博碩士論文 93326019 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:12 、訪客IP:3.81.29.226
姓名 陳邦瑋(Pang-Wei Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 從台北都會區細氣膠特性評估PM1及PM2.5對環境影響的顯著性
相關論文
★ 台灣北部地區大氣氣膠有機酸特性★ 北部氣膠超級測站近七年氣膠特性變化探討
★ 鹿林山背景大氣及受生質燃燒事件影響的氣膠化學特性★ 鹿林山大氣氣膠含水量探討及乾氣膠光學特性
★ 中南半島近污染源生質燃燒氣膠特性及其傳輸演化與東沙島氣膠特性★ 鹿林山大氣背景站不同氣團氣膠光學特性
★ 台灣細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)空氣品質標準建置研究★ 台灣都市地區細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)手動採樣分析探討
★ 2011年不同來源氣團鹿林山氣膠水溶性無機離子動態變化★ 台灣都會區細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)濃度變化影響因子、污染來源及其對大氣能見度影響
★ 2012年越南山羅高地生質燃燒期間氣膠特性及2003-2012年台灣鹿林山氣膠來源解析★ 2011年生質燃燒期間越南山羅高地和台灣鹿林山氣膠特性
★ 2013年7SEAS國際觀測對北越南山羅生質燃燒期間氣膠化學特性及來源鑑定★ 中南半島近生質燃燒源區與傳輸下風鹿林山氣膠特性及來源解析
★ 台灣北、中′南部細懸浮微粒(PM2.5)儀器比對成分分析與來源推估★ 2013年春季鹿林山和夏季龍潭氣膠水溶性離子短時間動態變化特性
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 雖然我國環保署訂有PM10空氣品質標準來管制空氣中懸浮微粒(氣膠),但是細氣膠和機動車輛排放以及光化學反應較為有關卻仍然沒有標準加以管制,針對我國訂定新的細氣膠空氣品質標準,是訂定PM2.5或是PM1標準較為適當?值得深入探討。
本文利用北部氣膠超級測站連續監測氣膠特性以及鄰近的新莊空氣品質監測站數據,分析2002年3月~2005年12月台北都會區PM1和PM2.5的物理、化學及光學特性。並於2005年8月、9月底到10月初以及12月進行平常日氣膠採樣。細氣膠觀測的結果顯示,氣膠中水溶性離子SO42-、NH4+、K+大多存在於小於1 μm以下,且由氯離子損失法計算,可以得知PM2.5氣膠含有較多的海鹽成分;以絕對主成分分析PM1和PM2.5主要的污染來源都是以交通和光化反應為主。在碳成分方面,除了裂解碳(OP)和扣除裂解碳的低溫元素碳(EC1-OP)以PM2.5-1含量較多外,其餘碳成分物種以PM1為主。在高污染事件下進行氣膠監測特性探討,發現不論是細氣膠高污染事件日、大陸沙塵前緣細氣膠高濃度事件或大陸沙塵過後高壓迴流,主要的氣膠污染物都存在於小於1 μm,顯示以PM1氣膠做為監測指標物,將較能瞭解受高污染事件影響的程度。此外,本文也發現PM1較PM2.5更能夠解釋環境中氣膠的光學效應。事實上,在許多時候當PM2.5濃度未達美國65 μg m-3標準時已經有相當濃度的PM1氣膠,這很容易使人們忽略此時氣膠對人體和環境的衝擊。
摘要(英) Although PM10 air quality standard has been set up for regulating ambient aerosols by Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in Taiwan, fine aerosol which is more related to motor vehicle emissions and photochemical reactions is not yet regulated. It is worthwhile to investigate whether the new fine aerosol standard should be either PM2.5 or PM1 in Taiwan?
This study assesses aerosol continuous monitoring characteristics from North Aerosol Supersite and the air quality data from nearby Hsin-Chuang monitoring site to analyze PM1 and PM2.5 physical, chemical, and optical properties from March 2002 to December 2005. In addition, filter-based aerosols waere collected in various days in August, September, October, and December 2005. The analysis of aerosol properties shows that major water-soluble ions like SO42-, NH4+, K+ are predominantly distributed in aerosol sizes below 1 μm. In contrast, more sea salts are found in PM2.5 from the calculation of chlorine loss. However, major sources for PM1 and PM2.5 are both from traffic activity and photochemical reactions. In aerosol carbon fractions, PM1 is predominant except for pyrolyzed carbon (OP) and low temperature evolved elemental carbon with the substraction of OP (EC1-OP) are dominated by PM2.5-1. The aerosol monitoring characteristics shows that major aerosol species are in submicron particles for high concentration events, high fine aerosol events in front of transported Yellow dusts, and high aerosol events under anticyclonic outflow after the passage of Yellow dust. This indicates PM1 is useful as a tracer in representing high aerosol events. Moreover, PM1 is better than PM2.5 in accounting for aerosol optical effects for the environment. In fact, submicron aerosols frequently reach a substantial concentration even without shooting up the US 65 μg m-3 standard. This might mislead people to underscore aerosol effects on human health and the environment.
