博碩士論文 93243009 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:4 、訪客IP:18.232.125.29
姓名 歐陽長風(Chang-Feng Ou)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學學系
論文名稱 台灣氣態污染物背景值變化特徵與大氣傳輸機制之關係
(The relationship between atmospheric transport and the characteristics of gaseous pollutants in Taiwan)
相關論文
★ 有機薄膜電晶體材料三併環及四併環噻吩衍生物之開發★ 以逆吹式氣相層析法分析氣體成份
★ 氣相層析法應用於工業排放連續監測★ 煙道氣揮發性有機化合物連續監測方法開發
★ 大氣及水樣中揮發性有機氣體自動化分析技術之建立及應用★ VOC前濃縮與預警系統之建構
★ 建立自動化甲烷連續量測系統與其在指示大氣輻射冷卻之應用★ 臭氧前趨物連續監測與臭氧生成之光化學探討
★ 以近連續方式量測空氣中甲烷與異戊二烯及其生成之季節性探討★ 自行架設光化學測站與商業化儀器平行比對及所得資料初步分析
★ 近地表臭氧前驅物分析之前濃縮技術改良★ 自動化噴霧捕捉分析系統之建立與研究
★ 大體積固相微萃取水中揮發性有機污染物★ 空氣中有機污染物自動分析技術之開發研究 壹﹑碳沸石多重床與中孔徑矽沸石之氣體吸附特性研究 貳﹑有機污染物垂直探空光化研究
★ 大體積固相微萃取技術應用於被動式空氣採樣及動力學探討★ 以Heart-cut技術配合單偵檢器發展氣相層析“剪裁(tailoring)”技術
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 本研究探討台灣氣態污染物的變化特徵與大氣傳輸行為之關係,以鹿林山測站之氣態污染物觀測做為台灣高山背景值的依據,並利用台北雙園光化測站及南投竹山光化測站的觀測資料,討論近地表大氣之傳輸特徵與其影響。研究發現,處於東亞邊陲地帶的台灣,控制其高低層氣態污染物的特徵因素不盡相同,對於高山背景空氣而言,春季因東南亞地區生質燃燒所產生的大量排放,可藉由長程輸送途徑而抵達位於西風帶下游之台灣,使高層大氣中之氣態污染物濃度增加。同時,對於近地表之低層空氣,台灣承受了東北季風所帶來的老化氣團,利用甲烷/丁烷比值的變化,研判春季台灣北部和中部地區均受境外移入的影響,空氣組成改變,例如臭氧濃度上升、一次污染物濃度下降等。夏季因為海洋性氣團的調和,使得氣態污染物呈現較低濃度,該季節轉而受本地排放為主導。根據甲烷/丁烷和乙基苯/對二甲苯比值的變化趨勢和風向資料,推判秋季海陸風的交替為中部地區地表臭氧之主要影響因子。鹿林山測站的觀測結果顯示,氯仿和一氧化碳存在季節性變化,且其濃度日變化趨勢顯示山谷風為主要的形成機制,其餘長生命期之鹵碳化合物的含量穩定,可能為鄰近國家排放減量的結果。
台灣地區地理位置特殊,鄰近全球主要的空氣污染排放源如中國以及東南亞地區等,同時台灣為亞洲大陸空氣污染物外流至太平洋的重要窗口。由鹿林山測站之採樣罐分析資料顯示,甲烷以外之各溫室氣體物種均呈現明顯正成長趨勢,其影響仍有待評估,而中尺度的長程輸送與境外移入現象,例如如不同季節之盛行風與本地氣候的轉換,彼此複合加成,造成了台灣特殊的大氣化學機制與變化特徵。
摘要(英) In this study, characteristics of gaseous pollutants at a high altitude (~3 km) and surface level in Taiwan were investigated by the observatories at Lu-Lin baseline station and PAMS stations, respectively. Elevated concentration and CO and O3 were measured in spring at Lu-Lin due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia. During the same period, a relatively higher values of ethane/n-butane compared to those in summer was also observed at Shaung-Yuan PAMS station, which indicates the aged continental air masses carried by the monsoon impacting northern Taiwan. In springtime, the abrupt changes from domestic to long-range transport (LRT) conditions for the 4 LRT events identified in Taipei metropolitan area can be sensitively reflected on the variation of the ethane/n-butane ratios, which is consistent with the changes of O3 and NOx concentrations. The north-easterlies in spring can also affect the ages of air masses in central Taiwan, resulting in relatively higher ethane/n-butane and O3 levels than those in summer as observed by the Chu-Shang PAMS station. However, in this study, ethylbenzene/m,p-xylene was found more sensitive than ethane/n-butane in terms of revealing the phenomenon of land-sea breeze. Meanwhile, the diurnal variations of CO at Lu-Lin were found to be driven by mountain-valley breezes. The coupling of the two atmospheric movements is yet to be investigated.
