博碩士論文 93326022 詳細資訊




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姓名 林明鋒(Ming-Feng Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 廢鑄砂及石材污泥取代水泥生料之研究
(Use of waste foundry sand and stone sludge as cement raw materials.)
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摘要(中) 本研究係將廢鑄砂(殼模砂與水玻璃砂)、石材污泥(大理石污泥)、石灰石及鐵砂等進行環保水泥熟料之燒製,原料前處理研磨後,經由電腦配料系統求解聯立方程式來配置生料,各配比設計之環保水泥生料以實驗室高溫爐燒結處理,燒成之兩系列八組環保水泥熟料,進行各項材料特性分析以及工程性質與水化反應行為之探討。實驗結果如下:實驗燒製之兩系列8組環保水泥熟料,其游離石灰量皆小於1,且製程燒失量介於32.61 % - 36.92 % 間,符合實廠窯燒水泥之品管規範。其重金屬溶出濃度均符合法規標準值,後續資源化利用作為土木工程材料深具潛力。研究中所燒製各組環保水泥熟料與波特蘭水泥成份相同,其單礦物組成皆含有C3S、C2S、C3A及C4AF等晶相物種。FEC系列環保水泥漿體之初終凝時間與OPC漿體比較略有延長之現象;REC系列環保水泥漿體之終凝時間則有稍微縮短之情況。FEC系列環保水泥漿體強度早期 (0 ~ 28天) 發展趨勢較OPC漿體緩慢,齡期28-90天之間強度發展趨勢較為明顯, REC系列環保水泥漿體早期 (0 ~ 28天) 強度發展較為快速,齡期28天之後強度發展趨勢則較為平緩。由XRD之物種分析得知,環保水泥漿體主要產物為CH、C-S-H膠體,並無明顯差異。此外,REC系列環保水泥漿體會產生部分之Mg(OH)2(Brucite)。由FTIR分析結果顯示,隨齡期之發展均可發現,環保水泥漿體矽酸鈣水化產物C-S-H膠體則具有強的Si-O伸縮振動頻帶位於990 - 970 cm-1;碳酸鹽物種為C-O鍵結位於1424 – 1436 cm-1波段;此外,CH為-OH伸縮振動大約位於3650 - 3640 cm-1處寬的頻帶。由核磁共振 (NMR) 技術以29Si 為核種進行分析結果顯示,兩系列8組環保水泥漿體之水化產物Q0峰會隨齡期增加逐漸轉移至Q1與Q2峰,且水化程度與聚矽陰離子皆有隨齡期而增加之趨勢。
摘要(英) The goal of this study is to find the optimal conditions of cement making in order to maximize the replacement of cement clay by ash obtaining from waste foundry sand(including Core sand and glass sand), stone sludge, limestone and ferrate as raw materials. A computational model was used to formulate the composition of the raw clinkers. In this study, the hydration characteristics of these eco-cements and the engineering properties of their pastes, including their compressive strength, speciation and degree of hydration, were studied and compared to those of ASTM type I ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The amount of free CaO less than 1% and LOI all met the criteria of all eco-cement. The heavy metal leaching concentrations for different clinkers complied with the Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency’s regulatory thresholds. The study demonstrates the feasibility and safety to apply waste foundry sand and stone sludge as a cement replacement material. Results indicate that the major components of OPC such as C3S, C2S, C3A, and C4AF were found in the all ECO clinkers. The FEC series pastes had a retard of initial setting time and final setting time to those of the OPC. Nevertheless, the REC series pastes had shorten of initial setting time and final setting time to those of the OPC. The compressive strength of the FEC series pastes was less than the OPC cured at the first 28 d and the strength an apparently development from 28 to 90 d. For the REC series pastes were greater than that of the OPC paste cured at the first 28 d. However, from 28 to 90 d, the compressive strength could cause an insignificant development. The XRD analyses of the hydrates of the OPC and the two series of eco-cement pastes were Ca(OH)2 and C-S-H gels. In the REC eco-cement pastes, the hydration products showed Mg(OH)2 Brucite. The FTIR analysis for eco-cement pastes cured for 90 d have three wavenumbers. The first wavenumber is located at about 990 - 970 cm-1, and was mainly due to the Si-O bond of calcium silicate hydrates (CSH). The second wavenumber can be observed at about 1424 – 1436 cm-1 and represents the C-O bond of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The third wavenumber is located at about 3650 - 3640 cm-1 and represents the decomposition of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2).
