博碩士論文 93437023 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:12 、訪客IP:3.231.166.56
姓名 傅昌浩(Chang-Hao Fu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 人力資源管理研究所在職專班
論文名稱 360 度管理職能評鑑與受評者自我覺察能力之探討-個案公司跨年度研究
(THE STUDY OF MANAGERIAL COMPETENCIES APPRAISAL OF 360-DEGREE FEEDBACK AND RATEE'S SELF-AWARENESS - TARGET COMPANY'S CROSS-YEARLY PRACTICE)
相關論文
★ 企業內部人力資源入口網站使用者滿意度調查–以A公司為例★ 員工內部行銷知覺、組織承諾與離職傾向之關係研究─以某科技公司為例
★ 研發人員創造力人格特質、工作價值觀對工作績效之影響-以某高科技研究機構為例★ 組織生涯管理對組織承諾影響之探討-以A公司為例
★ 導入以職能為基礎之評鑑中心可行性研究--以銀行業為例★ 探討中階主管人格特質、領導風格與工作績效之關聯性--以Y公司為例
★ 因應公司經營策略變革之人力資源配置調整個案探討★ 從組織變革觀點探討業務流程管理成效之個案研究
★ 主管領導風格與員工人格特質對工作績效之影響★ 矩陣式組織之專案績效考核制度探討-以某公司為例
★ 企業因應員工分紅費用化之措施及其成效探討★ 證券後勤基層主管職業生涯地圖之建立
★ 企業導入卓越經營績效評量之案例探討★ 主管領導風格對組織氣候與績效之影響探討-以T公司為例
★ 人力資源管理措施對工作態度之影響探討-以台灣高鐵為例★ 建構分公司經理人之管理職能模型及潛能人才評量標準-以某證券公司為例
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 ( 永不開放)
摘要(中) 本研究乃針對個案公司跨年度之實證研究,主要目的在於探討:(1)360度管理職能評鑑各向度與傳統績效考核的關係,(2)實施360度管理職能回饋二年之成效,(3)針對不同自評與他評一致性之受評者,探討他評改善與(4)自評改變之情形,(5)自我覺察對行為改變之影響,以及(6)不同的評量目的對主管評量之影響。
本研究樣本為某科技業之高階及中基層主管共計50位,研究時間長達二年。研究結果發現,他評結果與傳統績效考核具有顯著的正相關;執行 360度管理職能評鑑後,會增加主管的工作表現,包括第二年他評分數與績效成績會高過第一年的評鑑分數,但並不顯著;經過兩次的 360度職能評鑑後,自評與他評的一致性程度會較第一次評鑑增加;「一致者」在第二年的績效表現上有顯著的改善,而且進步幅度相當的大,而「高估者」與「低估者」則無;此外,「高估者」在第二年的自評有明顯的降低,「低估者」在第二年會明顯的提高自評,而「一致者」則無改變;由此可知,不同程度的「自評與他評一致性」受評者,其行為改變的動機確實有明顯的差異。此外,高階管理者與中基層管理者於自我覺察上會有所差異,但其差異性並不顯著。而不同的「評量目的」,確實會影響主管的評量正確性,且以「員工發展」為目的之 360度回饋中的主管回饋能有效預測受評者未來的績效表現。最後,本研究並進一步指出研究之限制、後續相關研究之方向,以及企業實施 360度回饋之實務建議。
摘要(英) The main purpose of this study aimed at a target company’’s cross-yearly practice is to investigate: (1) the correlation between each aspect of 360-degree managerial competencies and traditional performance ranking, (2) two-year effects upon the performance of 360-degree feedback, (3) the variety of yearly other ratings according to the different category of self-other agreement, and (4) the variety of yearly self-ratings, (5) the influence of self-awareness on the ratees’ behavioral change, and (6) the influence of different intent to evaluate on the raters’ appraisal.