The measurements of the mostly anthropogenic halocarbons showed steady-state trends throughout the period from the end of 2007 to 2009, which was the result of the global phase-out of these substances. Meanwhile, greenhouse gases were found to have significant growth during the same period.
Situating on the rim of west Pacific facing east China, Taiwan can serve as an ideal location for monitoring the change of air pollutants to assess the level of impact. Our knowledge of the gaseous air pollutants via these well-operated stations can shed light to the understanding of many aforementioned issues, i.e., LRT of Asian continental outflows or biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia.
關鍵字(中) ★ 大氣背景值
★ 長程輸送
★ 鹿林山
關鍵字(英) ★ background values
★ long-range transport
★ Lulin
論文目次 謝誌 - I
著作目錄 - III
中文摘要 - V
英文摘要 - VII
第一章 緒論 - 1
第二章 文獻回顧 - 4
2.1 背景大氣污染物之長期監測 - 4
2.2 大氣生命期與長程輸送 - 9
2.3 長生命期空氣污染物與全球暖化效應 - 13
2.4 台灣之空氣污染物境外移入相關議題 - 23
第三章 微量氣體長期監測方法 - 26
3.1 測站概述 - 26
3.1.1 鹿林山測站概述 - 27
3.1.2 光化測站概述 - 28
3.2 微量氣體連續量測方法 - 30
3.2.1 臭氧(O3) - 30
3.2.2 一氧化碳(CO) - 32
3.2.3 鹵碳化合物(halocarbons) - 33
3.2.4 非甲烷碳氫化合物(NMHCs) - 38
第四章 台灣高層背景大氣氣態污染物特徵研究 - 43
4.1 台灣高層背景大氣之溫室氣體長期觀測 - 43
4.2 台灣高層背景大氣之鹵碳化合物長期觀測 - 53
4.3 台灣高層背景大氣之反應性氣體長期觀測 - 60
第五章 台灣低層大氣臭氧前趨物特徵研究 - 77
5.1 台灣北部地面光化測站之臭氧前趨物長期觀測 - 79
5.2 台灣中部地面光化測站之臭氧前趨物長期觀測 - 98
第六章 結論 - 113
參考文獻 - 116
參考文獻 ABC-EAREX. (2007), http://abc-gosan.snu.ac.kr/.
AERONET. (2010), http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/.
AGAGE. (2010), http://agage.eas.gatech.edu/.
Akimoto, H. (2003), Global air quality and pollution, Science, 302(5651), 1716-1719.
Atkinson, M., and W. Agyemang-Bonsu (2000), PFC emissions from primary aluminum production, in Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas, edited by A. Rosland, pp. 39-47, IPCC.
Baird, C., and M. Cann (2008), Environmental chemistry, 4th ed., xxi, 773 p. pp., W.H. Freeman, New York, NY.
Blake, D. R., and F. S. Rowland (1995), Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico city air quality, Science, 269(5226), 953-956.
Blake, N. J., D. R. Blake, B. C. Sive, T. Y. Chen, F. S. Rowland, J. E. Collins, G. W. Sachse, and B. E. Anderson (1996), Biomass burning emissions and vertical distribution of atmospheric methyl halides and other reduced carbon gases in the South Atlantic region, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D19), 24151-24164.
Chan, L. Y., H. Y. Liu, K. S. Lam, T. Wang, S. J. Oltmans, and J. M. Harris (1998), Analysis of the seasonal behavior of tropospheric ozone at Hong Kong, Atmos. Environ., 32(2), 159-168.
Chang, C. C., J. G. Lo, and J. L. Wang (2001a), Assessment of reducing ozone forming potential for vehicles using liquefied petroleum gas as an alternative fuel, Atmos. Environ., 35(35), 6201-6211.
Chang, C. C., G. G. Lo, C. H. Tsai, and J. L. Wang (2001b), Concentration variability of halocarbons over an electronics industrial park and its implication in compliance with the Montreal Protocol, Environ. Sci. Technol., 35(16), 3273-3279.
Chang, M. B., Y. M. Weng, T. Y. Lee, Y. W. Chen, S. H. Chang, and K. H. Chi (2003), Sampling and analysis of ambient dioxins in northern Taiwan, Chemosphere, 51(10), 1103-1110.
Chang, S. C., and C. T. Lee (2006), Ozone variations through vehicle emissions reductions based on air quality monitoring data in Taipei City, Taiwan, from 1994 to 2003, Atmos. Environ., 40(19), 3513-3526.