關鍵字(中) ★ 空氣品質標準
★ PM2.5
★ 氣膠粒徑分布
★ PM1
關鍵字(英) ★ PM1
★ PM2.5
★ Aerosol size distribution
★ Air quality standards
論文目次 1. 前言……………………………………………………………………1
1.1 研究緣起………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究目的………………………………………………………1
2. 文獻回顧………………………………………………………………3
2.1 都市氣膠特性…………………………………………………3
2.2 次微米氣膠來源與特性………………………………………4
2.2.1 次微米氣膠來源……………………………………………4
2.2.2 次微米氣膠的物理特性……………………………………4
2.2.3 次微米氣膠的化學特性……………………………………6
2.2.4 次微米氣膠的光學特性…………………………………10
2.2.5 次微米氣膠對健康的危害………………………………11
2.3 超細氣膠特性…………………………………………………12
2.3.1 大氣環境對超細氣膠的影響……………………………15
2.3.2 超細氣膠對健康的危害…………………………………15
2.4 細氣膠截斷粒徑的探討………………………………………16
2.4.1 美國環保署針對細氣膠空氣品質標準截斷粒徑的探討…16
2.4.2 細氣膠質量濃度截斷粒徑………………………………17
2.4.3 細氣膠化學組成截斷粒徑………………………………18
3. 研究方法……………………………………………………………21
3.1 研究地點與時間………………………………………………23
3.2 氣膠特性監測及採樣儀器……………………………………24
3.2.1 連續自動監測儀器………………………………………24
3.2.2 人工採樣器………………………………………………31
3.3 樣品分析方法…………………………………………………35
3.3.1 氣膠質量濃度秤重分析…………………………………35
3.3.2 氣膠水溶性離子分析……………………………………35
3.3.3 氣膠碳成分分析…………………………………………36
3.4 連續自動監測儀器數據分析…………………………………39
3.5 氣膠污染來源與貢獻量推估…………………………………41
3.5.1 絕對主成分分析法………………………………………41
3.5.2 氯離子損失法……………………………………………45
4. 結果與討論…………………………………………………………49
4.1 平常日PM1和PM2.5氣膠特性………………………………49
4.1.1 PM1和PM2.5氣膠質量濃度………………………………49
4.1.2 PM1和PM2.5一次和二次氣膠含量……………………52
4.1.3 PM1和PM2.5氣膠水溶性離子…………………………58
4.1.4 PM1和PM2.5氣膠氣膠碳成分……………………………61
4.1.5 PM1和PM2.5二次有機碳含量…………………………64
4.1.6 PM1和PM2.5污染來源推估………………………………66
4.2 PM1和PM2.5氣膠光學特性…………………………………73
4.2.1 PM1和PM2.5對散光係數的影響…………………………73
4.2.2 PM1和PM2.5對地球溫室效應的影響……………………76
4.2.3 PM1和PM2.5對能見度的影響…………………………79
4.3 特殊事件氣膠粒徑分布………………………………………80
4.3.1 細氣膠高污染事件日氣膠粒徑分布……………………80
4.3.2 上班時段及光化學污染事件的氣膠粒徑分布…………83
4.3.3 大陸沙塵前緣細氣膠高濃度事件氣膠粒徑分布………87
4.3.4 大陸沙塵過後高壓迴流細氣膠高濃度事件氣膠粒徑分布…………………………………………………………89
4.3.5 環境因子對氣膠粒徑分布的影響………………………91
5. 結論與建議…………………………………………………………93
5.1 結論……………………………………………………………93
5.2 建議……………………………………………………………94
6. 參考文獻………………………………………………………………95
附錄一 口試委員意見及答覆………………………………………117
附錄二 氣膠密度逼近……………………………………………121
附錄三 臭氧篩選法…………………………………………………123
附錄四 2002年到2005年的高臭氧事件日各物種濃度逐時變化圖……………………………………………………………125
附錄五 2002年到2005年高臭氧事件日不同時間的氣膠粒徑分布…………………………………………………………131
附錄六 2002年到2005年細氣膠高污染事件日氣膠粒徑分布…137
附錄七 2004年到2005年大陸沙塵前緣細氣膠高濃度事件氣膠粒徑分布………………………………………………………145
附錄八 2004年到2005年大陸沙塵過後高壓迴流細氣膠高濃度事件氣膠粒徑分布……………………………………………149
參考文獻 王弼正,1997。台灣地區大氣氣膠特性之研究—東北季風影響下台北地區細微粒及其氣體前驅物特性分析。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
沈士翔,2006。綜觀天氣及不同氣流軌跡線影響下的北台灣氣膠特性。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
李繡偉,1998。拜香燃煙分布動態變化與增溼成長特性。元智大學化學工程研究所碩士論文。
吳易儒,2004。民俗活動對於空氣品質之影響。國立成功大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
唐進勝,1992。拜香燃煙中微粒之度量、計數及脂族醛含量。國立台灣大學公共衛生學研究所碩士論文。
許妙甘,2001。大氣懸浮微粒成分對正常人類支氣管上皮細胞BEAS-2B毒性之研究。國立台灣大學職業醫學與工業衛生研究所碩士論文。
張佳瑄,2001。亞洲氣膠特性實驗—台灣北海岸春季氣膠光學特性。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
張順欽,2006。台北市空氣品質近十年來變動型態及其顯現的意義。國立中央大學環境工程研究所博士論文。
陳富平,2004。大氣次微米微粒(PM1)多環芳香烴化合物(PAHs)之特性研究。國立高雄第一科技大學環境與安全衛生工程所碩士論文。
陳鴻文,2006。生質燃燒長程傳輸對台灣中部高山氣膠特性及其指標的影響。國立中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
莊凱任,2002。空氣污染引發之易感受族群急性健康效應之短期世代研究。國立台灣大學職業醫學與工業衛生研究所碩士論文。
彭啟明,1993。台灣北部地區混合層高度的觀測與模擬。國立中央大學大氣物理研究所碩士論文。
詹長權、李崇德、周崇光、莊銘棟、王之群、沈士翔、陳邦瑋、陳美君,「微粒空氣污染物研究與修訂空氣品質標準之可行性評估,子計畫二:微粒超級測站微粒監測特性」,環保署/國科會空污防制科研合作計畫成果完整報告,台北(2006)。
劉志浩,2005。微粒粒徑對大氣多環芳香烴化合物氣固相分布係數影響之研究。國立高雄第一科技大學環境與安全衛生工程所碩士論文。
蔡邦國,2002。不同空氣源次微米氣溶膠活化能力之探討。國立中央大學大氣物理研究所碩士論文。
簡弘民,2004。科技的另一面—奈米技術對環境之影響。永續產業發展雙月刊,第14期。第28-35頁。
Adams, J. M., Constable, J. V. H., Guenther, A. B., Zimmerman, P., 2001. An estimate of natural volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation since the last glacial maximum. Chemosphere-Global Change Science. 3, 79-91.
