博碩士論文 93532008 詳細資訊




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姓名 吳國隆(Kuo-Lung Wu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊工程學系在職專班
論文名稱 應用於 MPEG 視訊壓縮系統的去除方塊效應演算法
(A deblocking algorithm for MPEG compression system)
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摘要(中) 現今的網路視訊和數位電視大都使用 MPEG 標準來壓縮視訊資料,如果在傳播頻寬的限制下,要播放大量的視訊串流勢必要提高壓縮率。然而在高壓縮率下,以方塊為基礎 (block-based) 的視訊壓縮技術;例如,JPEG 和 MPEG,將會在方塊與方塊之間產生不自然的邊界,也就是我們所稱的方塊效應 (blocking effect)。
在本論文中,我們運用四種濾波器來改善方塊效應(deblocking)的問題。四種濾波器將各別運用在平滑區塊有明顯邊界、平滑區塊有模糊邊界、平滑區塊無明顯邊界和凌亂區塊。根據人類視覺系統 (HVS) 在方塊效應下的感覺,色彩平滑的區域比複雜的區域更敏感,所以我們才會特別注重平滑區域的濾波。
我們選用的影像壓縮標準是 MPEG-4,其原始碼來自 XviD 的官方網站。實驗結果顯示,在大部份的情況下,我們所改良的去除方塊效應之濾波器比 XviD的濾波器可移除更多方塊效應,並且在主觀的視覺及客觀的 PSNR 值上皆有提升。也因為我們是在解碼器解壓縮之後,再用去除方塊效應之濾波器來減輕方塊效應,換言之去除方塊效應的程序可以獨立工作,不用修改已經存在的編解碼標準,而得到更好的影像品質。
摘要(英) Currently, most network video and digital television use MPEG compression standard to compress the video data. If the bandwidth is limited, we must increase the compression rate for huge amount of video stream. In such a case, the block-based compression methods will generate unnatural edges between block’’s boundaries; for example, JPEG and MPEG. This is called blocking effect or blocking artifact.
In this study, we use four filters to improve the blocking effect. The filters are used to eliminate the blocking effect in smooth block with edge, smooth block with blur edge, smooth block without edge, and textured block. According to the principle of human visual system (HVS), the blocking effect in a smooth area is more sensitive than that in a complex area; thus, we have to take care of smooth area specially.
We select MPEG-4 as the video compression standard for evaluation. The MPEG-4 source code comes from official website of XviD. In the experiments, we show that the proposed method can remove more blocking effect than the XviD filter can remove in both subjective visual comparison and objective PSNR comparison. We apply the deblocking filter after the decompression; in other words, the procedure for deblocking can work independently. So we can get better video quality without modify the decoding standard.
關鍵字(中) ★ 去除方塊效應演算法 關鍵字(英) ★ deblocking algorithm
論文目次 摘要 ............................................................................................................... ii
Abstract ........................................................................................................ iii
誌謝 .............................................................................................................. iv
目錄 ............................................................................................................... v
圖目錄 ......................................................................................................... vii
表目錄 .......................................................................................................... ix
第 1 章 緒論 ............................................................................................... 1
1.1 研究目的與動機 ............................................................................ 1
1.2 系統簡介 ........................................................................................ 1
1.3 論文架構 ........................................................................................ 7
第 2 章 視訊壓縮原理 ............................................................................... 8
2.1 空間域上的壓縮 ............................................................................ 8
2.1.1 離散餘弦轉換 ..................................................................... 8
2.1.2 量化 ................................................................................... 10
2.2 時間域上的壓縮 .......................................................................... 11
2.2.1 移動估計 ........................................................................... 11
2.2.2 移動補償 ........................................................................... 12
2.3 MPEG 壓縮方法及視訊架構 ..................................................... 14
2.3.1 視訊架構 ........................................................................... 14
2.3.2 編解碼系統 ....................................................................... 18
第 3 章 方塊效應問題 ............................................................................. 21
3.1 方塊效應的成因及影響 .............................................................. 21
3.2 減少方塊效應的方法 .................................................................. 22
3.3 MPEG-4 的除方塊濾波器 .......................................................... 24
3.3.1 濾波模式判斷 ................................................................... 25
3.3.2 平滑區模式的濾波 ........................................................... 27