Chi, K. H., C. Y. Lin, C. F. Ou Yang, J. L. Wang, N. H. Lin, G. R. Sheu, and C. T. Lee (2010), PCDD/F measurement at a high-altitude station in central Taiwan: Evaluation of long-range transport of PCDD/Fs during the Southeast Asia biomass burning event, Environ. Sci. Technol., 44(8), 2954-2960.
Chiang, C. K., J. F. Fan, J. Li, and J. S. Chang (2009), Impact of Asian continental outflow on the springtime ozone mixing ratio in northern Taiwan, J. Geophys. Res., 114, doi:10.1029/2008jd011322.
Cho, C. H., J. S. Kim, and H. J. Yoo (2007), Atmospheric carbon dioxide variations at Korea GAW Center from 1999 to 2006, Asia-Pac. J. Atmos. Sci., 43(4), 359-365.
Choi, S. D., and Y. S. Chang (2006), Carbon monoxide monitoring in Northeast Asia using MOPITT: Effects of biomass burning and regional pollution in April 2000, Atmos. Environ., 40(4), 686-697.
Chou, C. C. K., S. C. Liu, C. Y. Lin, C. J. Shiu, and K. H. Chang (2006), The trend of surface ozone in Taipei, Taiwan, and its causes: Implications for ozone control strategies, Atmos. Environ., 40(21), 3898-3908.
Cicerone, R. J. (1988), How has the atmospheric concentration of CO changed?, in The Changing Atmosphere, edited by F. S. Rowland and I. S. A. Isaksen, Wiley, Chichester ; New York.
Clappier, A., A. Martilli, P. Grossi, P. Thunis, F. Pasi, B. C. Krueger, B. Calpini, G. Graziani, and H. van den Bergh (2000), Effect of sea breeze on air pollution in the Greater Athens Area. Part I: Numerical simulations and field observations, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39(4), 546-562.
Conway, T. J., P. P. Tans, L. S. Waterman, K. W. Thoning, D. R. Kitzis, K. A. Masarie, and N. Zhang (1994), Evidence for interannual variability of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D11), 22831-22855.
Cristofanelli, P., P. Bonasoni, L. Tositti, U. Bonafe, F. Calzolari, F. Evangelisti, S. Sandrini, and A. Stohl (2006), A 6-year analysis of stratospheric intrusions and their influence on ozone at Mt. Cimone (2165 m above sea level), J. Geophys. Res., 111(D13), doi:10.1029/2005jd006553.
Crutzen, P. J. (1970), The influence of nitrogen oxides on the atmospheric ozone content, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 96(408), 320-325.
Crutzen, P. J., and M. O. Andreae (1990), Biomass burning in the tropics - Impact on atmospheric chemistry and biogeochemical cycles, Science, 250(4988), 1669-1678.
Crutzen, P. J., M. G. Lawrence, and U. Poschl (1999), On the background photochemistry of tropospheric ozone, Tellus B, 51(1), 123-146.
Cunnold, D. M., L. P. Steele, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, L. W. Porter, S. O'Doherty, R. L. Langenfelds, P. B. Krummel, H. J. Wang, L. Emmons, X. X. Tie, and E. J. Dlugokencky (2002), In situ measurements of atmospheric methane at GAGE/AGAGE sites during 1985-2000 and resulting source inferences, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D14), doi:10.1029/2001jd001226.
Daniel, J. S., G. J. M. Velders, S. Solomon, M. McFarland, and S. A. Montzka (2007), Present and future sources and emissions of halocarbons: Toward new constraints, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D2), doi:10.1029/2006jd007275.
Deans, D. (1968), A new technique for heart cutting in gas chromatography [1], Chromatographia, 1(1), 18-22.
Deans, D. R. (1981), Use of heart cutting in gas chromatography: A review, J. Chromatogr. A., 203, 19-28.
Delmas, R. (1994), An overview of present knowledge on methane emission from biomass burning, Fert. Res., 37(3), 181-190.
DeMore, W. B. (1996), Experimental and estimated rate constants for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals with several halocarbons, J. Phys. Chem., 100(14), 5813-5820.
Dlugokencky, E., J. Miller, and J. Staehelin (2010), The Global Atmosphere Watch: A history of contributing to climate monitoring, WMO Bulletin, 59(1), 35-39.
Dlugokencky, E. J., K. A. Masarie, P. P. Tans, T. J. Conway, and X. Xiong (1997), Is the amplitude of the methane seasonal cycle changing?, Atmos. Environ., 31(1), 21-26.
Dlugokencky, E. J., S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans (2003), Atmospheric methane levels off: Temporary pause or a new steady-state?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(19), doi:10.1029/2003gl018126.
Doddridge, D. B., R. R. Dickerson, T. G. Spain, S. J. Oltmans, and P. C. Novelli (2000), Carbon monoxide measurements at Mace Head, Ireland, in Ozone in the Troposphere and Stratosphere, edited by R. D. Hudson, pp. 134-137.