Allen, A. G., Nemitz, E., Shi, J. P., Harrison, R. M., Greenwood, J. C., 2001. Size distributions of trace metals in atmospheric aerosols in the United Kingdom. Atmospheric Environment. 35, 4581-4591.
Artelt, S., Kock, H., Koning, H. P., Levsen, K., Rosner, G., 1999. Engine dynamometer experiments: platinum emissions from differently aged three-way catalytic converters. Atmospheric Environment. 33, 3359-3567.
Azevedo, C., Pio, C., Duarte, A., 2001. Composition of extractable organic matterof air particles from rural and urban Portuguese areas. Atmospheric Environment. 35, 5485-5496.
Bates, T. T., Quinn, P. K., Coffman, D. J., Johnson, J. E., 2005. Dominance of organic aerosols in the marine boundary layer over the Gulf of Maine during NEAQS 2002 and their role in the aerosol light scattering. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol, 110, D18202, doi: 10.1029/2005JD005797.
Birmili, W., Wiedensohler, A., 1998. The influence of meteorological parameters on ultrafine particle production at a continental site. Journal of Aerosol Science. 29, S1015-S1016.
Biswas, P., Wu, C. Y., 2005. Nanoparticles and the environment. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 55, 708-746.
Broday, D. M., Georgopoulos, P. G., 2001. Growth and Deposition of Hygroscopic Particulate Matter in the Human Lungs. Aerosol Science and Technology. 34, 144-159.
Brouwer, D. H., Gijsbers, J. H. J., Lurvink, M. W. M., 2004. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles in the workplace: exploring sampling techniques and strategies. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 48, 439-453.
Burtscher, H., Kunzel, S., Huglin, C., 1998. Characterization of particles in combustion engine exhaust. Journal of Aerosol Science. 29, 389-396.
Cabada, J. C., Rees, S., Takahama, S., Khlystov, A., Pandis, S. N., Davidson, C. I., Robinson, A. I., 2004. Mass size distributions and size resolved chemical composition of fine particulate matter at the Pittsburgh supersite. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 3127-3141.
Camata, R. P., Hirasawa, M., Okuyama, K., Takeuchi, K., 2000. Observation of aerosol formation during laser ablation using a low-pressure differential mobility analyzer. Journal of Aerosol Science. 31, 391-401.
Chakrabarti, B., Singh, M., Sioutas, C., 2004. Development of a near-continuous monitor for measurement of the sub-150 nm PM mass concentration. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 239-252.
Chan, Y. C., Simpson, R. W., Mctainsh, G. H., Voeles, P. D., Cohen, D. D., Bailey, G. M., 1999. Source apportionment of visibility degradation problems in Brisbane (Australia) using the multiple linear regression techniques. Atmospheric Environment. 33, 3237-3250.
Chang, M. C. O., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Hopke, P. K., Yi, S. M., England, G. C., 2004. Measurement of ultrafine particle size distributions from coal-, oil-, and gas-fired stationary combustion sources. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 54, 1494-1505.
Charron, A., Harrison, R. M., 2003. Primary particle formation form vehicle emissions during exhaust dilution in the roadside atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment. 37, 4109-4119.
Cheng, M. D., Jenkins, C. M., 2003. Characterization of airborne ultrafine and nanopmeter particles during energetic materials synthesis and testing. Fall materials research society meeting: Boston, MA.
Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Lowenthal, D. H., Solomon, P. A., Maglino, K. L., Ziman, S. D., Richards, L. W., 1993. PM10 and PM2.5 compositions in California’s San Joaquin Valley. Aerosol Science and Technology 18, 105-128.
Chung, A., Herner, J., D., Kleeman, M. J., 2001. Detection of Alkaline ultrafine atmospheric particles at Bakersfield, California. Environmental Science and Technology. 35, 2184-2190.
Claiborn, C. S., Finn, D., Larson, T. V., Koenig, J. Q., 2000. Windblown dust contributes to high PM2.5 concentrations. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 50, 1440-1445.
Clarke, A. D., 1993. Atmospheric nuclei in the Pacific midtroposphere – their nature, concentration, and evolution. Journal of Geophysical Research. 98, 20633-20647.
Clarke, A. D., Varner, J. L., Eisele, F., Mauldin, R. L., Tanner, D., Litchy, M., 1998. Particle production in the remote marine atmosphere: cloud outflow and subsidence during ace 1. Journal of Geophysical Research. 103, 16397-16409.
Covert, D. S., Kapustin, V. N., Bates, T. S., Quinn, P. K., 1996. Physical properties of marine boundary layer aerosol particles of the mid-Pacific in relation to sources and meteorological transport. Journal of Geophysical Research. 101, 6919-6930.
Covert, D. S., Wiedensohler, A., Aalto, P., Heintzenberg, J., McMurry, P. H., Leck, C., 1996. Aerosol number size distributions from 3 to 500 nm diameter in the arctic marine boundary layer during summer and autumn. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology. 48, 197-212.
Dahn, C. J., Kashani, A., Finkelstein, J., 2000. Dust explosibility of metal powders. P/M Science and Technology. 2, 14-17.
De Hartog, J. J., Hoek, G., Peters, A., Timonen, K. L., Ibald-Mulli, A., Brunekreef, B., Heinrich, J., Tiitanen, P., Van Wijnen, J. H., Kreyling, W., Kulmala, M., Pekkanen, J., 2003. Effects of fine and ultrafine particles on cardiorespiratory symptoms in elderly subjects with coronary heart disease – the ULTRA study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 157, 613-623.