The study specimen is a renowned hi-teck company there are fifty basic, middle and high level (director above) managers as the subjects and the duration of this study is two years. Results indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between other ratings and traditional performance ranking. Execution of 360-degree managerial competencies can enhance the managers’ performance including the other ratings and rankings of second year higher than the first year, but it was not significant enough. After twice 360-degree competencies appraisal, the degrees of 2nd self-other agreement is increasing than 1st. The second year’s performance (other ratings) of in-agreement has significant improvement and the range of advancement is quite distinct from over-estimator and under-estimator. Furthermore, the over-estimator has significant decrease in the self-ratings and the under-estimator has significant increase the self-ratings, but the in-agreement hasn’t. Thus it shows the various degrees of self-other agreement have significant difference in the motivation of ratees’ behavioral change. In addition, there are some differences between the high-level managers and middle & basic-level managers in self-awareness, but they are not significant enough. Besides, the different intent to evaluate did influence the raters’ accuracy of evaluation and the supervisors’ appraisal in 360-degree feedback which is focused on employees’ development can effectively predict the ratees’ prospective proformance. Finally, this study also indicates the limitation, follow-up and the practical suggestion of 360-degree feedback in corporation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 管理職能
★ 360度回饋
★ 績效改善
★ 自評與他評一致性
★ 自我覺察
關鍵字(英) ★ 360-degree feedback
★ managerial competency
★ self-awareness
★ performance improvement
★ self-other agreement
論文目次 第一章. 緒論
第一節. 研究背景 ............................. 3
第二節. 研究動機與目的 ....................... 5
第三節. 名詞釋意 ............................................ 8
第二章. 文獻探討
第一節. 管理職能 ............................................10
第二節. 360度管理職能評鑑 ....................17
第三節. 360度職能評鑑與績效改善的關係 ........22
第四節. 自評與他評一致性 .....................25
第五節. 自我覺察 .............................31
第六節. 評量目的與績效的關係 .................34
第七節. 研究假設與研究架構 ...................37
第三章. 研究方法
第一節. 個案公司簡介 .........................39
第二節. 研究樣本 .............................42
第三節. 研究工具 .............................43
第四節. 研究程序 .............................52
第四章. 資料分析與研究結果
第一節. 敘述統計量分析 .......................58
第二節. 相依樣本T檢定 ........................62
第三節. 雙因子混合設計變異數分析 .............64
第四節. 單因子變異數分析 .....................69
第五章. 結論與建議
第一節. 研究假設之探討 .......................71
第二節. 研究限制 .............................81
第三節. 研究建議 .............................83
參考文獻
一、中文部分 ................................86
二、英文部分 ................................89
參考文獻 一、中文部分
[1] 廖建容、王岫晴譯 2005。重新想像(Tom Peter, Re-imagine !, Business Excellent in a Disruptive Age),P336~P337,台北:天下文化出版。
[2] 林文政、楊尊恩 2003,訓練人員專業職能量表之建立,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[3] 中華民國科學技術年鑑 2005,P5~P9,行政院國家科學委員會。
[4] 鄭曉明 2005,績效管理實務手冊,P19~P34,北京:機械工業出版社。
[5] 黃同圳 2000,績效評估與管理,人力資源管理的12堂課,台北:天下文化出版。
