博碩士論文 93533007 詳細資訊




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姓名 許正德(Jeng-De Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 通訊工程學系在職專班
論文名稱 IEEE 802.16系統之通道估測及等化器設計與實現
(Design and Implementation of Channel Estimation and Equalization for IEEE 802.16 Receivers)
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摘要(中) 本論文是對IEEE 802.16標準之正交分頻多工(OFDM)工作模式,在通道估測及等化器做一探討。OFDM系統具有抵抗多重路徑干擾及頻譜使用效率高等優異特性,其中抵抗多重路徑干擾是藉由CP及多載波之特性以達到免除ISI及ICI,而頻譜使用效率高則是運用多載波正交特性達到的。在循環字首的保護下,多路徑通道對各載波的影響在於其振幅與相位的失真,因此在個子載波之通道等化只需一個複數係數(One-tap)以修正其失真,而其成功要件則在於各子載波之通道頻率響應估測。
本研究以實現複雜度許可之前提下,針對IEEE 802.16系統進行穩定通道之通道估測及等化演算法的模擬與設計實現。其中模擬實現結果亦有助於了解OFDM 傳收系統規格,如頻段、頻寬、子載波頻率間隔等與通道狀況對接收性能的影響。接收端利用最小平方估測法及內插運算求出每一個子載波通道頻率響應,正確的還原訊號。並以Verilog 語言撰寫所設計之系統,搭配Modelsim軟體進行模組驗證。
摘要(英) This thesis investigates on channel estimation and equalization in the Orthogonal Frequency division Multiple (OFDM) mode of the IEEE 802.16 standard. OFDM systems exhibit superior characteristics with simplicity in combating multi-path transmission and have efficiency in spectral utilization. The effects of ICI and ISI arise from the multi-path interference could be successfully eliminated by the insertion of cyclic-prefix. Furthermore, the advantage of spectral efficiency is achieved by the orthogonal property. Under the protection of cyclic-prefix, multi-path effect causes distortion of amplitude and phase only. In accordance with the exact channel estimation among sub-carriers, the distortion could be compensated by one-tap complex coefficients.
With the consideration of hardware implementation, the algorithms of the channel estimation and equalization are investigated and simulated for static channels for IEEE 802.16 systems. Moreover, the dependence of the receiving performance upon relationships between channel conditions and system specifications, e.g. transmission band, bandwidth, sub-carrier spacing, etc. would be clarified from simulation results. In the receiver, channel frequency response is obtained by utilizing a least square method, and we use an interpolation method to get channel frequency response of subchannels. We implement the schemes with the Verilog language and verify the function of modules with the ModelSim software.
關鍵字(中) ★ 通道估測
★ 通道等化
★ IEEE 802.16
★ 正交分頻多工
關鍵字(英) ★ Channel Estimation
★ Equalization
★ OFDM
★ IEEE 802.16
論文目次 中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機 1
1-3 研究方向與目的 1
1-4 章節概要 4
第二章 IEEE 802.16通訊系統架構 6
2-1 OFDM原理介紹 6
2-1-1 單載波與多載波架構 7
2-1-2 OFDM調變原理 8
2-1-3 防護區間功能 12
2-1-4 OFDM系統模型 14
2-2 IEEE 802.16標準與系統架構 15
2-2-1 IEEE 802.16系列標準 15
2-2-2 IEEE 802.16系統規格與架構 17
第三章 通道模型與通道估測 24
3-1 通道模型 24
3-2 通道估測方法 25
3-2-1 領航訊號估測法 25
3-2-2 最小平方誤差法 27
3-3 內插函數技術 32
3-3-1 線性內插 32
3-3-2 二階內插 33
第四章 電腦模擬與結果分析 35
4-1 通道模型參數 35
4-2 模擬系統之模型 37
4-3 浮點數演算法模擬 39
4-4 定點數演算法模擬 46
第五章 硬體描述語言實現 50
5-1 線性內插器設計 50
5-2 頻率等化器設計 50
5-2-1 複數乘法器 51
5-2-2 CORDIC除法器 53
第六章 結論與未來研究方向 58
參考文獻 59
參考文獻 [1] L.Hanzo, W.Webb, and T.keller, Single- and Multi- carrier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, JONN WILEY & SONS, LTD, New York, 2000.
[2] Richard van Nee, Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for Wireless Multimedia Communications, Artech House, London, 2000.
[3] William Y.Zou, Yiyan Wu,“COFDM: AN OVERVIEW,”IEEE Trans. on Broadcasting, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 1-8, March 1995.
[4]“IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems,”IEEE Std. 802.16-2001, New York, 8 April 2002.
[5]“IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems-Amendment 2: Medium Access Control Modifications and Additional Physical Layer Specifications for 2-11 GHz,”IEEE Std. 802.16a-2003, New York, 1 April 2003.
[6]“IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems-Amendment 1: Detailed System Profiles for 10-66 GHz,”IEEE Std. 802.16c-2002, New York, 15 January 2003.
[7]“IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed Broadband Wireless Access Systems,”IEEE Std. 802.16-2004, New York, 1 October 2004.
[8]“IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area networks Part 16:Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems Amendment 2: Physical and Medium Access Control Layers for Combined Fixed and Mobile Operation in Licensed Bands,”IEEE Std. 802.16e-2005 and IEEE Std 802.16-2004/Cor 1-2005, New York, 28 February 2005.
[9] Meng-Han Hsieh and Che-Ho Wei,“Channel estimation for OFDM systems based on comb-type pilot arrangement in frequency selective fading channels,”IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol. 44, no. 1, pp.217 -225, February 1998.
[10] S. Coleri, M. Ergen, A. Puri and A. Bahai,“Channel Estimation Techniques Based on Pilot Arrangement in OFDM Systems,”IEEE Trans. Broadcasting, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 223-229, September 2002.
[11] Sinem Coleri, Mustafa Ergen and Anuj Puri,“A Study of Channel Estimation in OFDM Systems,”IEEE Vehicular Technology Conf., vol. 2, pp. 894-898, September 2002.
[12] Simon Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, 4th edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
[13]“Channel Models for Fixed Wireless Applications,” IEEE 802.16.3c-01 /294r, 16 July 2001.
[14] Ray Andraka,“A survey of CORDIC algorithms for FPGA based computers,”ACM Field Programmable Gate Arrays Conf., pp. 191-200, 1998.
指導教授 陳永芳(Yung-Fang Chen) 審核日期 2007-7-15
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