博碩士論文 93342004 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:24 、訪客IP:3.239.40.250
姓名 張有毅(Yu-Yi Chang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 以離心模型試驗及個別元素法評估正斷層和逆斷層錯動地表及地下變形
(Use of Centrifuge Modeling and Distinct Element Method to Evaluate the Surface and Subsurface Deformation of Normal Faulting and Reverse Faulting)
相關論文
★ 砂土層中隧道開挖引致之地盤沉陷與破壞機制及對既存基樁之影響★ 以離心模型試驗探討逆斷層作用下單樁與土壤互制反應
★ 攝影測量在離心模擬試驗之應用-以離心隧道模型之地表沉陷量量測為例★ 沉箱式碼頭受震反應的數值分析
★ 軟土隧道襯砌應力與地盤變位之數值分析★ 沉箱碼頭受震反應及側向位移分析
★ 潛盾隧道開挖面穩定與周圍土壓力之離心模擬★ 地理資訊系統應用於員林地區液化災損及復舊調查之研究
★ 黏性土層中隧道開挖引致之地盤沉陷及破壞機制★ 砂土層中通隧引致之地盤變位及其對既存基樁的影響
★ 既存隧道周圍土壓力受鄰近新挖隧道的影響★ 以攝影測量觀察離心土壩模型受滲流力作用之變位
★ 通隧引致鄰近基樁之荷重傳遞行為★ 潛盾施工引致之地盤沉陷案例分析
★ 以離心模型試驗探討高含水量黏性背填土 加勁擋土牆之穩定性★ 懸臂式擋土壁開挖之離心模型試驗
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 (全文檔遺失)
請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館資訊系統組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57422,或E-mail聯絡
摘要(中) 本研究以離心模型和PFC2D數值模擬,分別在離心力場 1 g, 40 g及 80 g的試驗條件下,進行正斷層及逆斷層(斷層傾角60°的錯動模擬,了解不同斷層垂直錯動量,地表變形的發展、地下破裂跡之延伸及演化。另外亦探討地表淺基礎與正斷層及逆斷層的互制機制。
首先建立微觀力學的微觀參數(Kn及Ks)與連體力學的應力及應變關係,利用離心模型試驗升g過程中,試體床的地表沉陷,來校正及建立PFC2D數值模擬之合理參數值。利用校正過之參數,進行正逆斷層錯動的數值模擬。數值模擬所得60正傾角的正斷層或逆斷層錯動後之地表變形剖面與離心模型的試驗結果一致。因此本研究利用此組微觀參數,進行不同斷層傾角的正斷層及逆斷層錯動的數值模擬,建立不同斷層傾角的正斷層及逆斷層錯動的地表變形剖面及評估影響範圍。
利用Gompertz 函式來模擬不同斷層傾角的逆斷層,在不同垂直錯動量下之地表變形剖面。以Gompertz 函式模擬不同的斷層傾角所形成的地表變形剖面,可獲得不同的地表剖面參數。將地表剖面參數以回歸統計之方法作歸納,則可預估不同斷層傾角逆斷層錯動後地表的變形剖面及影響範圍。在基礎角變量為1/150及斷層推升高度(h)與土層厚度(H)之比值r=25%下,斷層傾角為22.5°、30°、37.5°、45°、52.5°、60°及67.5°其地表影響範圍分別為2.32H, 1.77H, 1.51H, 1.47H, 1.53H, 1.63H 及 1.66H。
在1g的離心正斷層模型試驗,上盤會產生地塹且下盤會呈現較陡之崖坡。正斷層錯動後地表之變形剖面受斷層傾角大小的影響,斷層傾角愈小地表變形之影響範圍愈大。在斷層陷落高度(h)與土層厚度(H)之比值rn=2.5%~25%時,斷層陷落後地表之主要影響距離Lp與斷層傾角(α)之關係可用二元二次方程式來表示。
淺基礎載重的大小會影響斷層錯動後,地下破裂跡的延伸地表變形剖面與方向及是否出露地表或出露的位置。於本研究之逆斷層試驗中驗證在基礎壓力為87.2 kPa (應力增量約為35kPa)時,不只有能力改變裂跡的延伸之方向,而且還有可能阻止斷層跡延伸至地表。地表斷層跡至淺基礎右側邊緣之距離為S,淺基礎寬度為B,地表及地下變形會隨S/B不同而呈現不同之變形型態。不論是正斷層或逆斷層試驗其結果均顯示基礎的旋轉量與基盤的推升或陷落量(h)、基礎的壓力(p)、基礎的寬度(B)及基礎的座落位置(S/B)有關。一般而言,基盤的推升或陷落量(h)大則基礎的旋轉量大、基礎的壓力(p)大則基礎的旋轉量小、基礎的寬度(B)大則基礎的旋轉量小、 基礎的座落位置S/B之比值介於0與1之間基礎會有較大之旋轉量。
