博碩士論文 941202001 詳細資訊




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姓名 鄭亘良(Keng-Liang Cheng)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 英美語文學系
論文名稱 批判2003年至2009年台灣的反人口販運運動
(A Critique of The Anti-Human Trafficking Industry in Taiwan From 2003 to 2009)
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摘要(中) 從2003年大陸無證移民「丟包事件」開始,政府展開一連串移民管制來防堵跨國人口販運,至2009年政府更進一步通過人口販運防制法。本論文主要探討這段時期台灣反人口販運運動的過程、侷限與國家權力的變化。我的研究方法著重在描述運動歷史變化與分析文本的再現。我的文本主要來自報紙與網路新聞媒體、政府政策報告、以及反人口販運運動中非政府組織(NGO)的會議出版品與新聞稿。我試圖釐清主流人口販運的再現、反人口販運運動的知識建構、以及運動的發展,尤其關於運動的發展,我著重在國家與非政府組織之間權力的結合。
本論文有兩大主軸。在微觀層次上,我認為台灣反人口販運運動的受害者保護的知識框架,依舊複製主流社會對人口販運的刻板印象,甚至以受害者人權作為合理性(legitimacy)來強化國家對移民與性工作者的監控。在巨觀層次上,我將指出,受害者保護框架的侷限與暴力更凸顯了台灣政治民主化的侷限:即在政治民主化的脈絡上,雖然政府欲將反人口販運運動的機制與政策理性化(rationalization),因此採取全球治理的模式,串聯美國強權、國家權力與反娼派非政府組織為有效防和堵解決人口販運問題。但是也因為反人口販運運動知識框架的侷限,反而這樣的模式使得美國強權得以合法且合理地介入台灣政治,並且使國家權力與反娼非政府組織能夠合理地擴大國家對性工作與移民流動的管制。同時我欲進一步指出,國家治理轉型與權力的合理擴張不但反應還支撐了台灣民族國家(nation-state)的想像與建構——在種族、國籍與性(sexuality)上同質的國家想像(nation)與國際認可的民主人權國家的建構(nation)。更重要的是,雖然兩種國族想像看似互斥,但在反人口販運的脈絡下卻相互加強彼此建構,尤其人權國家的論述反而合理化同質國家的政策。
所以,我的論點旨在批評,建立在「保護受害者的犯罪防制」的「人權」觀,反而成為維護國家與社會最大利益的國家理性(reason of state),並依此利益為名,合理無限地擴張國家監控邊緣族群的權力。因為侷限在如此同質的國族想像上,看似理性的反人口販運政策反而合理化國家的監控,並且將台灣國族建立為新的法西斯國家(nation)。在這法西斯國家中,美帝霸權、國家權力與維護主流價值的反娼民間組織以民主為名匯聚為監控的網絡,而邊緣主體仍舊失聲,成為前者政治利益下可以被化約與歸類的「問題」。換句話說,如果我們不能反思「人權」與「民主化」的意義與此意義所處的社會脈絡,「人權」與「民主化」反而可能成為規訓權力合理擴張的能指(signifier)與政治工具,而非對邊緣主體與另類實踐的認可(recognition)。
摘要(英) The thesis will focus on the anti-human trafficking campaign in Taiwan starting from the 2003 “Throwing Package” incident when the government launched the campaign against Cross-Strait sex trafficking to the enactment of the Act of Human Trafficking Prevention in early 2009. My approach to the campaign will be based on a review of the movement history and discourse analysis. My primary resources are from the public media (mainly newspapers), the government policy reports and the anti-prostitution NGOs discourses from their conferences and movement causes. I will focus on their representation of human trafficking and the development of the anti-human trafficking campaign — especially the convergence of the state and anti-prostitution NGOs — during this period.