De Leeuw, G., 1986. Vertical profiles of giant particles close above the sea surface. Tellus. 38B, 51-61.
Derimian, Y., Karnieli, A., Kaufman, Y. J., Andreae, M. O., Andreae, T. W., Dubovik, O., Maenhaut, W., Koren, I., Holben, B. N., 2006. Dust and pollution aerosols over the Negev desert, Israel: Properties, transport, and radiative effect. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 111, D05205, doi:10.1029/2005JD006549.
Dockery, D. W., Pope III, C. A., Xu, X., Spengler, J. D., Ware, J. H., Fay, M. E., Ferris, B. G., Speizer, F. E., 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six US cities. The New England Journal of Medicine. 329, 1573-1759.
Donaldson, K., Li, X. Y., MacNee, W., 1998. Ultrafine (Nanometer) Particle Mediated Lung Injury. Journal of Aerosol Science. 29, 553-560.
Draxler, R.R., 1999. Hybrid single-particle lagrangian integrated trajectories (HYSPLIT): Version 4.0- User's Guide. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL ARL-230, Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD, USA.
Drewnick, F., Jayne, J. T., Canagaratna, M., Worsnop, D. R., Demerjian, K. L., 2004. Measurement of ambient aerosol composition during the PMTACS-NY 2001 using an aerosol mass spectrometer. Part II: chemically speciated mass distributions. Aerosol Science and Technology. 28, 104-117.
Ebelt, S., Brauer, M., Cyrys, J., Tuch, T., Kreyling, W. G., Wichmann, H. E., Heinrich, J., 2001. Air quality in postunification Erfurt, east Germany: associating changes in pollutant concentrations with changes in emissions. Environmental Health Perspectives. 109, 325-333.
Eisele, F. L., McMurry, P. H., 1997. Recent progress in understanding particle nucleation and growth. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 352, 191-200.
Eldering, A., Cass, G. R., 1996. Source-oriented model for air pollutant effects on visibility. Journal of Geophysical Research. 101, 19343-19369.
Faiz, A., Weaver, C. S., Walsh, M. P., 1996. Air pollution from motor vehicles: standards and technologies for controlling emissions. The World Bank: Washington, DC.
Fine, P. M., Chakrabarti, B., Krudysz, M., Schauer, J. J., Sioutas, C., 2004. Diurnal variations of individual organic compound constituents of ultrafine and accumulation mode particulate matter in the Los Angeles Basin. Environmental Science and Technology. 38, 1296-1304.
Fine, P. M., Shen, S., Sioutas, C., 2004. Inferring the sources of fine and ultrafine particulate matter at downwind receptor sites in the Los Angeles Basin using multiple continuous measurements. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 182-195.
Formenti, P., Elbert, W., Maenhaut, W., Haywood, J., Osborne, S., Andreae, M. O., 2003. Inorganic and carbonaceous aerosols during the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) experiment: Chemical characteristics, physical properties, and emission data for smoke from African biomass buring. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 108, D138488, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002408.
Funasaka, K., Sakai, M., Shinya, M., Miyazaki, T., Kamiura, T., Kaneco, S., Ohta, K., Fujita, T., 2003. Size distributions and characteristics of atmospheric inorganic particles by regional comparative study in Urban Osaka, Japan. Atmospheric Environment. 37, 4597-4605.
Gillies, J.A., Gertler, A.W., Sagebiel, J.C., Dippel, W.A., 2001. On-road PM2.5 and PM10 emissions in the Sepulveda Tunnel, Los Angeles, California. Environmental Science and Technology 35, 1054–1063.
Giugliano, M., Lonati, G., Butelli, P., Romele, L., Tardivo, R., Grosso, M., 2005. Fine particulate (PM2.5-PM1) at urban sites with different traffic exposure. Atmospheric Environment. 39, 2421-2431.
Gomišček, B., Hauck, H., Stopper, S., Preining, O., 2004. Spatial and temporal variation of PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and particle number concentration during the AUPHEP—project. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 3917-3934.
Hämeri, K., Aalto, P., Kulmala, M., Sammaljarvi, E., Spring, E., Pihkala, P., 1996. Formation of respirable particles during ski waxing. Journal of Aerosol Science. 27, 339-344.
Hansen, J. E., Sato, M., 2001. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 98, pp. 14778-14783.
Harris, S. J., Maricq, M. M., 2001. Signature size distributions for diesel and gasoline engine exhaust particulate matter. Journal fo Aerosol Science. 32, 749-764.
Herner, J. D., Aw, J., Gao, O., Chang, D. P., Kleeman, M. J., 2005. Size and composition distribution of airborne particulate matter in northern California: i-particulate mass, carbon, and water-soluble ions. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 55, 30-51.
Hewett, P., 1995. The particle-size distribution, density, and specific surface-area of welding fumes from Smaw and Gmaw mild-steel and stainless-steel consumables. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 56, 128-135.
Hildemann, L. M., Markowski, G. R., Jones, M. C., Cass, G. R., 1991. Submicrometer aerosol mass distributions of emissions from boilers, fireplaces, automobiles, diesel trucks, and meat-cooking operations. Aerosol Science and Technology 14, 138-152.
Hinds, W. C., 1999. Aerosol technology properties, behavior, and measurement of airborne paeticles; John Willey & Sons: New York.
Hopke, P. K., 1982. Discussion: trace element concentrations in summer aerosols at rural sites in New York State and their possible sources, and seasonal variations in the composition of ambient sulfate—containing aerosols in the New York area. Atmospheric Environment. 16, 1379.