摘要(英) A series of centrifuge model tests and PFC2D numerical simulations on the normal faulting and reverse faulting (both with the dip angle of 60°) are conducted at the acceleration conditions of 1 g, 40 g, and 80 g. The evolution of the surface deformation profile, the subsurface deformation pattern and the development of fault trace are evaluated. In addition, the shallow foundation rested on the ground surface subject to normal and reverse faulting is conducted to evaluate the Fault Rupture-Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction (FR-SFSI) in this study.
Based on the measured surface settlements of the centrifuge model tests in the stage of self-weight consolidation, a methodology of calibrating the micromechanical material parameters is proposed and used in the later numerical simulations. Using the calibrated parameters in the numerical simulations the derived ground surface profiles show good agreements with those ground surface profiles measured in the centrifuge tests. By using the calibrated parameters in the PFC2D numerical simulation, at the condition of different dip angles and different fault throw (h), the affected length on the ground surface after normal/reverse faulting can be evaluated.
A Gompertz equation is proposed to simulate ground surface deformation after reverse faulting. The different ground surface deformations at the different dip angles are evaluated by the PFC2D numerical simulation and the different parameters of Gompertz curve are obtained. By using the method of regression, the affected length on the ground surface can be predicted. At the condition of angular criteria η= 1/150 and the reverse fault throw (h) and soil layer thickness (H) ratio r=25%, the affected lengths on the ground surface are 2.32H, 1.77H, 1.51H, 1.47H, 1.53H, 1.63H and 1.66H for the fault dip angles of 22.5°, 30°, 37.5°, 45°, 52.5°, 60° and 67.5°, respectively.
The centrifuge normal fault modeling tested at the acceleration of 1 g level has a steeper fault scarp and forms the graben on the hanging wall ground surface. Since the profiles of ground surface deformation are affected by the dip angles, and a smaller dip angle results in a larger affected length on ground surface. At the ratio of falling throw and soil layer thickness (h/H), rn=2.5%~25%, the relationship between primary affected length Lp, and fault dip angle,α, can be expressed by a binary quadratic equation.