The thesis will be divided into two aspects. In the micro-aspect, I will argue that the victim protection framework of the anti-human trafficking campaign reproduce the stereotype of human trafficking and reinforce surveillance of immigration and sex work by means of the legitimacy of victim’s human rights. In the macro-aspect, I will indicate that such a limit/violence of the victim’s rights protection reveals the rationalization of the corresponding state rule in Taiwan’s political democratization — the “global governance” wherein, under the legitimacy of the U.S. superpower, the Taiwan state and the NGO share the power to construct a legitimate and efficient surveillance on sex commerce and immigration. Such a ruling tactic not only reflects but also sustains the underlying Taiwan’s imagination as a nation-state in the anti-trafficking campaign — the dual-pronged making as well as mutual-reinforcing making of an exclusive homogeneous nation in terms of race, nationality and sexuality and an international human rights nation that would ironically legitimize the homogeneous exclusion.
In this regard, the political implication of my argument shows that “human rights”, which aims at crime prevention to protect victims, gradually becomes “reason of state” that emphasizes the state’s great interest and allows the expansion of the state power. Thus, the corresponding rational political policies, which are delimited by the imagination of a homogeneous nation entity, in turn justify the state control and constitute the double-nation building as a new “fascist” nation, in which the state political power, the mainstream cultural dominance of the anti-prostitution NGOs and the U.S. neo-imperialism converge on a power network of surveillance, while the voices of the marginal social “deviants” are wiped out and categorized for the former political interests. In other words, the political democratization and human rights cause could eventually legitimize and extend the disciplinary power of the state rather than recognize the marginal groups’ alternative practices.
關鍵字(中) ★ 人權
★ 民族國家
★ 治理
★ 人口販運
★ 性工作
★ 移工
★ 移民
關鍵字(英) ★ immigration
★ sex work
★ human trafficking
★ nation-state
★ governance
論文目次 Abstract i
Chinese Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iii
Introduction 1
Chapter One 14
Chapter Two 46
Chapter Three 77
Conclusion 116
Bibliography 132
Appendix 147
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Newspaper:
Apple Daily. 2003/08/29. “The Fraudulent Mainland Spouses is Going to be Sieved Out by the Marriage Interview”(中國配偶擬面談篩選) in Apple Daily, http://1-apple.com.tw/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&Art_ID=311313&IssueID=20030829, 2008/03/15 download.
Apple Daily. 2004/02/25. “Mainland marriage interview asking intimate life: the Immigration Agency is accused of the infringement of privacy for asking the times of making love”(大陸配偶來台考閨房隱私 做愛幾次入題境管局遭批侵權) in Apple Daily, http://1-apple.com.tw/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&Art_ID=739337&IssueID=20040225, 2008/03/15 download.
Chang, Ai-Chiu. 2003/09/30. “Implement stricter inspections of fraudulent couples in Taiwan”(加緊查緝假老婆老公) in Apple Daily, http://1-apple.com.tw/index.cfm?Fuseaction=Article&Art_ID=388830&IssueID=20030930, 2008/03/15 download.
Chen, Chang-Ven (陳長文). 2003/08/28. “Think about ‘Jin-men Agreement’.” Opinions in China Times, A15 (中國時報/時論廣場/A15版).
China Post. 2003/08/27. “Six Dead, 20 Saved at Sea in Botched Smuggling Bid”. http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/2003/08/27/40680/Six%2Ddead.htm, 2008/03/15 download.
China Times. 2001/09/05. “Kidnapping the human flesh market, the blackmail from the police”(人肉市場綁票保警搞勒索) in China Times.
China Times. 2001/09/11. “More and more the police kidnapping prostitutes and blackmail the brothels”(員警擄妓勒贖,愈演愈烈) in China Times.
China Times. 2001/10/01. “Clamping down the temptation, the police launched a massive crackdown on sex and eight mainland Chinese girls who are suspected to Mrs. Chen’s girls, were caught”(瓦解誘惑島 警界大掃黃,八大陸妹入網 疑似陳太太旗下) in China Times.
China Times. 2001/09/29. “the Mainland Chinese brides change faces and the husbands feel stunned”(大陸新娘變臉,枕邊人傻眼) in China Times.
China Times. 2003/08/28. “Based on Humanitarianism, the Cross-straits’ Combat against the Crime”(回歸人道精神,兩岸合作打擊犯罪) in China Times, Editorial, A2(中國時報/焦點新聞/A2版社論).
