 辛格論動物解放
(Peter Singer On Animal Liberation)
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摘要(中) 本論文旨在於探討辛格動物解放的倫理觀點及其理論,辛格認為凡是具有感知能力的動物,在道德上都應該平等考量其利益,在利益平等考量之下,以痛苦論證說明目前所採行的工廠式農場及許多的動物實驗都應該廢止。
  關於生命價值的高低,辛格採用偏好效益主義的觀點,認為具有自我意識的人格個體其生命價值高於非人格個體。並且以生命的價值說明殺生之錯,以殺生論證進一步說明其動物解放的觀點。
  同樣是反對人類中心主義的立場,動物權利論者雷根與環境整體論者羅斯頓對辛格的立場仍有所批評,本論文以辛格的脈落一一作回應。
  最後,本論文嘗試以諾丁的關懷倫理學觀點為辛格的效益主義立場作補充,希望能解決效益主義「義務無限擴充」與「簡化親密關係」的問題,擴充辛格的動物解放立場。
摘要(英) The purpose of this thesis is to introduce and discuss Peter Singer’s theory about animal liberation. Singer believes that some animals can suffer, and the avoidance of sufferings is a fundamental interest for being. He uses the “equal consideration of interests” as a basic requirement for equality and the ultimate principle of ethics. In ethical considerations, the same degree of suffering of different species should be taken equally. Intensive animal farming and most animal experiments cause strong pains for the animals only to fulfill minor and trivial interests for human beings. Therefore, intensive animal farming and animal experiments violate an ethical principle, which is the equal consideration of interests.
Regarding the value of lives, Singer takes a preference utilitarian approach. He claims that the self-conscious beings have preferences and those being’s lives should be protected by the ethical principle.
I also discussed criticisms to Singer’s theory, which can be classified into two types: (1) questions from the view that animals have rights, (2) questions from the environmental holism.
The final component of utilitarian morality is the idea that we must treat each person’s welfare as equally important. It has troublesome implications. One problem is that the requirement of “equal concern” places too great a demand on us; another problem is that it disrupts our personal relationships. A more sensible approach might be to say that ethical life includes both caring personal relationships and a benevolent concern for people generally. I took the approach, I would interpret the ethics of care as a supplement to utilitarian theory rather than as a replacement for its.
關鍵字(中) ★ 人格個體
★ 自我意識
★ 利益平等考量原則
★ 感知能力
★ 動物解放
關鍵字(英) ★ Animal Liberation
★ sentience
★ person
★ self-awareness
★ equal consideration of interests principle
論文目次 中文摘要………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………ii
誌 謝………………………………………………………………iii
目 錄..................iv
第一章 導論……………………………………………1
第一節 西方動物倫理發展的脈絡……………3
第二節 中文文獻回顧……………………………17
第三節 章節安排………………………………25
第二章 辛格動物解放的理論基礎……………………………27
第一節 效益主義…………………………………………28
第二節 平等的涵義……………………………34
第三節 生命的價值…………………………………39
第三章 辛格動物解放的論述………………………………50
第一節 物種平等……………………………………50
第二節 動物解放…………………………………………62
第三節 對動物解放的質疑……………………………73
第四節 殺生––動物………………………………………79
第四章 回應動物權利觀與環境整體觀的批評…………………92
第一節 來自動物權利觀的批評:雷根的動物權……………92
第二節 辛格對雷根的回應 ……………………….. …………102
第三節 來自環境整體論的批評:羅斯頓的環境倫理………109
第四節 辛格對羅斯頓的回應……………………121
第五章 辛格動物解放的延伸——人與友伴動物…………126
第一節 辛格的動物解放有待商榷之處:人與友伴動物之關
係…126
第二節 關懷倫理學與辛格的動物解放立場…………129
第三節 辛格動物解放的延伸…………………………138
參考文獻……………………………………142
參考文獻 一、 中文部份
(一)著書
1、王瑞香(譯),Michael Allen Fox(著),民94年,《深層素食主義》(Deep Vegetarianism ),台北市:關懷生命協會,初版一刷。
2、王瑞香(譯),Holmes Rolston, Ⅲ(著),民國85年,《環境倫理學:對自然界的義務與自然界的價值》(Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in The Natural World),台北:國立編譯館,初版。