The profiles of ground surface deformation, the direction of fault rupture propagation and the position of the rupture emerge on the ground surface are affected by the bearing pressure of foundation. One of the centrifuge model tests in this study shows that, a heavy foundation (87.2kPa) not only has the ability of diverting the fault rupture, but also might have the ability of stopping the fault rupture emerging on the ground surface. The rotational angles of foundation are related to the various ratios of the distance from the rupture line emerging on the ground surface to the right margin of the foundation, S, and the width of the foundation (B), S/B. In general, the higher uplifting throw or falling throw has the tendency of the higher rotational angle of foundation, and the position of the foundation locates within the ratio of S/B=0 to S/B=1 has the higher rotational angle of foundation. During reverse faulting, the higher foundation bearing pressure has the lower rotational angle of foundation; the wider width of foundation has the lower rotational angle of foundation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 正斷層及逆斷層
★ 地表變形剖面
★ PFC2D數值模型
★ 淺基礎
★ 離心模型
關鍵字(英) ★ centrifuge modeling
★ PFC2D numerical modeling
★ normal faulting and reverse faulting
★ ground surface deformation
★ shallow foundation
論文目次 Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1-1 Overview 1
1-2 Content of the dissertation 2
Chapter 2 Literature review 5
2-1 Introduction 5
2-2 The relationship of magnitude and fault rupture length 6
2-3 Previous fault rupture studies 7
2-4 Case study of Fault Rupture-Soil-Foundation-Structure Interaction 11
Chapter 3 Test apparatus and materials 24
3-1 Introduction 24
3-2 Principles of Centrifuge Modeling 24
3-2-1 Scaling law and scale effect 25
3-2-2 Effective radius of modeling 27
3-3 Test apparatus 29
3-3-1 The NCU geotechnical centrifuge.................................................. 29
3-3-2 Fault simulation container and profile scanner.......................................... 30
3-3-3 Traveling pluviation apparatus 32
3-3-4 Material of specimen and preparation of sand bed 32
Chapter 4 Calibration of parameters used in Particle Flow Code (PFC2D) 41
4-1 Introduction 41
4-2 The law of the PFC2D model 41
4-3 Ball generating in PFC2D numerical simulation 42
4-4 PFC2D parameter and calibration 44
4-4-1 Disk density calibration 45
4-4-2 Ratio of Kn/Ks in PFC2D numerical simulation 46
4-4-3 Calibration of normal stiffness Kn 48
Chapter 5 Centrifuge model test results during reverse faulting 58
5-1 Free field ground surface deformation induced by reverse faulting 59
5-2 Subsurface layer distortion 63
5-3 Fault rupture propagation 67
5-4 Surface deformation and sub-layer distortion with shallow foundation 68
Chapter 6 Centrifuge model test results during normal faulting 96
6-1 Free field ground surface deformation induced by normal faulting 97
6-2 Subsurface layer distortion 99
6-3 Fault rupture propagation 103
6-4 Ground surface deformation and subsurface distortion caused by shallow foundations rested on the ground surface 104
Chapter 7 Comparison of centrifuge model test and PFC2D numerical simulation from reverse faulting 130
7-1 Program of PFC2D numerical simulation 130
7-2 Comparisons of the ground surface deformation derived from centrifuge model test and PFC2D numerical simulation 136
7-3 Simulation of the layer distortion 140
7-4 Simulation of the surface deformation and sub-layer distortion with shallow foundation 142
7-5 Matlab simulation 144
Chapter 8 Comparison of centrifuge model test and PFC2D numerical simulation from normal faulting 166
8-1 Program of PFC2D numerical simulation for normal faulting 166
8-2 Comparisons of the ground surface deformation between centrifuge model test and PFC2D numerical simulation 168
8-3 Simulation of the layer distortion 170
8-4 Simulation of the surface deformation and sub-layer distortion with shallow foundation 172
8-5 Matlab simulation 176
Chapter 9 Conclusions and future works 200
9-1 Conclusions 200
9-2 Suggestions 202
References 203
Appendix 1 makeball_20d.txt 209
Appendix 2 layer_makerh20.txt 210
Appendix 3 getdata_h20cm.txt 214
Appendix 4 getball_data_h20cm.txt 225
Appendix 5 make_nbase20cm.txt 227
Appendix 6 length of distortion zone (H) 229
Appendix 7 getdata_h20cm_nf.txt 240
Appendix 8 getball20_stressdada.txt 244
Appendix 9 Question and Answer............................................................................. 245
參考文獻 References
[1] Ahmed, W., Bransby, M.F., “Interaction of Shallow Foundations with Reverse Faults,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 135, No. 7, pp. 914-924, 2009.
[2] Anastasopoulos, I., Gazetas, G., Bransby, M. F., Davies, M. C. R., Nahas, A.E., “ Fault Rupture Propagation through Sand: Finite-Element Analysis and Validation through Centrifuge Experiments,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 133, No. 8, pp. 943-958, 2007.
[3] Anastasopoulos, I., Gerolymos, N., Gazetas, G., Bransby, M. F., “Simplified approach for design of raft foundations against fault rupture. Part I: free-field,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 147-163, 2008.