The 29Si MAS/NMR spectra of the hydrated samples of the OPC and the eco-cement pastes, the results show the increased intensity of signals from Q1 and Q2 silicone sites in the hydrated pastes. The degree of hydration and the average length of the linear polysilicate anions of OPC pastes, as well as the eco-cement pastes increased with time, up to 90 days.
關鍵字(中) ★ 廢鑄砂
★ 環保水泥
★ 熟料
★ 水化產物
關鍵字(英) ★ waste foundry sand
★ eco-cement
★ clinker
★ hydration product
論文目次 第一章 前言 1
1-1 研究緣起 1
1-2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1 廢鑄砂之來源及特性 3
2-1-1 廢鑄砂之來源及產量 3
2-1-2 廢鑄砂之處理現況 5
2-1-3 廢鑄砂之性質 7
2-1-4 廢鑄砂之資源化技術 8
2-2 石材污泥之來源及特性 14
2-2-1 石材污泥之來源及產量 14
2-2-2 石材污泥之性質 16
2-2-3 石材污泥處理現況 16
2-2-4 石材污泥資源化技術 17
2-3 水泥之製程 22
2-3-1 水泥原料及生產過程 22
2-3-2 水泥配料係數 26
2-3-3 水泥燒製反應與影響因子 32
2-3-4 水泥品保規範 34
2-4 水泥之物化特性 37
2-4-1 水泥水化反應機制 37
2-4-2 水泥MgO系統 41
2-4-3 水泥之Zeta電位 43
2-5 環保水泥 45
2-5-1 環保水泥概要 45
2-5-2 環保水泥物化特性 48
2-5-3 環保水泥相關文獻回顧 50
2-5-4 不純物對水泥燒製之影響 54
第三章 實驗材料與方法 58
3-1 實驗流程 58
3-2 實驗材料 62
3-3 實驗配置 64
3-3-1 實驗燒製條件之配置 64
3-3-2 各系環保水泥之配比設計 65
3-3-3 環保水泥漿體試驗條件配置 67
3-4 實驗設備與方法 68
3-4-1 實驗設備與方法 68
3-4-2 分析方法 72
第四章、結果與討論 89
4-1廢鑄砂與石材污泥基本性質分析 89
4-1-1 廢鑄砂與石材污泥之物化特性 89
4-1-2 廢鑄砂與石材污泥之物種型態 93
4-1-3 廢鑄砂與石材污泥之重金屬總量與TCLP試驗 95
4-2 生料配比與燒製方法 96
4-2-1 取代生料之特性分析 96
4-2-2 生料配比設計結果 98
4-2-3 生料燒製條件 100
4-3水泥熟料之基本性質分析 102
4-3-1 熟料之物化性質 102
4-3-2 熟料之物種型態 103
4-3-3 熟料之重金屬總量與TCLP試驗 107
4-3-4 環保水泥熟料之SEM結構分析 108
4-4 水泥規範品管檢驗分析 110
4-4-1 化學成份規定 110
4-4-2 物理性質規定 113
4-5 環保水泥漿體之巨觀分析 115
4-5-1 凝結行為 115
4-5-2 抗壓強度發展 116
4-5-3 Zeta電位與保斥水性 118
4-6 環保水泥漿體水化產物之分析 122
4-6-1 環保水泥漿體XRD分析 122
4-6-2 環保水泥漿體FTIR分析 129
4-7 環保水泥漿體之水化程度與膠體空間比之發展 134
4-7-1 水化程度 134
4-7-2 膠體空間比 136
4-8 環保水泥漿體NMR分析 138
4-8-1 環保水泥漿體特徵峰變化 138
4-8-2 環保水泥漿體水化程度變化與聚矽陰離子長度變化 149
4-9 環保水泥漿體之SEM觀察 152
4-10 綜合討論 157
第五章 結果與討論 159
5-1 結論 159
5-2 建議 161
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指導教授 林凱隆、王鯤生
(Kai-Long Lin、Kuen-Sheng Wang)
審核日期 2006-7-19
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