3、李瑞全,1999,《儒家生命倫理學》,台北市:鵝湖出版社,初版。
4、林火旺,2004,《倫理學》,台北市:五南,二版一刷。
5、孟祥森‧錢永祥(譯),(Peter Singer 著),民93 年,《動物解放》(Animal Liberation),台北:關懷生命協會,出版三刷。
6、邱曉芬(研撰),王順美(指導),1999,《動物保護思想:彼得辛格之「動物解放」倫理探討》,台北市:國立台灣師範學院環境教育研究所碩士論文。
7、徐詩晴(研撰),溫明麗(指導),2004年7月,《諾丁斯關懷倫理學及慈濟大愛理念會通之研究》,花蓮:慈濟大學教育研究所碩士論文。
8、莊慶信,2002,《中西環境哲學:一個整合的進路》,台北市:五南,初版。
9、陳怡蓁(研撰),李瑞全(指導),2005,《從單一判準到多從判準論述動物的道德地位》,中壢︰國立中央大學哲學研究所碩士論文。
10、陳彥宏(研撰),李茂生(指導),2001,《論動物利益平等考量與衡量》,臺北市:國立台灣大學法律學研究所碩士論文。
11、張一勤(研撰),錢永祥.張旺山(指導),2000,《動物的道德地位——從效益主義與契約論論平等考量動物的利益》,新竹:國立清華大學哲學研究所碩士論文。
12、單文經(譯),Kohlberg(著),1986,《道德發展的哲學》,台北:黎明。
13、盧懋萍(研撰),楊世雄(指導),2001,《動物的道德地位——論辛格的動物倫理》,台北︰國立政治大學哲學研究所碩士論文。
14、錢永祥等(譯),馬克.貝考夫(Marc Bekoff)(編),2002,《動物權與動物福利小百科》(Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare),台北:桂冠圖書。
(二)單篇文章(按:請多補充)
1、李瑞全,2001,〈非人類中心的倫理觀〉,刊於《應用倫理研究通訊》第20期,中壢︰國立中央大學哲學研究所。
2、李常井,2001,〈辛格(Peter Singer)論動物的道德地位〉,刊於《應用倫理研究通訊》第13期,中壢︰國立中央大學哲學研究所。
3、林益仁,2003,〈原住民狩獵文化與動物解放運動可能結盟嗎?——一個土地倫理學的觀點〉,刊於《中外文學》第32卷第2期,台北:國立臺灣大學外國語文學系。
4、陳德和,2001,〈從道家思想談動物權的觀念〉,刊於《應用倫理研究通訊》第13期,中壢︰國立中央大學哲學研究所。
二、英文部分
(一)專書
1、Bentham, Jeremy, 1988, The Principles of Morals and Legislation, New York:Promethus Books.
2、Brown, Les, 1988, Cruelty to Animals: The Moral Debt, Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan.
3、Callicott, J. Baird, 1989, In Defense of the Land Ethic: Essays in Environmental Philosophy, Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
4、Cohen, Carl and Tom Regan, 2001, The animal rights debate, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
5、Devall, W. and G. Session, 1985, Deep Ecology: Living As If Nature Mattered, Salt Lake City.
6、Frey, R. G. , 1983, Rights, Killing and Suffering, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
7、Gilligan, Carol, 1982 In a different voice: psychological theory and women’s
Development , Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
8、Hampshire, Stuart, 1983, Thought and Action, Notre Dame, Ind. : University of Notre Dame Press.
9、Hare, R. M., 1981, Moral Thinking, Oxford: Claredon Press.
10、Kant, Immanuel, 1956, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, London: Hutchinson University Library, 3rd ed..
11、Leahy, Michael, 1991, Against Liberation, London.
12、Leopold, Aldo, 1966, A Sand County Almanac, New York: Oxford.
13、MacIntyre, Alasdair, 1984, After Virtue, University of Notre-Dame Press.
14、Mill, John Stuart, 1960,Utilitarianism, London.
15、Nodding, Nel, 1984, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
16、Rachels, James, 2003, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Press, 4thed..
17、Regan, Tom, 2004, The Case for Animal Rights, Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
18、Rowland, Mark, 1998, Animal Rights——A Philosophy Defence, New York:ST. Martin’s Press.
19、Rolston III , Holmes, 1988, Environmental Ethics: Duties to and Values in the Natural World , Philadelphia : Temple University Press.
20、Sapontzis, S. F., 1987, Morals, Reason, and Animals, Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
21、Schweitzer, Albert, 1929, Civilization and Ethics: Part 2 of The Philosophy of Civilization , London: A. & C. Black.
22、Singer, Peter, 1999, Practical Ethics, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2nded..
23、Singer, Peter, 1990 , Animal Liberation, The New York Review of Books, 2nded.