[4] Anastasopoulos, I., Gazetas, G., Bransby, M. F., Davies, M. C. R., Nahas, A.E., “ Normal Fault Rupture Interaction with Strip Foundations,”Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 135, No. 3, pp. 359-370, 2009.
[5] Anastasopoulos, I., Antonakos, G., Gazetas, G., “Slab foundation subjected to thrust faulting in dry sand: Parametric analysis and simplified design method,” Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 30, pp. 912–924, 2010.
[6] Angelier, J., Lee, J.C., Hu, J.C., Chu, H.T., “Three-dimensional deformation along the rupture trace of the September 21st, 1999, Taiwan earthquake: a case study in the Kuangfu school,” Journal of Structure Geology vol. 25, pp. 351-370, 2003.
[7] Avanzi, E.D.,“Scale factor for centrifuge modeling of unsaturated flow,” Usaturated soils, Juca. de campos & Marinho, 2002.
[8] Bałachowski, L., “Size Effect in Centrifuge Cone Penetration Tests,” Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics. Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 161–181, 2007.
[9] Bolton, M.D.,“The Strength and Dilatancy of Sand,” Geotechnique 36, No. 1, pp. 65-78, 1986.
[10] Bonilla, M.G., “A review of recently active faults in Taiwan,” U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 75-41, 42 p. 1975
[11] Bonilla, M.G., Buchanan, J.M., “Interim Report On Worldwide Historic Surface Faulting ,” US Geological Survey open-file report, 1970.
[12] Bonilla, M.G., “Evaluation of Potential Surface Faulting and Other Tectonic Deformation ,” US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 82-732,Version 1.1, 1982.
[13] Bonilla, M.G., Mark, R.K., Lienkaemper, J.J., “Statistical Relations Among Earthquake Magnitude, Surface Rupture Length, and Surface Fault Displacement,” US Geological Survey, Open-File Report 84-256,Version 1.1, 1984.
[14] Bonilla, M.G., “Minimum Earthquake Magnitude Associated with Coseismic Surface. Faulting,” Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 17-29, 1988.
[15] Bowden, F.P, Tabor, D.,“Friction and lubrication,” London: Meth, chapter 4, 1950.
[16] Borchardt, G., “Establishing Appropriate Setback Widths for Active Faults,” Environmental & Engineering Geoscience, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 47–53, 2010.
[17] Bransby, M.F., Davies, M. C. R., Nahas, A.E., “Centrifuge modeling of normal fault–foundation interaction,” Bull Earthquake Eng, Vol. 6, pp.585–605, 2008.
[18] Bransby, M.F., Davies, M. C. R., Nahas, A.E., “Centrifuge modelling of reverse fault–foundation interaction. ,” Bull Earthquake Eng, Vol. 6, pp.585–605, 2008.
[19] Bransby, M.F., Davies, M. C. R., Nahas, A.E., Faccioli, E., Gazetas, G., Masella, A., Paolucci, R., Pecker, A., Rossignol,E., “Numerical analyses of fault–foundation interaction ,” Bull Earthquake Eng, Vol. 6, pp.645–675, 2008.
[20] Bray, J.D., Seed, R.B., Seed, H.B., “1g Small-Scale Modeling of saturated Cohesive Soils,” Geotechnical testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 46-53, 1993.
[21] Bray, J.D., Seed, R.B., Cluff, L.S., Seed, H.B., “Earthquake Fault Rupture Propagation Through Soils,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineer, Vol. 120, No. 3, pp. 543-561, 1994.
[22] Bray, J.D., “Developing Mitigation Measures for the Hazards Associated with Earthquake Surface Fault Rupture,” Seismic Fault Induced Failures, pp. 55-80, 2001.
[23] Brownell, K.C., Charlie, W.A., “centrifuge modeling of explosion-induced craters in unsaturated sand,” 1992.
[24] Bryant, W., Hart, E.W., “Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act With Index to Earthquake Fault Zones Maps,” California Department of Conservation, Interim Revision 2007.