[6] 吳政哲 1990,高科技產業工程專業人員職能需求分析,以某半導體公司為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[7] 李誠 2001,知識經濟的迷思與省思,台北:天下遠見出版股份有限公司。
[8] 能力雜誌,1999.05,第519期,P34~P39,中國生產力中心。
[9] 張裕隆 1998,我國「管理才能評鑑工具」發展及信效度分析研究,國科會專題研究報告。
[10]徐坤裕 1999,多源績效評估影響之探討,元智大學管理研究所碩士論文。
[11]劉岡憬 1998,以360度回饋探討主管人員自他評一致性與領導效能關係之實證研究,國立政治大學心理研究所碩士論文。
[12]范傑倫 2001,360度回饋與績效改善之縱貫性實證研究,國立政治大學心理研究所碩士論文。
[13]陳志豪 1999,業務人員職能需求分析,以某壽險公司為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[14]陳玉山 1997,能力基礎途徑應用在人力資源管理之研究,國立政治大學公共行政研究所未出版之論文。
[15]林惠霞 1996,臺北市政府管理才能發展需求評估之研究,國立中興大學公共行政研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[16]鍾帛煻 1999,高科技產業主管管理能力來源管道之研究,以工業技術研究院為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
[17]劉怡君 1999,製藥業中、高階管理者管理才能評鑑量表之建立,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[18]劉麗華 2000,主管管理才能評鑑360度回饋對受評者態度之影響,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文。
[19]楊鴻仁 2003,管理職能關鍵行為之建立,以A公司為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[20]黃一峰 1989,管理才能發展需求評估之研究,美國聯邦管理才能架構應用於我國之分析,國立政治大學公共行政研究所未出版碩士論文。
[21]劉宜靜 2000,高階行政人員核心能力之分析,五國的經驗與啟示,國立政治大學公共行政學系未出版之碩士論文。
[22]劉家慶 2003,管理與專業職能之建立,以C公司行政部門為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[23]李進行 2001,主管人員管理能力訓練需求之研究,以A公司為例,國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所未出版碩士論文。
[24]黃一峰 2000,管理才能評鑑中心建構效度及其影響因素之研究,國立政治大學公共行政學系未出版之博士論文。
[25]張裕隆 1997,360 度回饋,國魂624,625 期。
[26]金樹人 1997,生涯諮商與輔導,台北:東華書局
[27]徐崇文 2000,以360度回饋探討影響主管人員行為改變意圖相關因素之實證研究,國立政治大學心理研究所碩士論文。
[28]陳金燕 1998,諮商員養成教育課程中實施「自我覺察訓練」之原則、作法及成效之研究,中華輔導學報第六期,154-194。
[29]何永福、楊國安 1993,人力資源策略管理,台北:三民書局。
[30]張鐵軍 1999,國際企業經理人績效評估構面之比較:以美、日兩國為例,私立中國文化大學國際企業管理研究所博士論文。
[31]張裕隆 2002,才能評鑑法,台北:商周出版。
[32]劉曉雯 2003,管理職能模式及其評鑑系統之設計,以Z公司為例,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[33]林清山 1992,心理與教育統計學,台北:東華出版社。
[34]王保進 2002,視窗版SPSS與行為科學研究,P283~338,台北:心理出版社。
[35]侯菁萍 2005,多向度管理職能評鑑及發展分析-一項個案公司跨年度之研究,國立中央大學人力資源管理研究所未出版之碩士論文。
[36]魏梅金譯 2002,才能評鑑法(Lyle M. Spencer, Jr., PhD & Signe M. Spencer, Competence at Work: Models for Superior Performance),台北:商周出版。
[37]Dave Ulrich 著、李芳齡譯(2001),人力資源最佳實務,台北:商周出版社。
[38]李芳齡譯 2002。績效躍進 (David Dubois, Job Competence Assessment, Competency-Based Performance Improvement: A Strategy for Organizational Change),P258~P267,台北:商周出版。
[39]陳正平譯 2004。策略地圖(Robert S. Kaplan & David P. Norton, Strategy Maps: converting intangible assets into tangible outcomes),P296~P309,台北:臉譜出版。
[40]上海人才有限公司評鑑中心研發組譯,2004.08。評鑑中心在人力資源管理中的應用(George C. Thornton Ⅲ, Assessment Centers in Human Resource Management),P103~P115,上海:復旦大學出版社。
二、英文部分
[1] Anderson, G.C., 1993. Managing Performance Appraisal Systems, Blackwell, Oxford.
[2] Antonioni, D. 1996. Designing an effective 360-degree appraisal feedback process. 1996 Conference Proceedings of the Academy of Human Resource Development, Minneapolis, MN, February 29-March 3, 1996.
[3] Ashford, S. 1989. Self-assessments in organizations:A literature review and integrative model. In Cummings, L. L., & Staw, B. M.(Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, 11, 133-174. Greenwich, CT:JAI Press.
[4] Atwater LE, Ostroff C, Yammarino FJ, Fleenor JW. 1998. Self-other agreement: does it really matter? Personnel Psychology 51:577-598.
