博碩士論文 93643001 詳細資訊




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姓名 何宜穎(Yi-Ying Ho)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 太空科學研究所
論文名稱 地震期間大氣層與電離層之電磁現象
(The electromagnetic phenomena in the atmosphere and the ionosphere during earthquakes)
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摘要(中) 研究顯示地震期間地殼形變可能伴生電荷而產生垂直地表之大氣電場,進而引發大氣發光或閃電之發生,乃至影響電離層之電子密度、溫度等變化。本論文首先分析1993-2004年期間臺灣307個M≥5.0地震期間的閃電發生數量的時間與空間分布,以瞭解地震期間之大氣電場變化趨勢。結果顯示,陸上地震前閃電次數明顯多於其震後,但海上地震前後則並無顯著差異。此一差別說明地震期間之閃電發生與地表電導率有關。此外,利用法國DEMETER衛星探討其任務期間最大規模之智利地震其前後的電離層電子密度、電子溫度、氧離子密度、離子溫度以及哨波次數變化。結果發現震央附近之電子密度與離子密度在震前9-19天有明顯的增加,離子溫度也有升高的現象,哨波次數則略為減少。地面GPS 接收機紀錄之電離層全電子含量觀測亦獲得與DEMETER電子密度相類似之趨勢。利用不同的時間與空間分析方式交叉比較,確認電子密度與離子密度是對地震響應最為明顯的前兆參數。大氣和電離層地震電磁異常前兆說明岩石圈-大氣層-電離層耦合之重要。
摘要(英) It has been found that the crust deformation before large earthquakes could activate electromagnetic environment charges, which generate the atmospheric field, result in atmospheric luminosity or lightning phenomena, and further disturb the ionospheric electron density and temperature before large earthquakes. In this dissertation, temporal and spatial variations of lightning during 307 M>5.0 earthquakes in Taiwan in 1993-2004 are examined. Results show that the lightning occurrence before land earthquakes are greater than that of after. However, there are no significant differences before and after sea earthquakes. These suggest that the lightning activities during the earthquake might be related to the conductivities of the ground. Moreover, the ionospheric electron density, electron temperature, O+ ion density, ion temperature and whistler counts observed by DEMETER satellite during the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake are investigated. Results show the electron, ion densities and ion temperature increase, while the whistler count decreases 9-19 days before the earthquake. It is found that the GPS TEC also increases during the same period. The cross-comparisons of the temporal and spatial results confirm that electron and ion densities are sensitive detecting anomalous related to the earthquake. The atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies appearing before imply that the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling is important.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電離層
★ 地震
★ 閃電
關鍵字(英) ★ ionosphere
★ earthquake
★ lightning
論文目次 摘要…………………………………………………………………………Ⅰ
Abstract……………………………………………………………Ⅱ
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………Ⅲ
目錄…………………………………………………………………………Ⅳ
圖目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅴ
表目錄……………………………………………………………………Ⅸ
第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………1
1-1地震期間的大氣層與電離層異常……………2
1-2 地震……………………………………………………………5
1-3電離層……………………………………………………………9
1-4 閃電與大氣電場………………………………………14
第二章 地震之大氣閃電效應…………………………19
2-1 地震期間的大氣電磁發光現象……………19
2-2 落雷檢測系統………………………………………… 24
2-3 二項機率分布與P值……………………………… 27
2-4台灣地震期間之閃電現象……………………… 29
第三章 地震之電離層效應…………………………… 40
3-1 DEMETER衛星及其科學任務…………… 44
3-2 利用全球定位系統觀測全電子含量…… 56
3-3 統計與檢定方法…………………………… 59
3-4 2010年智利地震…………………………………… 62
第四章 討論與結論………………………………………… 85
參考文獻……………………………………………………………… 93
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指導教授 劉正彥(Jann-Yenq Liu) 審核日期 2013-7-26
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