[25] Building technique regulation, ,CPAMI, Taiwan, 2003
[26] Casagrande, A.,“Characteristics of Cohesionless Soil Affecting the Stability of Slopes and Earth Fills,” Journal of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 257-276, 1925-1940.
[27] Central Geological Survey, MOEA, Taiwan, 2000
[28] Chang, Y.Y., Lee, C.J., Huang, W.C., Huang, W.J., Lin, M.L., Hung, W.Y., Line, Y. H., “Use of Centrifuge Experiments and Discrete Element Analysis to Model the Reverse Fault Slip,” International Journal of Civil Engineering, 2013.
[29] Chen, C.C., Huang C.T., Cherng R.H., Jeng V., “Preliminary investigation of damage to near fault buildings of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake,” Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology, vol. 2(1), pp.79–92,2000.
[30] Chen, W.S., Huang, B.S., Chen, Y.G., Lee, Y.H., Yang, C.N., Lo, C.H., Chang, H.C., Sung, Q.C., Huang, N.W., Lin, C.C., Sung, S.H., Lee, K.J., “ 1999 Chi-Chi Earthquake: A Case Study on the Role of Thrust-Ramp Structures for Generating Earthquake,”Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 91, No. 5, pp. 986–994, 2001
[31] Chen, X., Zhang, S., Wagner, G.J., Ding, W., Ruoff, R.S., “ Mechanical resonance of quartz microfibers and boundary condition effects,”Journal of applied physics, Vol. 95, pp. 4823-4828, 2004.
[32] Cole, D.A., Lade, P.V., “Influence Zones in Alluvium over Dip-slip Faults,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 110, No. 5, 1984.
[33] Cundall P.A., Stack O.D.L.,“A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies,” Geotechnique, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 47-65, 1979.
[34] Dong J.J., Wang C.D., Lee C.T., Liao J.J., Pan Y.W., “The influence of surface ruptures on building damage in the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake: a case study in Fengyuan City,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 71(1–2), pp. 157–79, 2004.
[35] Dong, W., Morrow, G., Tanaka, A., Kagawa, H., Chou, L.C., Tsai, Y.B., Hsu, W., Johnson, L., Anne, C.V., Yen, C.H., Wen, K.L., Chiang, C.L., “Event Report Chi-Chi, Taiwan Earthquake ,” RMS, 2000.
[36] Eurocode EC8- Design of structures for earthquake resistance - Part 1: General rules, seismic actions and rules for buildings. European Standard EN 1998-1, 2004.
[37] Faccioli, E., Anastasopoulos, I., Gazetas, G., Callerio, A., Paolucci, R., “ Fault rupture - foundation interaction: selected case histories,” Bull Earthquake Eng, Vol. 6 pp. 557-583, 2008.
[38] Gazetas, G., Pecker, A., Faccioli, E., Paolucci, R., Anastasopoulos, I., “Preliminary design recommendations for dip-slip fault–foundation interaction. ,” Bull Earthquake Eng, Vol. 6 pp. 677-687, 2008.
[39] Hainbuchner, E., potthoff, S., Konietzky, H., Kamp, L., “Praticle base modeling of shear box test and stability problems for shallow foundations in sand,” Numerical Modeling in Micromechanics Via particle Method, 2003.
[40] Hanks, T.C., Kanamori, H., “A Moment Magnitude Scale,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 84, No. B5, 1979.
[41] Horn, H.M, Deere, D.V., “Frictional Characteristic of Minerals,” Geotechnique, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 319-335, 1962.
[42] Horsfield, W.T., “An experimental approach to basement-controlled faulting,” Geologie EN Mijnbouw, Vol. 56, No. 4, pp. 363-370, 1977.
[43] Huang, C., Chan, Y.C., Hu, J.C., Angelier, J., Lee, J.C., “Detailed surface co-seismic displacement of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake in western Taiwan and implication of fault geometry in the shallow subsurface,” Journal of Structural Geology, Vol. 30, pp. 1167-1176, 2008.
[44] Huang, W.J., “Deformation at the leading edge of thrust faults,” Doctoral Dissertation, Purdue University , West Lafayette, Indiana, 2006.