[5] Atwater, L. E., Roush, P., & Fischthal, A. 1995. The influence of upward feedback on self- and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48:35-60.
[6] Atwater, L. E., Waldman, D. A., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. 2000. An upward feedback field experiment: Supervisors’ cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53, 275-297.
[7] Atwater, L.E., & Yammarino, F.J., 1992. Does self-other agreement on leadership perceptions moderate the validity of leadership and performance prediction? Personnel Psychology, 45,141-164.
[8] Bailey C., Fletcher, C. 2002. The impact of multiple source feedback on management development: findings from a longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior 23: 853-867.
[9] Bass, B. 1990. Bass and Stogdill’s handbook of leadership. N.Y: Free Press.
[10] Bass, B., & Yammarino, F. 1991. Congruence of self and others’ leadership rating of naval officers for understanding successful performance. Applied Psychology:An international Review, 40, 437-454.
[11] Bass, B., & Yammarino, F. 1991. Congruence of self and others’ leadership rating of naval officers for understanding successful performance. Applied Psychology:An international Review, 40, 437-454.
[12] Berk, A. R. 1986. Performance assessment: Methods and applications. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University press.
[13] Berkshire, H., & Highland, R. 1953. Force-choice performance rating: A methodological study. Personnel Psychology, 6, 355-378.
[14] Bernardin, H. J., & Dahmus, S. A., & Redmon, G. 1993. Attitudes of first-line supervisors toward subordinate appraisals. Human Resource Management, 32, 315-324.
[15] Bernardin, H. J., & Dahmus, S. A., & Redmon, G. 1993. Attitudes of first-line supervisors toward subordinate appraisals. Human Resource Management, 32: 315-324.
[16] Bernardin, John H., & Beatty, W. Richard, 1984. Performance appraisal:Assessing human behavior at work. Boston:PWS-KENT.
[17] Bohl, D. L. 1996. Minisurvey:360-degree appraisals yield superior result, survey shows. Compensation and Benefits Review, 26(3), 20-24.
[18] Borman, an, W. C., 1974. The rating of individuals in organizations:An alternate approach. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 12, 105-124.
[19] Borman, W. C., 1997. 360-degree rating: An analysis of assumptions and a research agenda for evaluating their validity. Human Resource Management Review, 7, 299-315.
[20] Borreson, H., 1967. The effects of instructions and item content on three types of ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 855-862.
[21] Boyatzis, D., 1982. The Competency Manager: A Model for Effective Performance, New York: John Wiley & Son.
[22] Bracken D, Timmreck C. Church A. 2001. The handbook of multi-source feedback. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco.
[23] Cardy, L. Robert, & Dobbins, H. Gregory, 1986. Affect and appraisal accuracy:Liking as an integral dimension in evaluating performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 672-678.
[24] Carruthers, F. Nothing but the Truth. Australia: Australian Financial Review, 2003.
[25] Carver, C. S., & Scheier, M. F. 1982. Control theory:A useful conceptual framework for personality-social, clinical, and health psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 111-135.
[26] Cleveland, J. N., Murphy. K. R., & Williams, R. E. 1989. Multiple uses of performance appraisal:Prevalence and correlates. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 130-135.
[27] Clive Fletcher; Caroline Bailey. Assessing self-awareness: Some issues and methods Journal of Managerial Psychology; 2003; 18, 5; pg. 395
[28] Dalton, M., 1997, Are Competency Model Waste, Training & Development, 51, 46-49.
[29] Dave Ulrich, 1998, “Intellectual Capital=Competence×Commitment”, Sloan Management Review Winter 1998, pp15-26.
[30] DeNiSi, A. S., & Kluger, A. N. 2000. Feedback effectiveness: Can 360-degree appraisals be improved? Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 129-139.
[31] Diedrich, R. C. 1996. An iterative approach to executive coaching. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, Vol. 48, NO. 2, 61-66.
[32] Dorfman, P. W., Stephan, W. G., & Loveland, J. 1986. Performance appraisal behaviors: Supervisor perceptions and subornidate reactions. Personnel Psychology, 39, 579-597.