Elkins, J. W., D. W. Fahey, J. M. Gilligan, G. S. Dutton, T. J. Baring, C. M. Volk, R. E. Dunn, R. C. Myers, S. A. Montzka, P. R. Wamsley, A. H. Hayden, J. H. Butler, T. M. Thompson, T. H. Swanson, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, D. F. Hurst, J. M. Lobert, S. J. Ciciora, R. J. McLaughlin, T. L. Thompson, R. H. Winkler, P. J. Fraser, L. P. Steele, and M. P. Lucarelli (1996), Airborne gas chromatograph for in situ measurements of long-lived species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(4), 347-350.
Ferguson, E. (1993), The NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) Research-Program, Abs. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc., 205, 136.
FIRMS. (2010), http://maps.geog.umd.edu/firms/.
Fishman, J., and W. Seiler (1983), Correlative nature of ozone and carbon monoxide in the troposphere: Implications for the tropospheric ozone budget, J. Geophys. Res., 88(C6), 3662-3670.
Friedli, H. R., A. F. Arellano, S. Cinnirella, and N. Pirrone (2009), Initial Estimates of Mercury Emissions to the Atmosphere from Global Biomass Burning, Environ. Sci. Technol., 43(10), 3507-3513.
Gallardo, L., J. Carrasco, and G. Olivares (2000), An analysis of ozone measurements at Cerro Tololo (30°S, 70°W, 2200 m.a.s.l.) in Chile, Tellus B, 52(1), 50-59.
Grontoft, T. (2002), Dry deposition of ozone on building materials. Chamber measurements and modelling of the time-dependent deposition, Atmos. Environ., 36(36-37), 5661-5670.
Grossi, P., P. Thunis, A. Martilli, and A. Clappier (2000), Effect of sea breeze on air pollution in the Greater Athens Area. Part II: Analysis of different emission scenarios, J. Appl. Meteorol., 39(4), 563-575.
Hao, W. M., and D. E. Ward (1993), Methane Production from Global Biomass Burning, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D11), 20657-20661.
Harley, J., W. Nel, and V. Pretorius (1958), Flame ionization detector for gas chromatography, Nature, 181(4603), 177-178.
Harris, J. M., S. J. Oltmans, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. C. Novelli, B. J. Johnson, and T. Mefford (1998), An investigation into the source of the springtime tropospheric ozone maximum at Mauna Loa Observatory, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(11), 1895-1898.
Heald, C. L., D. J. Jacob, A. M. Fiore, L. K. Emmons, J. C. Gille, M. N. Deeter, J. Warner, D. P. Edwards, J. H. Crawford, A. J. Hamlin, G. W. Sachse, E. V. Browell, M. A. Avery, S. A. Vay, D. J. Westberg, D. R. Blake, H. B. Singh, S. T. Sandholm, R. W. Talbot, and H. E. Fuelberg (2003), Asian outflow and trans-Pacific transport of carbon monoxide and ozone pollution: An integrated satellite, aircraft, and model perspective, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D24), doi:10.1029/2003jd003507.
Henne, S., J. Klausen, W. Junkermann, J. M. Kariuki, J. O. Aseyo, and B. Buchmann (2008), Representativeness and climatology of carbon monoxide and ozone at the global GAW station Mt. Kenya in equatorial Africa, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(12), 3119-3139.
Hobbs, P. V. (2000), Introduction to atmospheric chemistry : a companion text to Basic physical chemistry for the atmospheric sciences, x, 262 p. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; New York.
Holben, B. N., T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov (1998), AERONET - A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization, Rem. Sens. Environ., 66(1), 1-16.
Holton, J. R., P. H. Haynes, M. E. Mcintyre, A. R. Douglass, R. B. Rood, and L. Pfister (1995), Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange, Rev. Geophys., 33(4), 403-439.
Ilano, A. L., and T. A. Raffin (1990), Management of carbon monoxide poisoning, Chest, 97(1), 165-169.
IPCC. (2007), Climate change 2007 : the physical science basis : contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, viii, 996 p. pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge ; New York.
Jaffe, D., T. Anderson, D. Covert, R. Kotchenruther, B. Trost, J. Danielson, W. Simpson, T. Berntsen, S. Karlsdottir, D. Blake, J. Harris, G. Carmichael, and I. Uno (1999), Transport of Asian air pollution to North America, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(6), 711-714.
Jahnke, J. A. (2000), Continuous emission monitoring, 2nd ed., xi, 404 p. pp., John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Ko, M. K. W., N. D. Sze, W. C. Wang, G. Shia, A. Goldman, F. J. Murcray, D. G. Murcray, and C. P. Rinsland (1993), Atmospheric sulfur hexafluoride - Sources, sinks and greenhouse warming, J. Geophys. Res., 98(D6), 10499-10507.