[45] Hung, W.Y., “Breaking Failure Behavior and Internal Stability Analysis of Geosynthetic Reinforced Earth Walls,” Ph.D dissertation of national Central University, Department of Civil engineering, 2008.
[46] Itasca Consulting Group.,“Particle Flow Code in 2 Dimensions User’s Guide,”2002.
[47] Kelson, K.I., Kang, K.H., Page, W.D., C.T. Lee,. Cluff, L.S., “Representative Styles of Deformation along the Chelungpu Fault from the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) Earthquake: Geomorphic Characteristics and Responses of Man-Made Structures,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol.91, No. 5, pp. 930–952, 2001.
[48] Kim, W.Y., Sykes, L. R., Armitage, J. H., Xie, J. K., Jacob, K. H., Richards, P. G., West, M., “Surface Rupture and Behavior of Thrust Faults Probed in Taiwan,” Eos, Vol. 82, No.47,2001.
[49] Lazarte, C.A., Bray, J.D.,“A Study of Strike-slip Faulting Using Small-scale Models,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 118-129, 1996.
[50] Lee C.J., “Experimental Soil Mechanic,”Chapter 5.
[51] Lee C.J., Wang C.R., Wei Y.C., Hung W.Y., “Evolution of the shear wave velocity during shaking modeled in centrifuge shaking table tests,” Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 401-420, 2011.
[52] Lee, J.C., Chan, Y.C., “Structure of the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake rupture and interaction of thrust faults in the active fold belt of western Taiwan,” Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, Vol. 31, pp. 226–239, 2007.
[53] Lee, J.W., Hamada, M., Tabuchi, G., Suzuki, K., “Prediction of Fault rupture Propagation Based on Physical Model Tests in Sandy Soil Deposit,” 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Vancouver, B.C., Canada, Paper No. 119, 2004.
[54] Li, H. H., “The microscopic mechanism associated with mechanical behavior of sandstone-using distinct element method,” Doctoral Dissertation, National Taiwan University Department of Civil Engineering College of Engineering, Taipei, 2008.
[55] Lin, M.L., Chung, C.F., Jeng, F.S., “Deformation of overburden soil induced by thrust fault slip,” Engineering Geology, Vol. 88, pp. 70-89, 2006.
[56] Loukidis, D., Bouckovalas, G.D., Papadimitriou, A.G., “Analysis of fault rupture propagation through uniform soil cover,” Soil Dynamic and Earthquake Engineering, Vol. 29, pp. 1389-1404, 2009.
[57] Moosavi1, S.M., Jafari1, M.K., Kamalian1, M., Shafiee1, A., “Experimental Investigation of Reverse Fault Rupture–Rigid Shallow Foundation Interaction,” International Journal of Civil Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010.
[58] Ng, C.W.W., Cai, Q.P., Hu, P., “Centrifuge and Numerical Modeling of Normal Fault-Rupture Propagation in Clay with and without a Preexisting Fracture,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Vol. 138, pp. 1492-1502, 2012.
[59] Potyondy, D.O., Cundall, P.A., “A bonded-particle model for rock,” International Journal of Rock Mechanics & Mining Sciences, Vol. 41, pp. 1329–1364, 2004.
[60] Powrie W., Ni Q., Harkness R., “Numerical modeling of plane strain tests on sand using a particulate approach,” Geotechnique, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 297-306, 2005.
[61] Procter, D.C, Barton, R.R., “Measurement of the Angle of Inter particles Friction,” Geotechnique, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 81-604, 1974.
[62] PVL Technologies, Inc. National central university, Taiwan equipment for dynamic geotechnical centrifuge modeling operation and maintenance manual. 2008.
[63] PVL Technologies, Inc. Operating and maintenance manual for pa-2000 power amplifier. 2000.
[64] PVL Technologies, Inc. Operating and maintenance manual for SC-2007 servo-controller. 2007.
[65] Ren, J., Chen, G., Xu, X., Zhang, S., Mao, C., “Surface Rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan, China, Earthquake in the Qingping Stepover Determined from Geomorphologic Surveying and Excavation, and Its Tectonic Implications,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 100, No. 5B, pp. 2651–2659, 2010.