24、Van Hooft, S. 1995, Caring: An essay in the philosophy of ethics, Niwot, Colorado:
University Press of Colorado.
25、Taylor, Paul, 1986, Respect for Nature, Princeton.
26、Warren, Mary Anne, 1997, Moral Status, New York: Oxford University Press.
(二)單篇文章
1、Aristotle, 1959, Politics, London: J. M. Dent & Sons.(按:此為亞氏的專書,不是單篇論文,應收於專書之列,但要查明譯者,出版地,社年份等,但由於你文中只用了一次,可以不列),
2、Bentham, Jeremy, 〝Racism and Speciesism〞 from Introduction to the Principles of Morals〔and legislation〕, chap. 18, sec. 1.
3、Callicott, J. Baird, 1994, 〝Animal Liberation:A Triangular Affair〞, in Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, edited by Louis P. Pojman, Boston:Jones and Bartlett.
4、Callicott, Baird, 1992, 〝Animal Liberation and Environmental Ethics: Back Together Again〞 in The Animal Rights/ Environmental Ethics Debate: The Environmental Perspective edited by Eugene C. Hargrove, State University of New York Press.
5、Callicott, J. Baird, 1998, 〝Introduction〞, in Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights to Radical Ecology, edited by Zimmerman Michael E. and Callicott, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
6、Descartes ,Rene’, 1976, 〝Animals Are Machines〞 in Animal Rights and Human Obligations , edited by Tom Regan and Peter Singer, Englewood Cliff, N. J. : Prentice Hall.
7、Fletcher, Joseph , 1972 〝Indicators of Humanhood〞 , in The Hastings Center Report, vol.2, no.5 .
8、Kant, Immanuel 1976, 〝Duties to Animals and Spirits〞in Animal Rights and Human Obligations, edited by Tom Regan and Peter Singer, Englewood Cliff, N. J. :Prentice Hall.
9、Kant, Immanuel, 1994, 〝We Have Only Indirect Duties to Animals〞 in Environmental Ethics :Readings in Theory and Application, edited by Louis P. Pojman, Boston:Jones and Bartlett.
10、Kant, Immanuel, 〝Duties toward Animals and Spirits〞 in Lectures on Ethics, trans. Louis Infield.
11、Kuhse, Helga, 2002, 〝Introduction: The Practical Ethics of Peter Singer〞 in Unsanctifying Human Life: on Ethics edited by Peter Singer, Oxford: Blackwell Publish ltd..
12、Leopold, Aldo, 1994, 〝The Land Ethics〞 in Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, edited by Louis P. Pojman, Boston:Jones and Bartlett.
13、Mill, John Stuart, 1951, 〝On Liberty〞 in Utilitarianism, Liberty, and Representative Government, New York: E. P. Dutton.
14、Mill, John Stuart, 1969, 〝Utilitarianism〞in Essays on Ethics, Religion and Society edited by J. M. Robson, Toronto : University of Toronto Press.
15、Naess, Arne, 1994 , 〝Ecosophy T: Deep Versus Shellow Ecology〞 in Environmental Ethics: Readings in Theory and Application, edited by Louis P. Pojman, Boston: Jones and Bartlett.
16、Rachels, James , 1976, 〝Do Animals Have Right to Liberty〞 in Animal Rights and Human Obligation, edited by Tom Regan and Peter Singer, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall.
17、Ritchie, D. G., 1976,〝Why Animals Do Not Have Rights〞 in Animal Rights and Human Obligation, edited by Tom Regan and Peter Singer, Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall.
18、Routley, Richard and Val Routley, 1995, 〝Against Human Chauvinism〞 in Environmental Ethics, edited by Louis P. Pojman, New York:Oxford University Press.
19、Salt, Henry S., 1976,〝Animal’ Rights〞in Animal Rights and Human Obligation , edited by Tom Regan and Peter Singer ,Englewood Cliffs, N. J. : Prentice Hall.
20、Singer, Peter, 1980, 〝Utilitarianism and Vegetarianism〞 in Philosophy & Public Affairs, Summer.
21、Singer, Peter, 〝Animal Liberation or Animal Rights?〞, v70n1 MONIST 3.
22、Taylor, Paul, 1994, 〝Biocentric Egalitarianism〞 in Environmental Ethics:Readings in Theory and Application edited by Louis P. Pojman, Boston:Jones and Bartlett.
23、Wood, Allen W., 1997,〝Exploitation〞in Exploitation, edited by Kai Nielsen Robert Ware, Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International.
指導教授 李瑞全(Shui-Chuen Lee) 審核日期 2007-7-11
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