博碩士論文 93642003 詳細資訊


姓名 古佳艷(Chia-Yen Ku)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球物理研究所
論文名稱 臺灣到呂宋島間板塊聚合帶的震測構造分析
(Seismic analysis of structures in the plate convergent zone between Taiwan and Luzon islands)
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摘要(中) 呂宋島到臺灣之間為聚合板塊帶的過渡區域,由南往北馬尼拉隱沒帶的正常隱沒環境已逐漸過渡為臺灣島的初始碰撞造山環境。為了更瞭解此區域的板塊聚合特徵的變化,本研究主要利用2009年TAIGER計畫由R/V Marcus G. Langseth研究船所收集的跨越馬尼拉海溝的多頻道反射震測和沿測線的多波數水深資料,以及R/V Ocean Researcher I的震測資料,探討呂宋到臺灣(18°45’N~21°45’N)海域在構造和沈積上的特徵與變化。
研究結果顯示有一組明顯的半遠洋沈積層序大規模分佈在南海海盆的頂層以及海溝中;在南段(18°45’N~20°N)的海溝區,此頂層層序之上覆蓋較厚的海溝濁流沈積物,但在北部頂層則呈被侵蝕的特徵。在南段的震測剖面(18°45’N~20°N)具有單純的板塊隱沒特徵,在海溝的前端先出現正斷層,甚至有切穿基盤面與海床面的大型正斷層。之後隨著板塊聚合,地層開始受擠壓而變形,越往島弧方向擠壓作用越劇烈。根據構造特徵,由西向東可依序將海溝區及楔形體畫分出六個子區域:正斷層區(Normal Fault Zone)、原逆衝斷層區(Proto-Thrust Zone, PTZ)、疊瓦狀逆衝斷層區(Imbricate Thrust Zone, ITZ)、前端脫序逆衝斷層區(Frontal Out-of-sequence thrust Zone, FOZ)、上部斜坡區(Upper Slope Zone)和背衝區(Back Zone)。海溝與基盤面的隱沒特徵在20.5°N以北變得不明顯;滑脫面構造也不明顯,取而代之的是海溝與楔形體底下出現掩埋的海底山和基盤面高區,增加隱沒的困難度。同時,構造楔形體內的PTZ寬度逐漸變窄,ITZ、FOZ往北變寬廣,而增積岩體的特色也由隱沒擦刮(offscarp)的特性,逐漸轉變為前陸盆地的沈積特色,覆蓋由臺灣造山帶而來的沈積物,這些現象顯示往北碰撞作用加劇。
隨著菲律賓海板塊西北向的聚合,北呂宋海槽的西緣都有地層被擠壓而抬昇(uplift)的現象,但東側的地層都很平靜;最南端的測線(~18°45’N)海槽西側的抬昇現象反應此處為正向聚合,但19°15’N以北海槽西側還有隆起(pop-up)及向西延(west-vergent)的逆衝斷層,顯示19°15’N以北北呂宋海槽西緣應受到斜向聚合的影響而同時有平移和壓縮的作用。由北呂宋海槽內地層變形的位置,顯示平移和壓縮作用產生的變形主要發生在北呂宋海槽西緣和構造楔形體東緣的交接處,而不是海槽東緣和呂宋島弧交接處。呂宋到臺灣之間北呂宋海槽西側的聚合為平移壓縮(transpression)的應力,此種平移壓縮的聚合應力系統應該可以沿北呂宋海槽的西緣向北延伸至臺灣島的花東縱谷位置。
摘要(英) The Eurasian plate (EP) and Philippine Sea plate (PSP) convergence in the region between Luzon and Taiwan islands gradually evolves from normal subduction to initial collision. In order to better understand the structural characteristics of the subduction-collision transition between Taiwan and Luzon islands, we have analyzed the multichannel reflection seismic data and multibeam bathymetry data collected by R/V Marcus G. Langseth in 2009 and by R/V Ocean Researcher I in 2003.
The results indicate a clear hemipelagic seismic sequence in the South China Sea (SCS) and Manila Trench. This sequence is dipping eastwards and is covered by thick trench-fill sediments in the south of the trench but has been eroded in the north. Structural analysis shows that the Manila Trench area can be distinguished by six structural zones: a normal fault zone (NFZ), a proto-thrust zone (PTZ), an imbricated thrust zone (ITZ), a frontal out-of sequence thrust zone (FOZ), an upper slope zone (USZ) and a back-thrust zone (BZ). Obvious subduction-related characteristics can be found in the south profiles between 18°45’N and 20°N, better than in the northern profiles between 20.5°N and 21°45’N. To the north, the décollement beneath the trench and frontal wedge is not clear and is disrupted by several buried seamounts or basement highs. Moreover, the width of PTZ becomes narrower, but ITZ and FOZ become wider. The subduction accretionary prism also gradually evolves into the foreland basin system receiving sediments from the Taiwan orogen.