Hoppel, W. A., Fitzgerald, J. W., Frick, G. M., Larson, R. E., Mack, E. J., 1989. Atmospheric aerosol size distributions and optical properties in the marine boundary layer over the Atlantic ocean. NRL Report 9188, Washington, DC.
Hopper, R. P., Peters, N. E., 1989. Use of multivariate analysis for determining sources of solutes found in wet atmospheric deposition in the United States. Environment Science and Technology. 23, 1263-1268.
Hughes, L. S., Cass, G. R., Gone, J., Ames, M., Olmez, I., 1998. Physical and chemical characterization of atmospheric ultrafine particles in the Los Angeles area. Environmental Science and Technology. 32, 1153-1161.
Hussein, T., Puustinen, A., Aalto, P. P., Mäkelä, J. M., Hämeri, K., Kulmala, M., 2004. Urban aerosol number size distributions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 4, 391-411.
Hussein, T., Hämeri, K., Aalto, P. P., Paatero, P., Kulmala, M., 2005. Model structure and spatial—temporal variations of urban and suburban aerosols in Helsinki—Finland. Atmospheric Environment. 39, 1655-1668.
Jaenicke, R., 1993. Tropospheric aerosols, in aerosol-cloud-climate interactions, edited by P. V. Hobbs. Academic Press, San Diego, CA; 1-31.
Jimenez, J. L., Bahreini, R., Cocker, D. R., Zhuang, H., Varutbangkul, V., Flagan, R. C., Seinfeld, J. H., O’Dowd, C. D., Hoffmann, T., 2003. New particle formation from photooxidation of diiodomethane (CH2I2). Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 108, 4318-4322.
Kawanaka, Y., Mataumoto, E., Sakamoto, K., Wang, N., Yun, S. J., 2004. Size distributions of mutagenic compounds and mutagenicity in atmosphere particulate matter collect with a low-pressure cascade impactor. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 2125-2132.
Kegler, S. R., Wilson, W. E., Marcus, A. H., 2001. PM1, intermodal (PM2.5-1) mass, and the soil component of PM2.5 in Phoenix, AZ, 1995-1996. Aerosol Science and Technology. 35, 914-920.
Kerminen, V. M., Mäkelä, T. E., Ojanen, C. H., Hillamo, R. E., Vilhunen, J. K., Rantanen, L., Havers, N., Von Bohlen, A., Klockow, D., 1997. Characterization of the Particulate Phase in the Exhaust from a Diesel Car. Environmental Science and Technology. 31, 1883-1889.
Keywood, M. D., Ayers, G. P., Gras, J. L., Gillett, R. W., Cohen, D. D., 1999. Relationships between size segregated mass concentration data and ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban areas. Atmospheric Environment. 33, 2907-2913.
Khlystov, A., Stanier, C., Pandis, S. N., 2004. An algorithm for combining electrical mobility and aerodynamic size distributions data when measuring ambient aerosol. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 229-238.
Kim, S., Shen, S., Sioutas, C., Zhu, Y. F., Hinds, W. S., 2002. Size distribution and diurnal and seasonal trends of ultrafine particles in source and receptor sites of the Los Angeles Basin. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 52, 297-307.
Kittelson, D. B., 1998. Engines and nanoparticles: A review. Journal of Aerosol Science. 29, 575-588.
Kleinman, M. T., 1980. Identifying and estimating the relative importance of source of airborne particulates. Environmental Science and Technology. 14, 62-65.
Knight, G., Bigu, J., Morgan, P., Stewart, D. B., 1983. Size distribution of airborne dust in mines. In aerosols in the mining and industrial work environments. Marple, V. A., Liu, B. Y. H., Eds. Ann arbor science: Ann arbor, MI.
Koutsenogii, P. K., Jaenicke, R., 1994. Number concentration and size distribution of atmospheric aerosol in Siberia. Journal of Aerosol Science. 25, 377-383.
Krivácsy, Z., Blazsó, M., Shooter, D., 2006. Primary organic pollutants in New Zealand urban aerosol in winter during high PM10 episodes. Atmospheric Environment. 139, 195-205.
Kuhlbusch, T. A. J., Neumann, S., Fissan, H., 2004. Number size distribution, mass concentration, and particle composition of PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 in bag filling area of carbon black production. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 1, 660-671.
Laakso, L., Hussein, T., Aarnio, P., Komppula, M., Hiltunen, V., Viisanen, Y., Kulmala, M., 2003. Diurnal and annual characteristics of particle mass and number concentrations in urban, rural and arctic environments in Finland. Atmospheric Environment. 37, 2629-2641.
Laden, F., Neas, L. M., Schwartz, J., 1999. The association of crustal particles in the fine particulate fraction with daily mortality in six U.S. cities. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 159:A332.
Lecoanet, H. F., Bottero, J. Y., Wiesner, M. R., 2004. Laboratory assessment of the mobility of nanomaterials in porous media. Environmental Science and Technology. 38, 5164-5169.
Lee, C. T., Hsu, W. C., 1996. The source apportionment of urban aerosols from chemical properties of aerosol spectra near atmospheric sources. Journal of the Chinese Institute of Engineers. 19, 1-13.
Lee, C. T., Shen, C. T., 1995. Visibility and its estimating model in the Taipei metropolitan area. Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China (A). 19, 506-513.
Lee, S. C., Cheng, Y., Ho, K. F., Cao, J. J., Louie, P. K.-K., Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., 2006. PM1.0 and PM2.5 characteristics in the roadside environment of Hong Kong. Aerosol Science and Technology. 36, 157-165.
Li, C. S., Lin, C. H., 2002. PM1/PM2.5/PM10 characteristics in the urban atmosphere of Taipei. Aerosol Science and Technology. 36, 469-473.
Lin, J. J., Lee, L. C., 2004. Characterization of the concentration and distribution of urban submicron (PM1) aerosol particles. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 469-475.
