博碩士論文 93227007 詳細資訊




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姓名 王孟豪(Meng-Hao Wang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 以行為及事件相關電位探討中文雙字詞的記憶聯結錯誤
(Remembering Wrongly Conjoined Chinese Two-Character Words: Behavioral and ERP studies of Memory Conjunction Errors)
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摘要(中) 摘要
本研究以行為實驗以及事件相關腦電位(Event-Related Potentials, ERPs)探討記憶聯結錯誤(Memory Conjunction Errors)的機制及其性質。實驗一、二探討人們產生記憶聯結錯誤是否伴隨重拾記憶(recollection)歷程,實驗一使用「記得/知道」判斷作為主觀經驗的指標,實驗二則採用過去文獻中已知的電生理相關訊號(electrophysiological correlates)探討記憶聯結錯誤所伴隨的意識經驗。發現兩個實驗的記憶聯結錯誤都伴隨與重拾記憶相關的指標,顯示記憶聯錯誤並非只是肇因於受試者對於部件重複出現所引發的熟悉感,而是伴隨偽重拾記憶(false recollection)。此外,實驗二的電生理相關訊號顯示偽重拾記憶及真實記憶的重拾記憶的分佈是相似的,表示兩者在的處理機制十分相似。實驗一、二皆觀察到記憶聯結錯誤的產生引發與重拾記憶相關的指標,但兩個實驗對於聯結項目的記憶強度卻有差別,造成兩實驗差異的可能性在於使用的實驗材料及是否做用「記得/知道」判斷,實驗三的結果顯示記憶聯結錯誤受學習階段的材料性質的影響,和學習項目和測驗項目共同組成單字的字義相似度呈正相關。實驗二的學習階段的事件相關電位也顯示,舊項目和聯結項目產生隨後記憶效果,表示是否產生記憶聯結錯誤和訊息登錄階段的處理有很高的相關。因此,實驗四操弄處理學習項目單字間的關聯強度,在學習階段前提醒受試者測驗階段包含聯結項目,加強單字間的關聯強度,相對的在測驗階段前才得知的單字間關聯較弱。結果項目的單字於學習階段的關聯較強降低記憶聯結錯誤,關聯較弱的情況記憶聯錯誤所伴隨的偽重拾記憶不變,顯示部件錯誤組合的確為記憶聯結錯誤的部份來源。綜合四個實驗,記憶聯錯誤的部份來源為訊息登錄時,部件錯誤組合的整體表徵而來,而進入長期記憶的錯誤表徵引發記憶聯結誤的偽重拾記憶歷程。
摘要(英) Abstract
The study conducted a series of behavioral and ERP studies to investigate the neural/cognitive mechanisms underlying the memory conjunction errors.
The experiment 1 and 2 aimed to examine whether the memory conjunction errors were accompanied with the recollection processes. The results of experiment 1and 2 revealed that the memory conjunction errors were accompanied with false recollection processes, suggesting that the memory conjunction errors were not exclusively derived from the familiarity processes associated with memory conjunction lures. Besides, the ERP results of experiment 2 also showed that the topographic distribution of the parietal old/new effect for conjunction lures was statistically indistinguishable from that for studied old items. This implied that the correct identification of studied items and the false alarms to conjunction lures were supported by similar cognitive processes. The subsequent memory effect suggested that the processes associated conjunction errors might locate at the encoding stage. Another interesting issue is whether the “false recollection” of conjunction stimuli is due to binding errors during the encoding phase. The results of experiment 4 are seen as supporting the hypothesis that binding is an important step in the encoding stage. We suggest that some memory conjunction errors produced in the failure of the process of binding of information elements into long-term memory.
關鍵字(中) ★ 事件相關電位
★ 偽重拾記憶
★ 記憶聯結錯誤
關鍵字(英) ★ Event-Related Potentials
★ memory conjunction error
★ false recollection
論文目次 目錄
第一章 記憶聯結錯誤(Memory Conjunction Errors)的研究 1
1.1緒論 1
1.2記憶聯結錯誤的實驗典範與解釋 3
1.2.1記憶表徵觀點的解釋 3
1.2.2處理歷程觀點對記憶聯結錯誤形成的解釋 13
1.3總結 18
第二章.再認記憶(Recognition memory) 20
2.1 雙重歷程理論 20
2.2 記得/知道程序的介紹 24
2.3 總結 28
第三章.人類記憶的事件相關電位研究 30
3.1 事件相關電位 30
3.2 記憶提取階段的事件相關電位研究 31
3.2.1 頂葉區新舊效果 32
3.2.2 早期中額葉區新舊效果 34
3.2.3 右額葉區新舊效果 35
3.3記憶扭曲的事件相關電位研究 37
第四章.研究目的與方法 40
第五章.記憶聯結錯誤伴隨的主觀意識經驗:實驗一 44
5.1.實驗方法 44
5.2結果 45
5.2.1新舊判斷 46
5.2.2記得知道判斷 46
5.3 討論 49
第六章.記憶聯結錯誤伴隨重拾記憶的電生理證據:實驗二 52
6.1實驗方法 53
6.2實驗結果 55
6.2.1行為資料分析 55
6.2.2 ERP振幅分析 55
6.3討論 64
第七章.影響聯結項目記憶強度的因素:實驗三 67
7.1實驗方法 67
7.2實驗結果 68
7.3 討論 74
第八章.訊息登錄的部件錯誤組合:實驗四 77
8.1實驗方法 78
8.2實驗結果 79
8.3討論 82
第九章.綜合討論 85
9.1記憶聯結錯誤伴隨的主觀經驗 85
9.2實驗材料對記憶聯結錯誤的影響 87
9.3支持處理歷程觀點的證據 88
9.4研究限制與建議 89
參考文獻 91
附錄 100
附錄一 100
附錄二 102
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指導教授 鄭仕坤(Shi-Kun Cheng) 審核日期 2006-7-20
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