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姓名 洪意惠(Yi-hui Hung)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱
(The influence of experience on the SNARC effect -the mapping between sequential information and spatial representation)
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摘要(中) The SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association Response Code) effect 指出受試者會把數字與心理空間中對應。原初的實驗呈現人對於數字的內在表徵是由左到右的排列在心理空間(在一個奇偶數的判斷作業中小的數字用左手做反應會比較快;大的數字用右手做反應會比較快),但是這樣方向性的對應會受到閱讀經驗的影響,大部分的拼音文字,其閱讀方式是由左到右,而SNARC的效果可能是受到這樣閱讀經驗的影響所造成的,本論文的重點就是要探討這樣的問題,簡而言之,以母語為中文的受試者為例,在其閱讀經驗中,中文可以由上到下地閱讀,那麼中文使用者會如何在具有方向性的空間中表徵數字?
在本論文的第一部分我們使用阿拉伯數字(例如:1)以及簡單(例如:一)及複雜中文數字(例如:壹)為實驗刺激,要求母語為中文的受試者對數字做奇偶數判斷,並在不同實驗中操弄反應首的擺放方式(左右擺放或是上下擺放),來檢視數字是否會有直式的空間表徵。另外,中文數字除了可以用來表示數字之外,也可以與 “月”字結合變成具有時間的涵義(例如: 一月),因此我們將這樣的月份刺激放在一個大小月判斷的作業裡讓受試者做反應,來探討在SNARC effect中究竟是數量(magnitude)還是序列性訊息(sequential information) (時間並沒有數量大小的概念,但是有序列的概念)與空間做對應。最後我們要探討的問題是:數字與空間的對應是否依定要透過左右手做反應才能得到?數字能不能在不透過左右手做反應的情況下影響我們的內隱空間注意力(covert spatial attention)?
實驗的結果指出:數字與空間的對應(無論是否要透過左右手做反應)是受閱讀經驗所決定的。在以阿拉伯數字為刺激的情況下,數字與空間是已由左到右的方式對應;但是,在以中文數字為刺激的情況下,數字與空間是以由上到下的方式對應。然而,當中文數字被用來表達月份的意思時,月份與空間卻是以由左到右的方式對應。這樣的結果似乎顯示閱讀經驗不足已決定序列性訊息與空間的對應方向。我們將在論文中做更深入的探討。
摘要(英) The SNARC (Spatial Numerical Association Response Code) effect shows that human can map numbers sequentially onto a left-to-right orientation, but the direction of the number line is influenced by reading experience. In Chinese text, words can be arranged horizontally and vertically. In the first part of this thesis, both Arabic numbers and Chinese number words are used to demonstrate the influence from reading experience on the SNARC effect in native speakers of Chinese. Additionally, more recent studies show that the SNARC effect is not specific to numbers. Sequential information, such as months and alphabetic letters, are spatially represented on a mental line as well. Hence, in the second part of the thesis, Chinese month words in the numerically simplified form (e.g., 一月) are used to investigate whether there is also a mapping between Chinese month words and space, and whether the mapping is also influenced by reading direction of Chinese text. The third part of the thesis is aimed at exploring whether numbers in different notations might shift covert spatial attention without the mediation of any effector (i.e., eyes and hands).
Two conclusions are drawn from our investigation. First, the mapping between numbers and space, with or without the mediation of effectors, is modulated by reading direction. Specifically, Chinese participants tend to arrange Arabic numbers in a left-to-right orientation and Chinese simple-form numerical words in a top-to-bottom orientation, which is likely resulted from their previous encounter with these symbols. Second, the mapping between Chinese month words and space, mainly in a horizontal orientation, is found, regardless of stimulus alignment. This finding underscores the influence of context/experience on the mental representation of sequential information.
關鍵字(中) ★ 時間
★ 空間注意力
★ 數字
關鍵字(英) ★ Spatial attention
★ Time
★ Number
論文目次 Introduction 5
1. The SNARC effect in the original study 6
1.1. The SNARC effect is based on magnitude 7
1.2. Response mapping 8
1.3. Robustness of the SNARC effect 8
2. Why numbers are spatially represented? 10
2.1. Numbers and spatial perception task 10
2.2. The neural evidence and the patient study 12
2.3. Is only magnitude associated with space? Is ordinal information also involved in the SNARC effect? 14
3. The directionality and reading experiences 17
4. The locus of the SNARC effect 18
4.1. At the late stage (mapping with effectors) 18
4.2. At the late stage (without mapping with effectors) 23
5. The purpose of the present study 25
5.1. The Current issues 25
5.2. Study Plan 27
Experiment 1 28
Method 28
Results and discussion 29
Experiment 2 34
Method 35
Results and discussion 35
Experiment 3-1 and 3-2 40
Method 41
Results and discussion 42
Experiment 4 47
Method 47
Results and discussion 48
Experiment 5 51
Method 52
Results and discussion 54
Experiment 6 58
Method 58
Results and discussion 59
General Discussion 62
A Summary of the results in the current study 62
1. Numbers in different notations and their spatial representation 63
2. The effect locus of the spatial representation in numbers 64
2.1 Time course 64
2.2 The influence of the effectors 65
3. Spatial representation of months 67
4. A commonality among Magnitude, time and space? 69
4.1. Walsh’s theory of magnitude 69
4.2. The influence of the reading experience 71
4.2.1 From our study 71
4.2.2 From a developmental study 72
4.2.3 From the patient study 73
Conclusion 74
Appendix 76
Reference 81
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指導教授 吳嫻(Hsien Wu) 審核日期 2006-7-20
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