Lin, J. J., Lee, L. C., 2004. Characterization of n-alkanes in urban submicron aerosol particles (PM1). Atmospheric Environment. 38, 2983-2991.
Lipsky, E., Stanier, C. O., Pandis, S. N., Robinson, A. L., 2002. Effects of sampling conditions on the size distribution of fine particulate matter emitted from a pilot-scale pulverized-coal combustor. Energy and Fuels. 16, 302-310.
Lonati, G., Giugliano, M., Ozgen, S., 2005. PM2.5 composition in Milan (Italy). Proceeding of the Third International Symposium on Air Quality Management at Urban, Regional and Global Scales. 14-23.
Luther, W., 2004. Industrial Application of Nanoparticles—chances and risks; future technologies. Division of VDI technologiezentrum GmbH: Dusseldorf, Germany.
Maguhn, J., Karg, E., Kettrup, A., Zimmermann, R., 2003. On-line analysis of the size distribution of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles in flue and stack gas of a Municipal Waste Incineration Plant: effects of dynamic process control measures and emission reduction devices. Environmental Science and Technology. 37, 4761-4770.
Mäkelä, J. M., Aalto, P., Jokinen, V., Pohja, T., Nissinen, A., Palmroth, S., Markkanen, T., Seitsonen, K., Lihavainen, H., Kulmala, M., 1997. Observations of ultrafine aerosol particle formation and growth in Boreal Forest. Geophysical Research Letters. 24, 1219-1222.
Mar, T. F., Norris, G. A., Koenig, J. Q., Larson, T. V., 2000. Associations between air pollution and mortality in Phoenix, 1995-1997. Environmental Health Perspectives. 108:347-353.
Massling, A., Stock, M., Wiedensohler, A., 2005. Diurnal, weekly, and seasonal variation of hygroscopic properties of submicrometer urban aerosol particles. Atmospheric Environment. 39, 3911-3922.
Mathis, U., Ristimaki, J., Mohr, M., Keskinen, J., Ntziachristos, L., Samaras, Z., Mikkanen, P., 2004. Sampling conditions for the measurement of nucleation mode particles in the exhaust of a diesel vehicle. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 1149-1160.
Maynard, A. D., Baron, P. A., Foley, M., Shvedova, A. A., Kisin, E. R., Castranova, V., 2004. Exposure to carbon nanotube material: aerosol release during the handling of unrefined single-walled carbon nanotube material. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 67, 87-107.
McDonald, R., Hu, S. H., Martuzevicius, D., Grinshpun, S. A., LeMasters, G., Biswas, P., 2004. Intensive short term measurement of the ambient aerosol in the Greater Cincinnati Airshed. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 70-79.
McGovern, F., M., Jennings, S. G., OConnor, T. C., 1996. Aerosol and trace gas measurements during the Mace Head Experiment. Atmospheric Environment. 30, 3891-3902.
McMurry, P. H., Woo, K. S., Weber, R., Chen, D. R., Pui, D. Y. H., 2000. Size distributions of 3-10 nm atmospheric particles: implications for nucleation mechanisms. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A-Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 358, 2625-2642.
McMurry, P. H., Woo, K. S., 2002. Size distributions of 3-100 nm urban Atlanta aerosols: measurement and observations. Journal of Aeorsol Medicine. 15,169-178.
Mészáros, A., Vissy, K., 1974. Concentration, size distribution and chemical nature of atmospheric aerosol particles in remote ocean areas. Journal of Aeorsol Science. 5, 101-109.
Michele, G., Giovanni, L., Paola, B., Laura, R., Ruggero, T., Mario, G., 2005. Fine particulate (PM2.5-PM1) at urban sites with different traffic exposure. Atmospheric Environment. 39, 2421-2431.
Molnár, P., Janhäll, S., Hallquist, M., 2002. Roadside measurement of fine and ultrafine particles at a major road north of Gothenburg. Atmospheric Environment. 36, 4115-4123.
Molnar, A., Meszaros, E., 2001. On the relation between the size and chemical composition of aerosol particles and their optical properties. Atmospheric Environment. 35, 5053-5058.
Morawska, L., Bofinger, N. D., Kocis, L., Nwankwoala, A., 1998. Submicrometer and Supermicrometer Particles from Diesel Vehicle Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology. 32, 2033 –2042.
Morawska, L., Thomas, S., Jamriska, M., Johnson, G., 1999. The modality of particle size distributions of environmental aerosols. Atmospheric Environment. 33, 4401-4411.
Offenberg, J. H., Baker, J. E., 2000. Aerosol size distributions of elemental and organic carbon in urban and over-water atmospheres. Atmospheric Environment. 34, 1509-1517.
Ohta, S., Okita, T., 1990. A chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol in Sapporo. Atmospheric Environment. 24, 815-822.
Pakkanen, T. A., Kerminen, V. M., Korhonen, C. H., Hillamo, R. E., Aarnio, P., Koskentalo, T., Maenhaut, W., 2001. Use of atmospheric elemental size distributions in estimating aerosol sources in the Helsinki area. Atmospheric Environment. 35, 5537-5551.
Park, J., Sakurai, H., Vollmers, K., McMurry, P. H., 2004. Aerosol size distributions measured at the south pole during ISCAT. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 5493-5500.
Penttinen, p., Timonen, K. L., Tiittanen, P., Mirme, A., Ruuskanen, J., Pekkanen, J., 2001. Ultrafine particles in urban air and respiratory health among adult asthmatics. European Respiratory Journal. 15, 189-201.
Peters, A., Wichmann, H. E., Tuch, T., Heinrich, J., Heyder, J., 1997. Respiratory effects are associated with the number of ultrafine particles. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 155, 1376-1383.
Pope III, C. A., 2000. Review: epidemiological basis for particulate air pollution health standards. Aerosol Science and Technology. 32, 4-14.