[33] Edwards, R. Mark, & Ewen, J. Ann, 1996. 360 ° Feedback:The powerful new model for employee assessment & performance improvement. NY:AMACOM.
[34] Edwards, R. Mark, 1990. An alternative to traditional appraisal systems. Supervisory Management, 3.
[35] Findley HM, Giles WF, Mossholder KW. 2000. Performance appraisal process and system facets: relations with contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 85: 634-640.
[36] Fletcher C, Baldry C. 1999. Multi-source feedback systems: a research perspective. In International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 14: 149-193.
[37] Flocco, E. 1969. An examination the leader behavior of school business administrators. Dissertation Abstracts International, 30, 84-85.
[38] Fox, J., & Klein, C. 1996. The 360-degree evaluation. Public Management, Nov., 20-22.
[39] Funderburg, S. A., & Levy, P. E. 1997. The influence of individual and contextual variables on 360-degree feedback system attitudes. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 67, 57-67.
[40] Geake A, Gray A. 360° feedback: how was it for you? Selection and Development Review 1998;17:3–14
[41] Ghorpade J., 2000. Managing five paradoxes of 360-degree feedback. Academy of Management Executives, vol.14, n°1; pp. 140-150.
[42] Gross, F. A. & Levy, P. E. 1998. Do 360-degree feedback appraisal predict managerial effective? Paper presented at 13th Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. Dallas, Texas.
[43] Hall, Leidecker, & DiMarco,1996, "What we know About Upward Performance Appraisals: Facilitating the Future Use of UPAs", Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 7, #3, Fall, 1996: 209-226.
[44] Handy et al., 1996. 360° feedback process: performance, improvement and employee career development. Journal of European Industrial Training, 25
[45] Harris, M. M., & Schaubroeck, J. 1988. A meta-analysis of self-supervisor, self-peer, and peer-supervisor ratings. Personnel Psychology, 41, 43-62.
[46] Harris, M. M., Smith, D. E., & Champagne, D. 1995. A field study of performance appraisal purpose: Research- versus administrative-based rating. Personnel Psychology, 48, 151-160.
[47] Hazucha, Fisher Joy, Hezlett, A. Sarah, & Schneider J. Robert, 1993. The impact of 360-degree feedback on management skills development. Human Resource Management, Vol. 32, No. 2&3, 325-351.
[48] Hegarty W. 1974. Using subordinate ratings to elicit behavioral changes in supervisors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 764-766.
[49] Hoffman, G. 1923. An experiment in self-estimation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 18, 43-49.
[50] Ilgen. D. R., Fisher, C. A., & Taylor, M. S. 1979. Consequences of individual feedback on behavior in organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 349-371.
[51] Johnson, J., & Ferstl, K. L. 1999. The effects of interrater and self-other agreement on performance improvement following upward feedback. Personnel Psychology, 52: 271-303. Andrews P , Performance, self-esteem and perceptions of leadership emergence: A comparative study of men and women. , Western Journal of speech of communications 1984. 48, 1-13.
[52] Kaplan, R. E. 1993. 360-degree feedback plus: Boosting the power of coworker ratings for executives. Human Resource Management, 32:299-314.
[53] Katz, R. L., 1955,“Skill of an effective administrator”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 33, pp.33-42.
[54] Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. 1996. The effects of feedback interventions on performance:A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 254-284.
[55] Kluger, A. N., & DeNisi, A. 1996. The effects of feedback interventions on performance: historical review, a meta-analysis and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 254-284.
[56] Korman, A. K. 1970. Toward an hypothesis of work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 31-41.
[57] Korman, A. K. 1976. Hypothesis of work behavior revisited and extension. Academy of management Review, 1:50-63.
[58] Landy, F. J., & Farr, J. L. 1980. Performance ratings. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 72-107.
[59] Landy, F. J., Farr, J. L., & Jacobs, R. R. 1982. Utility concepts in performance measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 30, 15-40.
[60] Latham, P. Gary, & Wexley, N. Kenneth, 1994. Increasing productivity through performance appraisal, 2nd ed., Reading:Addison-Wesley.