3.3.3 複雜區模式的濾波 ........................................................... 28
3.4 H.264 的除方塊濾波器 ............................................................... 31
3.4.1 以邊緣強度判斷濾波模式 .............................................. 33
3.4.2 在邊緣強度不等於4 下做濾波 ...................................... 35
3.4.3 在邊緣強度等於4 時做濾波 .......................................... 36
第 4 章 除方塊演算法與系統實現 ......................................................... 38
4.1 系統架構描述 .............................................................................. 38
4.2 去除方塊效應之演算法 .............................................................. 43
4.2.1 濾波處理及濾波模式之判斷 .......................................... 45
4.2.2 凌亂區塊之濾波 ............................................................... 48
4.2.3 平滑區塊無明顯邊界之濾波 .......................................... 48
4.2.4 平滑區塊有明顯邊界之濾波 .......................................... 49
4.2.5 平滑區塊有模糊邊界之濾波 .......................................... 50
第 5 章 實驗 ............................................................................................. 52
5.1 彩色影像之 PSNR 評估方法 .................................................... 52
5.2 實驗環境及架構介紹 .................................................................. 53
5.3 實驗結果 ...................................................................................... 54
第 6 章 結論與未來工作 ......................................................................... 63
參考文獻 ..................................................................................................... 64
參考文獻 [1] Chan, Y.-H., S.-W. Hong, and W.-C. Siu, "A practical post-processing technique for real-time block-based coding system," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.8, no.1, pp.4-9, Feb. 1998.
[2] Cheung, W.-F. and Y.-H. Chan, "Improving MPEG-4 coding performance by jointly optimizing compression and blocking effect elimination," IEE Proc.-Vis. Image Signal Process., vol.148, no.3, pp.194-201, Jun. 2001.
[3] International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 13818-2, Information Technology - Generic Coding of Moving Pictures and Associated Audio Information: Part 2: Video, 1995.
[4] International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC 14496-2, Information Technology - Coding of Audio-Visual Objects: Part 2: Visual, 2001.
[5] Jack, K., Video Demystified, Newnes, Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK, 2005.
[6] Kim, S. D., J. Yi, H. M. Kim, and J. B. Ra, "A deblocking filter with two separate modes in block-based video coding," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.9, no.1, pp.156-160, Feb. 1999.
[7] List, P., A. Joch, J. Lainema, G. Bjontegaard, and M. Karczewicz, "Adaptive deblocking filter," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.13, no.7, pp.614-619, Jul. 2003.
[8] MPEG Video Group, MPEG-4 video verification model version 16.0, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11 N3312, Mar. 2000.
[9] O’Rourke, T. P. and R. L. Stevenson, "Improved image decompression for reduced transform coding artifacts," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.5, no.6, pp.490-499, Dec. 1995.
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[11] Richardson, Iain E. G., H.264 and MPEG-4 Video Compression, Wiley, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK, 2003.
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[14] Sima, M., Y. Zhou, and W. Zhang, "An efficient architecture for adaptive deblocking filter of H.264/AVC video coding," IEEE Trans. on consumer electronics, vol.50, no.1, pp.292-296, Feb. 2004.
[15] Tai, S.-C., Y.-Y. Chen, and S.-F. Sheu, "Deblocking filter for low bit rate MPEG-4 video," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.15, no.6, pp.733-741, Jun. 2005.
[16] Weerasinghe, C., A. W.-C. Liew, and H. Yan, "Artifact reduction in compressed images base on region homogeneity constraints using the projection onto convex sets algorithm," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.12, no.10, pp.891-897, Oct. 2002.
[17] Wu, C. B., B.-D. Liu, and J.-F. Yang, "Adaptive postprocessors with DCT-based block classifications," IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol.13, no.5, pp.365-375, May 2003.
[18] MathWorks official homepage - Documentation,
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/vipblks/index.html?/access/helpdesk/help/toolbox/vipblks/ref/psnr.html&http://www.google.com.tw/search?q=psnr+color&complete=1&hl=zh-TW&start=10&sa=N
[19] XviD official homepage - Documentation,
http://www.xvid.org/index.php
指導教授 曾定章(Din-Chang Tseng) 審核日期 2007-7-18
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