Because of the strong convergence between PSP and EP, the uplift of stratigraphic strata has occurred at the west side of the North Luzon Trough (NLT). To the north of 19°15’N, pop-up, uplifted structures, and west-vergent thrusts can be observed in the west side of NLT from MCS and bathymetry data, which indicates both thrusting and left-lateral strike-slip faulting due to the oblique plate convergence. But the strata are relatively flat in the east side of NLT, suggesting that the plate deformation mostly happen to the west of Luzon volcanic arc. This transpressional convergence along the west side of NLT might extend to the southern Longitudinal Valley off SE Taiwan.
關鍵字(中) ★ 南中國海
★ 呂宋
★ 馬尼拉海溝
★ 臺灣
★ 反射震測
★ 板塊聚合
★ 馬尼拉隱沒帶
關鍵字(英) ★ Luzon
★ South China Sea
★ Taiwan
★ seismic reflection
★ plate convergence
★ Manila subduction zone
★ Manila trench
論文目次 中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
致 謝 iii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 導 論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究目標 3
1.3 研究方法 3
1.3.1 反射震測資料參數及處理流程簡述 3
1.3.2 水深資料 4
1.3.3 震源機制解用於構造解釋 5
1.4 研究架構 5
第二章 地體背景 10
2.1 地質單元與相鄰構造 10
2.1.1 南中國海盆 10
2.1.2 馬尼拉海溝 11
2.1.3 增積岩體 12
2.1.4 北呂宋海槽(弧前盆地) 15
2.1.5 呂宋島弧(火山島弧) 17
2.2 震源機制與地震活動分佈 18
2.3 馬尼拉隱沒帶(北段)的地殼變形特徵 19
2.4 研究區域的沈積特性 20
2.4.1 臺灣西南海域的沈積研究 20
2.4.2 南海北部深水區域沈積研究 21
2.5 研究區內沈積地層之年代 23
第三章 研究區的震測地層特徵 43
3.1 引言 43
3.2 海盆東緣至海溝區內之主要震測層序劃分 43
3.2.1 基盤面B 44
3.2.2 R1強反射面、底層沈積層 44
3.2.3 頂層沈積層(S) 45
3.2.4 中層沈積層 45
3.3 海盆東緣至海溝區的震測剖面解釋 45
3.3.1 各測線的地層特徵 46
3.3.2 海盆東緣至海溝區地層的分佈與意義 48
3.4 滑脫面構造分佈 48
3.4.1 滑脫面定義 48
3.4.2 研究區內滑脫面分佈 49
3.5 討論 49
3.5.1 研究區內滑脫面特性探討 50
3.5.2 馬尼拉北段由震測顯示的隱沒特徵 51
3.5.3 強反射面R1之沈積特徵與可能的地質年代 51
3.5.4 由頂層沈積物的特性探討其地質年代及構造意義 53
第四章 構造楔形體到弧前盆地的構造分析 70
4.1 前言 70
4.1.1 震源機制解分佈 70
4.1.2 沿反射震測測線的水深資料 71
4.2 馬尼拉海溝區北段增積岩體的構造特徵 71
4.2.1 逆衝斷層的定義 71
4.2.2 馬尼拉海溝區的北段至構造楔形體的斷層構造與分區 72
4.2.3 菲律賓左移斷層系統向馬尼拉海溝延伸的可能性 75
4.3 弧前盆地與火山島弧區域的構造特徵 75
4.3.1 北呂宋海槽的構造特徵 76
4.3.2 呂宋島弧弧內盆地(intra-arc basin)的構造特徵 78
4.4 討論 78
4.4.1 北呂宋海槽與呂宋島弧的構造特徵與板塊聚合之間的意義 79
4.4.2 海溝至增積岩體區內的構造區分佈 79
4.4.3 隱沒海底山、分歧斷層、FOOST與地震的空間分佈 80
第五章 結論 94
參考文獻 96
附錄一 古佳艷歷年著作 108
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陳冠廷(2009)南海北坡高解析水深調查與淺曾地質的構造分析。國立中央大學地球物理研究所碩士論文, 臺灣中壢, 共138頁。
指導教授 許樹坤(Shu-Kun Hsu) 審核日期 2011-7-12

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