[66] Robert, D.H, William D.K., “An introduction to Geotechnical Engineering,” pp 514, 1981
[67] Rowe, P.W.,“The Stress Dilatancy Relation for Static Equibrium of an Assembly of Particles in Contacts,” Proceeding Royal Society of London, Series A, Vol. 269, pp 500-527, 1962.
[68] Rubin, C.M., Sieh, K., Chen, F.G., Lee, J.C., Chu, H.T., Eats, R., Mueller, K., Chan, Y.C., “ Surface Rupture and Behavior of Thrust Faults Probed in Taiwan,”Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, Vol. 82, No. 47, pp. 565-569, 2001.
[69] Shimizu, Y., Cundall, P.A., “Three-dimensional DEM simulations of bulk handling by screw conveyors,” Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 127, No. 9, pp, 864-872, 2001.
[70] Singh, S.K., Bazan, E., Esteva, L., “Expected Earthquake Magnitude From a Fault,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 70, No. 3, pp. 903-914, 1980.
[71] Stone, K, Wood, DM., “Effects of dilatancy and particle size observed in model tests on sands, ” Soils and Foundations, Vol 32, No. 4, pp. 43-57, 1992.
[72] Taylor, R.N., “Geotechnical Centrifuge Technology,” Geotechnical Engineering Reseacher Center, 1995.
[73] Ting, J.M., Corkum, B.T., Kkauffman, C.R., Creco C., “Discrete numerical model for soil mechanics,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 115, No. 30, pp. 379-398, 1990.
[74] Ulusay, R., Aydan, O., Hamada, M., “The behaviour of structures built on active fault zones: examples from the recent earthquakes in Turkey,” Seismic fault-induced failures, pp.1-26, 2001.
[75] Wang, Y.C., Yin, X.C., Ke, F.J., Xia, M.F., Peng, K.Y., “Numerical Simulation of Rock Failure and Earthquake Process on Mesoscopic Scale,” Pure appl. geophys, Vol. 157, pp.1905–1928, 2000.
[76] Wells, D.L., Coppersmith, K.J., “New Empirical Relationships among Magnitude, Rupture Length, Rupture Width, Rupture Area, and Surface Displacement,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 84, No. 4, pp. 974-1002, 1994.
[77] White, R.J., Stone, K.J.L., Jewell, R.J., “Effect of particle size on localization development in model test on sand,” Centrifuge 94, Leung, Lee, and Tan eds. Malkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 817-822, 1994.
[78] Yimsiri S., Soga K., “Micromechanics-based stress-strain behaviour of soils at small strains,” Geotechnique, Vol. 50, No. 1, pp. 559-571, 2000.
[79] Yu, G., Xu, X., Klinger, Y., Diao, G., Chen, G., Feng, X., Li, C., Zhu, A., Yuan, R., Guo, T., Sun, X., Tan, X., An, Y., “Fault-Scarp Features and Cascading-Rupture Model for the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Eastern Tibetan Plateau, China,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 100, No. 5B, pp. 2590–2614, 2010.
[80] Zhang, P., Mao, F., Slemmons, D.B., “Rupture terminations and size of segment boundaries from historical earthquake ruptures in the Basin and Range Province,” Tectonophysics, Vol. 308, pp. 37–52, 1999.
[81] Zhou, Q., Xu, X., Yu, G., Chen, X., He, H., Yin, G., “Width Distribution of the Surface Ruptures Associated with the Wenchuan Earthquake: Implication for the Setback Zone of the Seismogenic Faults in Postquake Reconstruction,” Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 100, No. 5B, pp. 2660–2668, 2010.
[82] 李崇正 砂受剪變形行為之研究. 國立台灣大學土木研究所 博士論文 , 1987.
[83] 鄺伯軒 利用動態離心模型試驗模擬砂土層之剪應力與剪應變關係 國立中央大學土木研究所 碩士論文 , 2010.
指導教授 李崇正、黃文昭 審核日期 2013-12-9
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明