博碩士論文 93322090 詳細資訊




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姓名 連翊涵(Yi-Han Lien)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 區塊式Level of Detail地景視覺模擬之研究
(Block-based Multiple Level of Detail for Landscape Visualization)
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摘要(中) 「地景視覺模擬」可分成地形骨架和地表材質影像兩部分處理。地形骨架一般由規則或不規則的網格構成,主要以地形高程為主,連接地表上特徵點(山峰、山谷、坡度變化較大處等),完整描述高低起伏陡緩特徵;地表紋理則以航空影像或衛星影像捕捉地面紋理物像,搭配敷貼在地形網格上,讓視覺模擬更生動。
本研究利用兩種資料,1m空間解析度的數值地形模型和1m空間解析度的QuickBird全色態影像,分別建立多重細緻程度(Level of Detail, LoD)資料庫,以利視覺模擬時依不同條件動態搭配使用。地形網格部分的LoD,利用四分樹演算法(Quad-tree)找出地形上的特徵點,配合不同門檻值(高差)設定,產生六種不同疏密程度的地形網格;地表材質的部分,則引入影像金字塔概念,以原始影像當作金字塔最底層,也就是最細緻的材質影像,並將資料複製成六份,再縮減其解析度,建立六級不同解析度的資料。
進行視覺模擬時,首先讓使用者決定視覺條件,算出可視範圍。接著採取區塊方式(block-based)拼接適當場景,將前處理產生的網格資料和材質影像,切割成等相同大小的區塊,配合使用者所在的位置與各區塊中心的距離,判斷各區塊應有的資料等級。網格部分是將區塊內的特徵點連成網格,影像部分則拼接不同解析度的區塊影像,最後將兩者結合,完成地景動態視覺模擬。
摘要(英) Terrain representation is one of the most common tasks in visualization of geoinformation. In order to realistically visualize real landscape, several issues have to be addressed, in particular, how to combine terrain meshes and texture images. In this study, Level of Detail (LoD) was applied to both terrain meshes and texture images for producing realistic visualization with better performance but without too much information loss.
Several layers of terrain networks and texture images with different levels of details were created from original high resolution digital elevation model and satellite image using quad-tree and image pyramid algorithms, respectively. These were used as base data for dynamic landscape visualization. During the visualization, visible areas of each scene were determined dynamically from viewing parameters. The scene was created using a block-based composition scheme. The study region was divided into several blocks. To improve the visualization performance, only blocks within the view frustum should be processed. In addition, which LoD to use for each block was determined according to pre-defined viewing distance criteria. Then, selected terrain meshes and texture images were combined and rendered to produce the final visualization scene.
關鍵字(中) ★ 影像金字塔
★ 四分樹
★ 地景視覺模擬
★ Level of Detail (LoD)
關鍵字(英) ★ Image pyramid
★ Level of Detail (LoD)
★ Terrain visualization
★ Quad-tree
論文目次 中文摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VI
圖目錄 VII
第一章 序論 1
1.1 研究背景與目的 1
1.2 LoD概念 6
第二章 文獻回顧及研究流程 9
2.1 文獻回顧 9
2.2 研究流程 15
2.3 論文架構 19
第三章 資料前處理 20
3.1 地形網格 21
3.2 材質影像 26
第四章 成像 27
4.1 視覺條件判斷 28
4.2 多重解析度地形網格及材質影像 31
第五章 研究成果 36
5.1 測試資料 37
5.2 研究成果 39
5.2.1 以1024 × 1024為例 39
5.2.2 以2048 × 2048為例 60
5.2.3 以2048 × 6144為例 75
5.2.4 材質影像敷貼 91
5.2.5 飛行模擬 94
第六章 結論與討論 97
參考文獻 100
參考文獻 李伯穎,2001年,利用空間分割個別物體之深度網格與遮蔽裁切的複雜場景顯像技術(Rendering Complex Scenes Based on Spatial Subdivision, Object-based Depth-mesh and Occlusion Culling),國立交通大學資訊工程系碩士論文。
佘慶威,2004年,以GeoVRML、ROAM演算法及檔案壓縮法展示3D GIS資料之研究(Use GeoVRML、ROAM Algorithm and Data Compression to Display 3D GIS),國立中山大學海洋環境及工程學研究所碩士論文。
翁明昉,2000年,具觀視點相依多層次精細度模型保留之即時且連續的地形顯像技術(Real-Time and Continuous Terrain Rendering With View-Dependent LOD Preserving),國立交通大學資訊工程學系碩士論文。
Assarsson, U., Möller, T., 2000, “Optimized View Frustum Culling Algorithms for Bounding Boxes.”, Journal of Graphics Tools, vol. 5, pp. 9-22.
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Hoppe, H., 1998, “Smooth View-Dependent Level-of-Detail Control and its Application to Terrain Rendering.”, IEEE Visualization, pp. 35-42.
James, H. C., 1976, “Hierarchical geometric models for visible surface algorithms.”, Communications of the ACM, Vol. 19, pp. 547-554.
Kamat, V. R., Martinez, J. C., 2005, “Large-Scale Dynamic Terrain In Three-Dimensional Construction Process Visualizations.”, Journal of Computing In Civil Engineering, pp. 160-171.
Lee, S. M., 2002,“Wavelet-Based Multiresolution Surface Approximation from Height Fields.”, Electrical and Computer Engineering of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Losasso, F., Hoppe, H., 2004, “Geometry Clipmaps: Terrain Rendering Using Nested Regular Grids.”, ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 23, pp. 769-776.
Luebke, D., Reddy, M., Cohen, J. D., Varshney, A., Watson, B., Huebner, R., 2003, “Level of Detail for 3D Graphics.”, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.
Pajarola, R., 1998, “Large Scale Terrain Visualization Using The Restricted Quadtree Triangulation.”, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 19-26 and 515.
Swan, J. E., II, Arango, J., Nakshatrala, B. K., 2002, “Interactive distributed hardware-accelerated LOD-Sprite terrain rendering with stable frame rate.”, Proc. SPIE Visualization & Data Analysis, Vol. 4665, pp. 177-188.
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指導教授 蔡富安(Fuan Tsai) 審核日期 2006-7-24
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