Putaud, J. P., Dingenen, R. V., Raes, F., 2002. Submicron aerosol mass balance at urban and semirural sites in the Milan area (Italy). Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol, 107, No. D22, 8198, doi: 10.1029/2000JD000111.
Quinn, P. K., Coffman, D. J., Bate, T. S., Welton, E. J., Covert, D. S., Miller, T. L., Johnson, J. E., Maria, S. Russell, L., Arimoto, R., Carrico, C. M., Rood, M. J., Anderson, J., 2004. Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol, 109, D19S01, doi: 10.1029/2003JD004010.
Rendall, R. E. G., Phillips, J. I., Renton, K. A., 1994. Death following exposure to fine particulate nickel from a metal arc process. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 38, 921-930.
Rickeard, D. J., Bateman, J. R., Kwon, Y. K., McAughey, J. J., Dickens, C. J., 1996. Exhaust particulate size distribution: vehicle and fuel influences in light duty vehicles; society of automotive engineers: Warrendale, PA.
Ristovski, Z. D., Morawska, L., Bofinger, N. D., Hitchins, J., 1998. Submicrometer and supermicronmeter particulate emission from spark ignition vehicles. Environmental Science and Technology. 32, 3845-3852.
Russell, M., Allen, D. T., 2004. Seasonal and spatial trends in primary and secondary organic carbon concentrations in southeast Texas. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 3225-3239.
Sakurai, H., Tobias, H. J., Park, K., Zarling, D., Docherty, S., Kittelson, D. B., McMurry, P. H., Ziemann, P. J., 2003. On-line measurements of diesel nanoparticle composition and volatility. Atmospheric Environment. 37, 1199-1210.
Schmid, G., Baumle, M., Geerkens, M., Helm, I., Osemann, C., Sawitowski, T., 1999. Current and future applications of nanoclusters. Chemical Society Reviews. 28, 179-185.
Schroeter, J. D., Musante, C. J., Hwang, D., Burton, R., Guilmette, R., Martonen, T. B., 2001. Hygroscopic Growth and Deposition of Inhaled Secondary Cigarette Smoke in Human Nasal Pathways. Aerosol Science and Technology. 34, 137-143.
Schwartz, J., Dockery, D. W., Neas, L. M., 1996. Is daily mortality associated specially with fine particles? Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 46, 927-939.
Seinfeld, J. A., Pandis, S. N., 1998. Atmospheric chemistry and physics; John Willey & Sons: New York.
Sheng, G., Bi, X., Peng, P., Chen, Y., Fu, J., 2005. Size distribution of n-alkanes polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) urban and rural atmospheres of Guangzhou, China. Atmospheric Environment. 39, 477-487.
Shi, J. P., Evans, D. E., Khan, A. A., Harrison, R. M., 2001. Sources and concentration of nanoparticles (<10 nm diameter) in the urban atmosphere. Atmospheric Environment. 35, 1193-1202.
Shutters, S. T., Balling Jr, R. C., 2006. Weekly periodicity of environmental variables in Phoenix, Arizona. Atmospheric Environment. 40, 304-310.
Smolík, J., Ždímal, V., Schwarz, J., Lazaridis, M., Havránek, V., Eleftheriadis, K., Mihalopoulos, N., Bryant, C., Colbeck, I., 2003. Size resolved mass concentration and elemental composition of atmospheric aerosols over the Eastern Mediterranean area. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 3, 2207-2216.
Spindler, G., Müller, K., Brüggemann, E., Gnauk, T., Herrmann, H., 2004. Long-term size-segregated characterization of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 at the IfT research station Melpitz downwind of Leipzig (Germany) using high and low-volume filter samplers. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 5333-5347.
Stanier, C. O., Khlystov, A. Y., Pandis, S. N., 2004. Ambient aerosol size distributions and number concentrations measured during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS). Atmospheric Environment. 38, 3275-3284.
Stanier, C. O., Khlystov, A. Y., Pandis, S. N., 2004. Nucleation events during the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study: description and relation to key meteorological, gas phase, and aerosol parameters. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 253-264.
Steerenberg, P.A., Van Bree, L., Scheepers, P. T. J., Van Loveren, H., 1998. Diesel Exhaust Particles Induced Release of Interleukin 6 and 8 by (Primed) Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B) in Vitro. Experimental Lung Research . 24, 85-100.
Thurston, G. D., Spengler, J. D., 1985. A quantitative assessment of source contributions to inhalable particulate matter pollution in metropolitan Boston. Atmospheric Environment. 18, 9-25.
Tobias, H. J., Beving, D. E., Ziemann, P. J., Sakurai, H., Zuk, M., McMurry, P. H., Zarling, D., Waytulonis, R., Kittelson, D. B., 2001. Chemical analysis of diesel engine nanoparticles using a nano-DMA/Thermal desorption particle beam mas spectrometer. Environmental Science and Technology. 35, 2233-2243.
Tolocka, M. P., Lake, D. A., Johnston, M. V., Wexler, A. S., 2004. Ultrafine nitrate particle events in Baltimore observed by real-time single particle mass spectrometry. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 3215-3223.
Tolocka, M. P., Lake, D. A., Johnston, M. V., Wexler, A. S., 2004. Number concentrations of fine and ultrafine particles containing metals. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 3263-3273.
Turpin, B. J., Huntzicker, J. J., 1995. Identification of secondary organic aerosol concentrations during SCAQS. Atmospheric Environment. 29, 3527-3544.
U. S. EPA, 1996. Air quality criteria of particulate matter, office of research and development, EPA/600/P-95/001 aF-cF, Washington, DC.
Utsunomiya, S., Jensen, K. A., Keeler, G. J., Ewing, R. C., 2004. Direct identification of trace metals in fine and ultrafine particles in the Detroit urban atmosphere. Environmental Science and Technology. 38, 2289-2297.