Kokorin, A., and S. Rand (2000), PFC, HFC, SF6 emissions from primary semiconductor manufacturing, in Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas, edited by A. Rosland, pp. 69-78, IPCC.
Kondo, Y., Y. Morino, N. Takegawa, M. Koike, K. Kita, Y. Miyazaki, G. W. Sachse, S. A. Vay, M. A. Avery, F. Flocke, A. J. Weinheimer, F. L. Eisele, M. A. Zondlo, R. J. Weber, H. B. Singh, G. Chen, J. Crawford, D. R. Blake, H. E. Fuelberg, A. D. Clarke, R. W. Talbot, S. T. Sandholm, E. V. Browell, D. G. Streets, and B. Liley (2004), Impacts of biomass burning in Southeast Asia on ozone and reactive nitrogen over the western Pacific in spring, J. Geophys. Res., 109(D15), doi:10.1029/2003jd004203.
Lelieveld, J., and P. J. Crutzen (1990), Influences of cloud photochemical processes on tropospheric ozone, Nature, 343(6255), 227-233.
Lelieveld, J., P. J. Crutzen, V. Ramanathan, M. O. Andreae, C. A. M. Brenninkmeijer, T. Campos, G. R. Cass, R. R. Dickerson, H. Fischer, J. A. de Gouw, A. Hansel, A. Jefferson, D. Kley, A. T. J. de Laat, S. Lal, M. G. Lawrence, J. M. Lobert, O. L. Mayol-Bracero, A. P. Mitra, T. Novakov, S. J. Oltmans, K. A. Prather, T. Reiner, H. Rodhe, H. A. Scheeren, D. Sikka, and J. Williams (2001), The Indian Ocean Experiment: Widespread air pollution from South and Southeast Asia, Science, 291(5506), 1031-1036.
Levy, H., II (1971), Normal atmosphere: Large radical and formaldehyde concentrations predicted, Science, 173(3992), 141-143.
Lin, C. Y., Z. Wang, W. N. Chen, S. Y. Chang, C. C. K. Chou, N. Sugimoto, and X. Zhao (2007), Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan: observed evidence and model simulation, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 423-434.
Lin, W., X. Xu, X. Zhang, and J. Tang (2008), Contributions of pollutants from North China Plain to surface ozone at the Shangdianzi GAW Station, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(19), 5889-5898.
Liu, H. Y., W. L. Chang, S. J. Oltmans, L. Y. Chan, and J. M. Harris (1999), On springtime high ozone events in the lower troposphere from Southeast Asian biomass burning, Atmos. Environ., 33(15), 2403-2410.
Logan, J., M. Prather, S. Wofsy, and M. M. (1981), Tropospheric chemistry: A global perspective, J. Geophys. Res., 86(C8), 7210-7254.
Lovelock, J. E. (1958), A sensitive detector for gas chromatography, J. Chromatogr. A., 1, 35-46.
Lovelock, J. E., and A. J. Watson (1978), Electron-capture detector: Theory and practice II, J. Chromatogr. A., 158, 123-138.
Lu, R., and R. P. Turco (1994), Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment - I. Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects, J. Atmos. Sci., 51(15), 2285-2308.
Lu, R., and R. P. Turco (1995), Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment - II. Three-dimensional simulations over Los Angeles basin, Atmos. Environ., 29(13), 1499-1518.
Madronich, S., and C. Granier (1992), Impact of recent total ozone changes on tropospheric ozone photodissociation, hydroxyl radicals, and methane trends, Geophys. Res. Lett., 19(5), 465-467.
Mano, S., and M. O. Andreae (1994), Emission of methyl bromide from biomass burning, Science, 263(5151), 1255-1257.
McConnell, R., K. Berhane, F. Gilliland, S. J. London, T. Islam, W. J. Gauderman, E. Avol, H. G. Margolis, and J. M. Peters (2002), Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: A cohort study, Lancet, 359(9304), 386-391.
Molina, M. J., and F. S. Rowland (1974), Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atomc-atalysed destruction of ozone, Nature, 249(5460), 810-812.
Monks, P. S. (2000), A review of the observations and origins of the spring ozone maximum, Atmos. Environ., 34(21), 3545-3561.
MOPITT. (2001), http://mopitt.eos.ucar.edu/.
Naja, M., S. Lal, and D. Chand (2003), Diurnal and seasonal variabilities in surface ozone at a high altitude site Mt Abu (24.6 degrees N, 72.7 degrees E, 1680 m asl) in India, Atmos. Environ., 37(30), 4205-4215.