China Times. 2003/08/28. “Premier Yu said: Tragedy was not allowed to happen again; DPP severely condemned the snakehead’s evil conducts and requested the collaboration between Taiwan and China; the cross-strait marriage interview is planned to be enforced in Macao”(游揆:不容悲劇再發生 民進黨嚴厲譴責人蛇惡行 籲中台聯手嚴辦 兩岸婚姻 研擬先在澳門面談) in China Times, A4 (中國時報/政治新聞/A4版).
China Times. 2003/08/28. “‘Throwing Package into sea’—the snakeheads’ evil trick to avoid the police’s inspection: the smuggling trick continues to change, so does the way of the police’s inspection dealing with the trick; to rush to the shore risks the death fight with the sea.”(《海上丟包》蛇頭避檢狠招 偷渡伎倆一變再變 警方查緝見招拆招 驚險搶灘無異與海搏命) in China Times, C3(中國時報/中部大社會/C3版).
China Times. 2003/08/29. “From big to small, the snakeheads have different degrees of toxicities: the small one only makes money, the medium one kills people, and the big one makes money and kills people. ‘Throwing Package’ is not a single case, TWRF appeals to the police for stronger crime inspection”(蛇頭大中小 毒性不一樣 小謀財 中害命 大的謀財又害命 海上丟包 不是頭一遭 婦援會籲加強查緝) in China Times, A4 (中國時報/政治新聞/A4版).
China Times. 2003/08/29. “Cast the police net to eradicate the smuggling, the Coast Guard Administration enforces the border inspection from sky to sea which any illegality would not pass the net”(杜絕偷渡走私 撒警網 海巡署展開海陸空勤務 有信心做到滴水不漏) in China Times, C3 (中國時報/中部大社會/C3版).
China Times. 2003/09/05. “‘Behind the News’—more than half of Mainland Chinese girls are cheated to come to Taiwan?”(《新聞幕後》近半大陸妹 被騙來台?) in China Times, C2 (中國時報/新竹新聞/C2版).
China Times. 2003/09/06. “bound on trees and bitten by mosquitoes or forced to do abortion, poor mainland Chinese smuggling gals were abused ”(或被拖到樹上「餵蚊子」 或遭強迫墮胎 可憐偷渡大陸妹 慘遭凌虐) in China Times, C3 (中國時報/全省大社會/C3版).
China Times. 2003/11/26. “Boatman said, ‘if the incident happened to me, the result would be still the same.’ Indifferent to the sentence of the “Throwing Package” boatmen, he pointed out that we all want to make money and that the heavy sentence is a warning sign from the government.”(船老大:讓我碰上 結果也一樣 冷眼看待同行被判刑 指大家圖的是錢 殺一儆百意味濃) in China Times, A4 (中國時報/政治新聞/A4版).
China Times Evening News. 2003/08/27. “Chen Shui-bian: the Chinese government should take the responsibility for these drowned Mainland Chinese girls. He indicated that smugglers who took a risk to come to Taiwan voted with their feet to express their discontent with Mainland China”(陳水扁:大陸女溺斃中共該負責 指偷渡者冒生命危險登台 用腳投票 表達對中國不滿) in China Times Evening News, 02 (中時晚報/焦點話題/02版).
China Times Evening News. 2003/08/28. “Tears behind the gold digging, Mainland Chinese women: mass rape if don’t serve the clients; being thrown package, beaten, prostituted, the animal-like smuggling is a death travel”(淘金血淚,大陸女:不接客就輪暴;丟包、毒打、賣淫,當畜牲偷渡來台,猶如一趟死亡之旅) in China Times Evening News, 01(中時晚報/一版焦點/01版)
China Times Evening News. 2003/08/28. “Songlin Chai felt sorrowed, ‘It’s Taiwanese men’s shame”(柴松林痛心:台灣男人之恥) in China Times Evening News, 03(中時晚報/焦點話題/03版).
China Times Evening News. 2003/08/29. “Songlin Chai: Taiwanese Shame—the drowned Mainland Chinese girls incident will make Taiwan to fall into a reputation of an civilized country.”(柴松林:台灣人之恥 指大陸女溺斃事件 將使我淪為未開發國家) in China Times Evening News, 04, 2003/08/29
China Times Evening News. 2003/08/29. “lil Red confessed her smuggling to the police and condemned the inhuman snakehead. She climbed up the shore in the same day as the dead Chinese girls did and felt so regretful for being forced to be prostitutes after smuggling.”(小紅自首 罵蛇頭沒人性 與溺斃大陸女同一天偷渡 上岸被迫賣淫悔不當初) in China Times Evening News, 04(中時晚報/焦點話題/04版).