[61] Lawler, E. E. From job based to competency-based organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 1994, 15, 3-15.
[62] Les Pickett, 1998, “Competencies and Managerial Effectiveness: Putting Competencies to Work”, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 27, No.1, 1998.
[63] Linda deLeon, and Ann Ewen, “Multi-Source Performance Appraisals,” Review of Public Personnel Administration, 17 (Winter, 1997), 22-36.
[64] Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. 1990. A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
[65] Locke, E. A., Cartledge, N. Koeppel J. 1986. Motivational effects of knowledge of results: A goal-setting phoenoenon. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 474-485.
[66] London, M., & Smither, J.W. 1995, Can multi-source feedback change perceptions of goal accomplishment, self-evaluations, and performance-related outcomes? Theory-based applications and directions for research. Personnel Psychology, 48, 803-839.
[67] London, M., Simither, JW. 1995. Can multi-source feedback change perceptions of goal accomplishment, self-evaluations, and performance-related outcomes? Theory-based applications and directions for research. Personnel Psychology 48: 803-840.
[68] Lord, R., & Hanges, P. 1987. A control system model of organizational motivation. Behavioral Science, 32, 357-378.
[69] Mabe, P., & West, S. 1982. Validity of self-evaluation of ability: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 282-296.
[70] Mansfield R.S., 1996,”Building Competency Model: Approaches for HR Professionals” Human Resource Management, Vol.35, No.1, pp7-18.
[71] Matthews, B. P., & Redman, T. 1997. The attitudes of service industry managers toward upward appraisal. Career Development International, 2, 46-53.
[72] McIntyre, R. M., Smith, D., & Hassett, C. E. 1984. Accuracy of performance ratings as affected by rater training and perceived purpose of rating. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 147-156.
[73] McLagan, P. A., 1983. Models for Excellence, D.C., The American Society for Training and Development.
[74] Miborrow, G. 1988. Crafty Management. Management Today, 5.
[75] Milliman, J. F., Zawacki, R. A., Norman, C., Powell, L., & Kirksey, J. 1994, November. Companies evaluate employees from all perspectives. Personnel Journal, pp. 99-103.
[76] Mirable, R.J., 1997, Everything You Want To Know About Competency Modeling, Training & Development,73-77.
[77] Mohrman, A. M., Jr., Resnick-West, S. M., & Lawler, E. E. III., 1989.Designing performance appraisal systems:Aligning appraisals and organizational realities. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass.
[78] Moses, J., Hollenbeck, G.P. & Sorcher, M. 1993. Other people’s expectations. Human Resource Management, 32: 283-297.
[79] Motowidlo SJ, Van Scotter JR. 1994. Evidence that task performance should be distinguished form contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 79: 75-480.
[80] Mount MK, Judge TA, Scullen SE, Sytsma MR, Hezlett SA. 1998. Trait, rater and level effects in 360-degree performance ratings. Personnel Psychology. 51:557-575.
[81] Muchinsky, M. Paul, 1997. Psychology applied to work: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology 5th ed., Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
[82] Murphy , K. R., & Cleveland, J. N. 1995. Understanding performance appraisal: Social, organizational, and goal-based perspectives. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
[83] Nordhaun, O., 1993, Human Capital in Organizations: Competence, Training & Learning, Norway: Scandinavian University Press.
[84] Organ DW. 1988. Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Good Soldier Syndrome. Lexington Books: Lexington, MA.
[85] Parry S. B., 1998, “Just What Is a Competency? And Why Should You Care? ”, Training, Vol. 35, No.6, pp58-64.
[86] Parry, S. B., 2000, “Training: The quest for competence”, Grand Pacific Management International Corp, Taipei.
[87] Pfeffer, J. 1994. Competitive Advantage Through People: Unleashing the Power of the Workforce. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
[88] Podsakoff, P., & Organ, D. 1986. Self-reports in organizational researches: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531-544.
[89] Prahalad C. K. & Hanel G., 1990 May-June, “The core competence of the corporation”, Harvard Business Review, pp79-91.