Nakajima, T., S. C. Yoon, V. Ramanathan, G. Y. Shi, T. Takemura, A. Higurashi, T. Takamura, K. Aoki, B. J. Sohn, S. W. Kim, H. Tsuruta, N. Sugimoto, A. Shimizu, H. Tanimoto, Y. Sawa, N. H. Lin, C. T. Lee, D. Goto, and N. Schutgens (2007), Overview of the Atmospheric Brown Cloud East Asian Regional Experiment 2005 and a study of the aerosol direct radiative forcing in east Asia, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D24), doi:10.1029/2007jd009009.
Nevison, C. D., N. M. Mahowald, S. C. Doney, I. D. Lima, G. R. Van der Werf, J. T. Randerson, D. F. Baker, P. Kasibhatla, and G. A. McKinley (2008), Contribution of ocean, fossil fuel, land biosphere, and biomass burning carbon fluxes to seasonal and interannual variability in atmospheric CO2, J. Geophys. Res., 113(G1), doi:10.1029/2007jg000408.
NOAA., NASA., UNEP., WMO., European Commission., and Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project. (2007), Scientific assessment of ozone depletion, 2006 : pursuant to Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, [572 p.] pp., World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
NOAA/ESRL CCGG. (2010), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/.
O'Doherty, S., P. G. Simmonds, D. M. Cunnold, H. J. Wang, G. A. Sturrock, P. J. Fraser, D. Ryall, R. G. Derwent, R. F. Weiss, P. Salameh, B. R. Miller, and R. G. Prinn (2001), In situ chloroform measurements at Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment atmospheric research stations from 1994 to 1998, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D17), 20429-20444.
Ohara, T., H. Akimoto, J. Kurokawa, N. Horii, K. Yamaji, X. Yan, and T. Hayasaka (2007), An Asian emission inventory of anthropogenic emission sources for the period 1980-2020, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7(16), 4419-4444.
Oltmans, S. J., and W. D. Komhyr (1986), Surface ozone distributions and variations from 1973-1984 measurements at the NOAA geophysical monitoring for climatic change baseline observatories, J. Geophys. Res., 91(D4), 5229-5236.
Oltmans, S. J., and H. Levy II (1994), Surface ozone measurements from a global network, Atmos. Environ., 28(1), 9-24.
Parrish, D. D., A. Stohl, C. Forster, E. L. Atlas, D. R. Blake, P. D. Goldan, W. C. Kuster, and J. A. de Gouw (2007), Effects of mixing on evolution of hydrocarbon ratios in the troposphere, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D10), doi:10.1029/2006jd007583.
Peng, C. M., and N. H. Lin (2002), Long-range transport of Asian dust: An integrated modeling study, paper presented at 6th International Aerosol Conference (IAC2002), Taipei, Taiwan.
Pochanart, P., H. Akimoto, Y. Kajii, and P. Sukasem (2003), Carbon monoxide, regional-scale transport, and biomass burning in tropical continental Southeast Asia: Observations in rural Thailand, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D17), doi:10.1029/2002jd003360.
Pollmann, J., D. Helmig, J. Hueber, C. Plass-Dülmer, and P. Tans (2008), Sampling, storage, and analysis of C2-C7 non-methane hydrocarbons from the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Cooperative Air Sampling Network glass flasks, J. Chromatogr. A., 1188(2), 75-87.
Prinn, R. G. (2003), The cleansing capacity of the atmosphere, Annu. Rev. Env. Resour., 28, 29-57.
Prinn, R. G., J. Huang, R. F. Weiss, D. M. Cunnold, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, A. McCulloch, C. Harth, P. Salameh, S. O'Doherty, R. H. J. Wang, L. Porter, and B. R. Miller (2001), Evidence for substantial variations of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals in the past two decades, Science, 292(5523), 1882-1888.
Prinn, R. G., J. Huang, R. F. Weiss, D. M. Cunnold, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, A. McCulloch, C. Harth, S. Reimann, P. Salameh, S. O'Doherty, R. H. J. Wang, L. W. Porter, B. R. Miller, and P. B. Krummel (2005), Evidence for variability of atmospheric hydroxyl radicals over the past quarter century, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(7), doi:10.1029/2004gl022228.
Prinn, R. G., R. F. Weiss, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, D. M. Cunnold, F. N. Alyea, S. O'Doherty, P. Salameh, B. R. Miller, J. Huang, R. H. J. Wang, D. E. Hartley, C. Harth, L. P. Steele, G. Sturrock, P. M. Midgley, and A. McCulloch (2000), A history of chemically and radiatively important gases in air deduced from ALE/GAGE/AGAGE, J. Geophys. Res., 105(D14), 17751-17792.
Ramanathan, V., P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero (2001), Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze, J. Geophys. Res., 106(D22), 28371-28398.
