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姓名 蔡欣局(Hsin-chu Tsai)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 軌道不整檢測及識別方法
(Inspection and Identification Techniques for the Track Irregularities)
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摘要(中) 軌道不整檢測為軌道養護與維修中及極為重要的項目,檢測與維護的目的在於將不整度控制在容許的範圍內,確保列車營運的安全及乘車舒適度,隨著高速鐵路行駛速度的提升,檢測及管理的軌道不整波長範圍相對較廣,不整程度的控制也較為嚴格。為了提升軌道不整檢測作業之效率,以及改善軌檢車使用弦測法(Chord-based measurement system)無法全面檢測所有波長不整的缺點,本研究於軌檢車車廂內及軸箱上安裝感測器進行量測,配合希爾伯特黃轉換(Hilbert-Huang Transform, HHT)訊號處理方法,解決軌道不整曲線及列車反應皆為非穩態特性的問題;透過一系列車輛系統測試、車輛振動反應分量內涵分析,進而有效識別不同波長的軌道不整分量,並可與軌檢車弦測法測得的結果一致。除此之外,本研究根據弦測法量測的正矢量(versine)與真實軌道不整波形間,有一定量測倍率的特性,使用軌檢車測得的正矢量資料,結合HHT處理技術,提出一軌道不整波形回復的分析流程,期能建構一套完整反應軌道狀況之檢測系統與識別方法。
摘要(英) The requirements for inspection and management of track irregularity have to be more rigorous due to safety and serviceability concerns as the increment of the train speed of high speed train. The wavelength of track irregularity significantly affects running safety and riding comfort. To improve inspection operation efficiency and address the inability of the mid-chord offset method currently used on track inspection cars to identify some irregularity wavelengths, a measurement and assessment method is presented in this paper. Non-stationary and nonlinear vehicle dynamic response data caused by irregularities were measured by accelerometers mounted on the axle-box of a vehicle. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) technique was applied to analyze the data. Components of specific irregularity wavelength could be effectively identified and accurately matched to the data measured by the track inspection car. Additionally, to obtain the complete waveform of the track irregularity, this paper propose a restoration method of track irregularity that combines the characteristics of the measurement magnification in the chord-based measuring system and the HHT signal processing techniques.
關鍵字(中) ★ 弦測法
★ 希爾伯特黃轉換
★ 回復波形
★ 軌道不整
★ 正矢量
★ 不整波長
關鍵字(英) ★ restored waveform
★ wavelength
★ versine
★ track irregularity
★ HHT
★ mid-chord offset method.
論文目次 摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
目錄 iii
表目錄 v
圖目錄 vi
照片目錄 xv
第一章、 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.2.1 軌道不整檢測方法回顧 2
1.2.2 軌道不整識別方法回顧 5
1.3 論文架構與內容 17
第二章、 軌道不整識別方法之原理及流程 18
2.1 Hilbert-Huang Transform之原理 18
2.1.1 希爾伯特轉換之定義 18
2.1.2 經驗模態分解法 20
2.1.3 全相經驗模態分解法 22
2.1.4 瞬時頻率分析 27
2.2 弦測法之原理 36
2.3 軌道不整識別方法 39
2.4 軌道不整之原始波形回復法 41
第三章、 系統建置及試驗規劃 44
3.1 試驗設備 44
3.2 軌道不整量測系統 45
3.3 車輛微振動試驗 51
3.4 大安溪橋現地振動試驗 52
第四章、 車輛振動訊號特性 55
4.1 車輛系統振動特性分析 55
4.2 車輛振動訊號分量之探討 66
4.2.1 原始訊號特徵分析 67
4.2.2 扣件引致車輛振動反應分析 74
4.3 橋梁結構引致車輛振動反應分析 79
4.3.1 箱梁內速度計頻譜分析 80
4.3.2 軌檢車動態反應分析結果 83
4.4 小結 92
第五章、 軌道不整識別結果 94
5.1 車廂內量測訊號識別結果 94
5.2 軸箱上加速度訊號識別結果 101
5.3 識別結果討論 114
第六章、 軌道不整原始波形回復方法之驗證 115
6.1 數值案例分析 115
6.2 軌檢車檢測資料分析 124
6.3 軌道不整回復波形比對及討論 130
第七章、 結論與建議 139
7.1 結論 139
7.2 建議 141
參考文獻 144
附錄A、橋梁自由振動與微振動試驗各感測器FFT頻譜 151
附錄B、軌道不整波形回復使用者介面程式開發 177
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指導教授 王仲宇(Chung-Yue Wang) 審核日期 2012-1-17
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