[90] Quinn, E.R., Faerman, R.S., Thompson, P.M. & Mcgrath, R.M. 1990. Becoming a Master Manager: A Competency Framework, N.Y.: John Wiley & Son, Inc.
[91] Raymond, A. N. 1999. Employee Training & Development, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill.
[92] Reilly, R. R., Smither, J. W., & Vasilopoulos, N. L. 1996. A longitudinal study of upward feedback. Personnel Psychology, 49, 599-612.
[93] Sharon, A., 1970. Eliminating bias from student rating of college instructors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54, 278-281.
[94] Shore, L. M., & Tetrick, L. E. 1991. A construct validity study of the survey of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(5), 637-643.
[95] Shrauger, J. S., & Rosenberg S. E. 1970. Self-esteem and the effects of success and failure feedback on performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 404-417.
[96] Shrauger, J. S., & Schoenemann, T. J. 1979. Symbolic interactionist view of self-concept:Through the looking glass darkly. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 549-573.
[97] Smith CA, Organ DW, Near JP. 1983. Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology 68:453-531.
[98] Smither, J. W., London, M., Vasilopoulos, N. L., Reilly, R. R., Millsap, R. E., & Salvemini, N.1995. An examination of the effects of an upward feedback program over time. Personnel Psychology, 48, 1-34.
[99] Smither, J. W., Wohlers, A. J., & London, M.1995. A field study of reactions to normative versus individualized upward feedback. Group & Organization Management, 20, 61-89.
[100] Spencer, L. M., & Spencer, S. M., 1993. Competence at Work:Models for Superior Performance, New York:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[101] Terry Armstrong, Shelly Y. Blake, Chris Piotrowski, The Application of A 360-Degree Feedback Managerial Development Program In Higher Education. June, 2000, Project Innovation Inc.(Alabama)
[102] Thornton, G. 1980. Psychometric properties of self-appraisal of job performance. Personnel Psychology, 33, 262-271.
[103] Timothy R. Athey & Michael S. Orth, 1999, “Emerging Competency Methods for The Future”, Human Resource Management, v.38, n.2, pp215-226.
[104] Tornow, W. 1993. Perception or reality:Is multi-perceptive measurement a means or an end? Human Resource Management, 32: 223.
[105] Van Velsor E., Taylor, S., & Leslie, J. 1992, August. Self-rater agreement, self-awareness and leadership effectiveness. Paper presented at the 100th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington DC.
[106] Van Velsor E., Taylor, S., & Leslie, J., 1993. An examination of the relationships among self-perception accuracy, self-awareness, gender, and leader effectiveness. Human Resource Management, 32, 249-264.
[107] Waldman, A. David, & Atwater, E. Leanne, 1998. The power of 360o feedback: How to leverage performance evaluations for top productivity. Houston, TX:Gulf.
[108] Walker, A. G. & Smither, , J. W. 1999. A five-year study of upward feedback: What managers do with their results matters. Personnel Psychology, 52, 393-423.
[109] Werner JM. 1994. Dimensions that make a difference: examining the impact of in-role and extra-role behaviors on supervisory ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology 79:98-107.
[110] Yammarino, F. & Atwater, L.E. 1997. Do managers see themselves as others see them? Implications of self-other rating a agreement for human resource management. Organizational Dynamics, 25(4), 35-44.
[111] Yammarino, J. Francis, & Atwater, E. Leanne, 1993. Understanding self-perception accuracy:Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management, 32, 231-247.
[112] Yammarino, J. Francis, & Atwater, E. Leanne, 1997. Do managers see themselves as others see them?Implications of self-other rating agreement for human resources management. Organizational Dynamics, Spring, 35-44.
[113] Yukl, G. A. 1987. A new taxonomy for integrating diverse perspectives on managerial behavior. Paper presented at the American Psychological Association Meeting, New York.
[114] Zeme, R., & Zemke, S., 1999. Putting Competencies to work. Training, 70-76.
指導教授 鄭晉昌(Jehng Cheng) 審核日期 2006-7-3
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明