Rappengluck, B., E. Apel, M. Bauerfeind, J. Bottenheim, P. Brickell, P. Cavolka, J. Cech, L. Gatti, H. Hakola, J. Honzak, R. Junek, D. Martin, C. Noone, C. Plass-Dulmer, D. Travers, and D. Wang (2006), The first VOC intercomparison exercise within the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), Atmos. Environ., 40(39), 7508-7527.
Roelofs, G.-J., and J. Lelieveld (1997), Model study of the influence of cross-tropopause O3 transports on tropospheric O3 levels, Tellus B, 49(1), 38-55.
Rowland, F. S., and M. J. Molina (1975), Chlorofluoromethanes in the environment, Rev. Geophys., 13(1), 1-35.
Russell Jones, R., and T. Wigley (1989), Ozone depletion: Health and environmental consequences, xix, 280 p. pp., Wiley, Chichester ; New York.
Ryan, S. (1997), The wind field around Mauna Loa derived from surface and balloon observations, J. Geophys. Res., 102(D9), 10711-10725.
Ryerson, T. B., M. Trainer, J. S. Holloway, D. D. Parrish, L. G. Huey, D. T. Sueper, G. J. Frost, S. G. Donnelly, S. Schauffler, E. L. Atlas, W. C. Kuster, P. D. Goldan, G. Hubler, J. F. Meagher, and F. C. Fehsenfeld (2001), Observations of ozone formation in power plant plumes and implications for ozone control strategies, Science, 292(5517), 719-723.
Sawa, Y., H. Tanimoto, S. Yonemura, H. Matsueda, A. Wada, S. Taguchi, T. Hayasaka, H. Tsuruta, Y. Tohjima, H. Mukai, N. Kikuchi, S. Katagiri, and K. Tsuboi (2007), Widespread pollution events of carbon monoxide observed over the western North Pacific during the East Asian Regional Experiment (EAREX) 2005 campaign, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D22S26), doi:10.1029/2006jd008055.
Seinfeld, J. H., and S. N. Pandis (2006), Atmospheric chemistry and physics : from air pollution to climate change, 2nd ed., xxviii, 1203 p. pp., J. Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.
Sheu, G. R., N. H. Lin, J. L. Wang, C. T. Lee, C. F. Ou Yang, and S. H. Wang (2010), Temporal distribution and potential sources of atmospheric mercury measured at a high-elevation background station in Taiwan, Atmos. Environ., 44(20), 2393-2400.
Simmonds, P. G., S. Seuring, G. Nickless, and R. G. Derwent (1997), Segregation and interpretation of ozone and carbon monoxide measurements by air mass origin at the TOR station Mace Head, Ireland from 1987 to 1995, J. Atmos. Chem., 28(1), 45-59.
Skoog, D. A., F. J. Holler, and S. R. Crouch (2007), Principles of instrumental analysis, 6th ed., xv, 1039 p. pp., Thomson Brooks/Cole, Belmont, CA.
Streets, D. G., Q. Zhang, L. Wang, K. He, J. Hao, Y. Wu, Y. Tang, and G. R. Carmichael (2006), Revisiting China's CO emissions after the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) mission: Synthesis of inventories, atmospheric modeling, and observations, J. Geophys. Res., 111(D14306), doi:10.1029/2006jd007118.
Tang, Y., G. R. Carmichael, J.-H. Woo, N. Thongboonchoo, G. Kurata, I. Uno, D. G. Streets, D. R. Blake, R. J. Weber, R. W. Talbot, Y. Kondo, H. B. Singh, and T. Wang (2003), Influences of biomass burning during the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) experiment identified by the regional chemical transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D21), doi:10.1029/2002jd003110.
Tanimoto, H. (2009), Increase in springtime tropospheric ozone at a mountainous site in Japan for the period 1998-2006, Atmos. Environ., 43(6), 1358-1363.
Tanimoto, H., T. Ohara, and I. Uno (2009), Asian anthropogenic emissions and decadal trends in springtime tropospheric ozone over Japan: 1998-2007, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(L23802), doi:10.1029/2009gl041382.
Thom, M., R. Bosinger, M. Schmidt, and I. Levin (1993), The regional budget of atmospheric methane of a highly populated area, Chemosphere, 26(1-4), 143-160.
Thompson, A. M. (1992), The oxidizing capacity of the Earths atmosphere - Probable past and future changes, Science, 256(5060), 1157-1165.
Tsai, D. H., M. L. Wang, C. H. Wang, and C. C. Chan (2008), A study of ground-level ozone pollution, ozone precursors and subtropical meteorological conditions in central Taiwan, J. Environ. Monit., 10(1), 109-118.
Tsutsumi, Y., and H. Matsueda (2000), Relationship of ozone and CO at the summit of Mt. Fuji (35.35°N, 138.73°E, 3776 m above sea level) in summer 1997, Atmos. Environ., 34(4), 553-561.