China Times Evening News. 2003/12/29. “Prostitution ring abused, beat and fed the Mainland Chinese girls with drugs; these girls spoke out their bitterness to no ones, and their lives, just like drifting flowers, are trivial nothing.”(賣淫集團毒打凌虐逼吃毒 大陸女有苦無處訴 飄零花 命如草芥) in China Times Evening News, 05(中時晚報/焦點話題/05版).
China Times. 2005/08/23. “Thai Worker’s Riots, Migrant NGOs Criticized: the Resurrection of Neo-Slavery” (高雄泰勞抗暴,外勞團體痛批新奴隸制在台重生), China Times, 2005/08/23. http://www.tiwa.org.tw/index.php?itemid=63&catid=5, 2008/03/15.
China Times, 2008/06/06, “The Shame of Taiwan: Taiwan, whose foundation is based on human rights, is listed at the Tier Two in Trafficking in Persons Report 2008” (人權立國之恥 台灣列「人口販運報告」第二級國家) in China Times(中國時報), http://news.chinatimes.com/2007Cti/2007Cti-Rtn/2007Cti-Rtn-Content/0,4526,110110+112008060601194,00.html, 2008/06/09.
CNA News. 2009/06/15. “Though with different standpoints, COSWAS and women’s group both claims decriminalization of prostitutes”(日日春與婦團立場不同,都主張不罰娼) in CNA News(中央社), http://www.cna.com.tw/SearchNews/doDetail.aspx?id=200906150078, 2009/06/15.
Dajiyuan News. 2003/08/27. “The Snakehead Forced Mainland Women to Jump Into Sea, Six Women Drowned, Four Suspects were Caught” (蛇头逼跳海,大陆女6惨死,4嫌被逮) in Dajiyuan News (大紀元), http://www.xianqiao.net:8080/gb/3/8/27/n365596.htm, 2008/03/15.
Dajiyuan News. 2005/07/30. “There were more than 12,000 Taiwanese-Vietnamese Marriages an year”(台越婚姻 年爆1萬2千對) in Dajiyuan News (大紀元), http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/5/7/30/n1002266.htm, 2009/03/05.
Dajiyuan News. 2005/12/28. “Re-enforce the Vietnamese Brides Individual Interview: The Approval of the Applications decreased in a large amounts this year”(越南新娘恢復個別面談 今年核准案大減) in Dajiyuan News(大紀元), http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/5/12/28/n1169215.htm, 2009/03/09.
Female E-paper. 2003/09/15. “Help them go home earlier”(幫助她們早日回家) in Female E-paper, Vol. 145 (女性電子報第145期), http://forum.yam.org.tw/bongchhi/old/light/light143-1.htm, 2009/05/10.
Liberty Times. 2009/04/24. “President Ma opened the working permission for Mainland spouses when they get the familial residency”(馬再開放 陸配依親居留可工作) in Liberty Times (自由時報), http://www.libertytimes.com.tw/2009/new/apr/24/today-fo2.htm, 2009/05/01.
Tang, Hsian-Long(唐湘龍). 2003/09/02. “Criticism: Who sells sex is political correct?”(《時論》誰賣淫才正確?) in China Times Evening News, 02 (中時晚報/焦點話題/02版).
United News. 2003/08/30. “Hsiu-lien Lu: the snakehead is the shame of human being—Lu asked National Human Rights Commission to investigate the incident”(呂秀蓮:人蛇 人類之恥指示總統府人權諮詢小組調查) in United News, A4 (聯合報/要聞/A4版).
United Evening News. 2003/08/29. “Hsiu-lien Lu: the decline of sex morality, and the public of the society should reflect upon the decline”(呂秀蓮:情欲沈淪 社會應自省) in United Evening News, 2 (聯合晚報/話題新聞/2版).
指導教授 丁乃非(Naifei Ding) 審核日期 2009-7-29
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