Vecchi, R., Marcazzan, G., Valli, G., Ceriani, M., Antoniazzi, C., 2004. The role of atmospheric dispersion in the seasonal variation of PM1 and PM2.5 concentration and composition in the urban area of Milan (Italy). Atmospheric Environment. 39, 4437–4446.
Viana, M., Pérez, C., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Nickovic, S., Baldasano, J. M., 2005. Spatial and temporal variability of PM levels and composition in a complex summer atmospheric scenario in Barcelona (NE Spain). Atmospheric Environment. 39, 5343–5361.
Vincent, J. H., Clement, C. F., 2000. Ultrafine particles in workplace atmospheres. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A-Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences. 358, 2673-2682.
Wagner, J., Leith, D., 2001. Field tests of a passive aerosol sampler. Journal of Aerosol Science. 32, 33-48.
Wall, S. M., John, W., Ondo, J. L., 1988. Measurement of aerosol size distributions for nitrate and major ionic species. Atmospheric Environment. 22, 1649-1656.
Wallace, L. A., Emmerich, S. J., Howard-Reed, C., 2004. Source strengths of ultrafine and fine particles due to cooking with a gas stove. Environmental Science and Technology. 38, 2304-2311.
Weber, R. J., Marti, J. J., McMurry, P. H., Eisele, F. L., Tanner, D. J., Jefferson, A., 1997. Measurements of new particle formation and ultrafine particle growth rates at a clean continental site. Journal of Geophysical Research. 102, 4375-4385.
Weber, R. J., McMurry, P. H., Mauldin, L., Tanner, D. J., Eisele, F. L., Brechtel, F. J., Kreidenweis, S. M., Kok, G. L., Schillawski, R. D., Baumgardner, D. A., 1998. Study of new particle formation and growth involving biogenic and trace gas species measured during ace 1. Journal of Geophysical Research. 103, 16385-16396.
Wehner, B., Birmili, W., Gnauk, T., Wiedensohler, A., 2002. Particle number size distributions in a Street Canyon and their transformation into the urban-air background: measurement and a simple model study. Atmospheric Environment. 36, 2215-2223.
Wheatley, A. D., Sadhra, S., 2004. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust Fumes. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 48, 369-376.
Whitby, K. T., Sverdrup, G. M., 1980. California aerosols: their physical and chemical characteristics, in The Character and Origins of Atmospheric Aerosols: A Digest of Results from the California Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACHEX), Hidy, G. M., Mueller, P. K., Grosjean, D., Appel, B. R., and Wesolowski, J. J. (Eds.), 477-517. Advances in Environmental Science and Technology. Vol, 9. Wiley, New York, NY.
Wiedensohler, A., Covert, D. S., Swietlicki, E., Aalto, P., Heintzenberg, J., Leck, C., 1996. Occurrence of an ultrafine particle mode less than 20 nm in diameter in the marine boundary layer during arctic summer and autumn. Tellus. Series B, Chemical and physical meteorology. 48, 213-222.
Wiedensohler, A., Hansson, H. C., Orsini, D., Wendisch, M., Wagner, F., Bower, K. N., Chourlarton, T. W., Wells, M., Parkin, M., Acker, K., Wieprecht, W., Facchini, M. C., Lind, J. A., Fuzzi, S., Arends, B. G., Kulmala, M., 1997. Night-time formation and occurrence of new particles associated with orographic clouds. Atmospheric Environment. 31, 2545-2559.
Wilson, W. E., Suh, H. H., 1997. Fine particles and coarse particles: concentration relationships relevant to epidemiologic studies. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 47, 1238-1249.
Wittmaack, K., 2005. Combustion characteristics of water-insoluble elemental and organic carbon in size selected ambient aerosol particles. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions. 5, 2247-2268.
Wu, Y., Hao, J., Fu, L., Wang, Z., Tang, U., 2002. Vertical and horizontal profiles of airborne particulate matter near major roads in Macao, China. Atmospheric Environment. 36, 4907-4918.
Yakovleva, E., Hopke, P. K., Wallace, L., 1999. Receptor modeling assessment of particle total exposure assessment methodology data. Atmospheric Environment. 33, 3645-3652.
Zhang, W., Wang, C., 1997. Nanoscale metal particles for dechlorination of PCE and PCBs. Environmental Science and Technology. 31, 2154 –2156.
Zhang, K. M., Wexler, A. S., 2004. Evolution of particle number distribution near roadways – part i: analysis of aerosol dynamics and its implications for engine emission measurement. Atmospheric Environment. 38, 6643-6653.
Zhou, L., Kim, E., Hopke, P. K., Stanier, C. O., Pandis, S., 2004. Advanced Factor Analysis on Pittsburgh particle size-distribution data. Aerosol Science and Technology. 38, 118-132.
Zhuang, H., Chan, C. K., Fang, M., Wexler, A. S., 1999. Size distributions of particulate sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium at a coastal site in Hong Kong. Atmospheric Environment. 33, 843-853.
Zimmer, A. T., Baron, P. A., Biswas, P., 2002. The influence of operating parameters on number-weighted aerosol size distribution generated from a gas metal arc welding process. Journal of Aerosol Science. 33, 519-531.
Zimmer, A. T., Biswas, P., 2001. Characterization of aerosols resulting from arc welding processes. Journal of Aerosol Science. 32, 993-1008.
Zimmer, A. T., Maynard, A. D., 2002. Investigation of the aerosols produced by a high-speed, hand-held grinder using various substrates. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 46, 663-672.
Zhu, Y. F., Hinds, W. S., Kim, S., Sioutas, C., 2002. Concentrationand size distribution of ultrafine particles near a major highway. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 52, 1032-1042.
指導教授 李崇德(Chung-Te Lee) 審核日期 2006-7-23
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明