Tyson, P., R. Fuchs, C. Fu, L. Lebel, A. P. Mitra, E. Odada, J. Perry, W. Steffen, and H. Virji (2002), Regional-global interactions in east Asia, in Global-regional linkages in the earth system, edited by C. Fu, H. Harasawa, V. Kasyanov, J. W. Kim, D. Ojima, Z. Wan and S. Zhao, pp. 109-149.
UNEP GRID-Arendal., and Zoï Environment Network. (2009), Vital Ozone Graphics 2 - Climate Link (Resource Kit for journalists), Arendal ; Norway.
UNEP Ozone Secretariat. (2006), http://ozone.unep.org/.
Vingarzan, R. (2004), A review of surface ozone background levels and trends, Atmos. Environ., 38(21), 3431-3442.
Vollmer, M. K., L. X. Zhou, B. R. Greally, S. Henne, B. Yao, S. Reimann, F. Stordal, D. M. Cunnold, X. C. Zhang, M. Maione, F. Zhang, J. Huang, and P. G. Simmonds (2009), Emissions of ozone-depleting halocarbons from China, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, doi:10.1029/2009gl038659.
Wan, D., J. H. Xu, J. B. Zhang, X. C. Tong, and J. X. Hu (2009), Historical and projected emissions of major halocarbons in China, Atmos. Environ., 43(36), 5822-5829.
Wang, J. L., W. C. Lin, and T. Y. Chen (2000a), Using atmospheric CCl4 as an internal reference in gas standard preparation, Atmos. Environ., 34(25), 4393-4398.
Wang, J. L., C. Chew, S. W. Chen, and S. R. Kuo (2000b), Concentration variability of anthropogenic halocarbons and applications as internal reference in volatile organic compound measurements, Environ. Sci. Technol., 34(11), 2243-2248.
Wang, J. L., C. J. Chang, W. D. Chang, C. Chew, and S. W. Chen (1999), Construction and evaluation of automated gas chromatography for the measurement of anthropogenic halocarbons in the atmosphere, J. Chromatogr. A., 844(1-2), 259-269.
Wang, Y., J. A. Logan, and D. J. Jacob (1998), Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry 2. Model evaluation and global ozone budget, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D9), 10727-10755.
Wayne, R. P. (2000), Chemistry of atmospheres : an introduction to the chemistry of the atmospheres of earth, the planets, and their satellites, 3rd ed., xxix, 775 p. pp., Oxford University Press, Oxford England ; New York.
WMO GAW. (2010), http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw_home_en.html.
Wuebbles, D. J. (2009), Nitrous oxide: No laughing matter, Science, 326(5949), 56-57.
Yang, K. L., C. C. Ting, J. L. Wang, O. W. Wingenter, and C. C. Chan (2005), Diurnal and seasonal cycles of ozone precursors observed from continuous measurement at an urban site in Taiwan, Atmos. Environ., 39(18), 3221-3230.
Yonemura, S., H. Tsuruta, T. Maeda, S. Kawashima, S. Sudo, and M. Hayashi (2002), Tropospheric ozone variability over Singapore from August 1996 to December 1999, Atmos. Environ., 36(12), 2061-2070.
Zhang, L., D. J. Jacob, K. F. Boersma, D. A. Jaffe, J. R. Olson, K. W. Bowman, J. R. Worden, A. M. Thompson, M. A. Avery, R. C. Cohen, J. E. Dibb, F. M. Flock, H. E. Fuelberg, L. G. Huey, W. W. McMillan, H. B. Singh, and A. J. Weinheimer (2008), Transpacific transport of ozone pollution and the effect of recent Asian emission increases on air quality in North America: an integrated analysis using satellite, aircraft, ozonesonde, and surface observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8(20), 6117-6136.
Zhang, Q., D. G. Streets, K. He, Y. Wang, A. Richter, J. P. Burrows, I. Uno, C. J. Jang, D. Chen, Z. Yao, and Y. Lei (2007), NOx emission trends for China, 1995-2004: The view from the ground and the view from space, J. Geophys. Res., 112(D22306), doi:10.1029/2007jd008684.
丁建中 (2002), 自行架設光化學測站與商業化儀器平行比對及所得資料初步分析, MS thesis, 國立中央大學, Chungli, Taiwan.
江宙君 (2007), 海陸風對台灣沿海地區空氣品質之影響, MS thesis, 國立中央大學, Chungli, Taiwan.
陳韋立 (1999), 大氣及水樣中揮發性有機氣體自動化分析技術之建立與應用, MS thesis, 國立中央大學, Chungli, Taiwan.
環保署. (2010), http://www.epa.gov.tw/.
指導教授 王家麟(Jia-Lin Wang) 審核日期 2010-8-2
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明