博碩士論文 943403037 詳細資訊




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姓名 劉偉中(Wei-Chung Liu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 連結交通事故資料庫以探討提升行車安全之整合研究
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摘要(中) 因行車事故所衍生的死亡成本、醫療成本及社會成本,均造成國家與人民重大負擔,如何降低因車禍造成乘員損傷嚴重度以及行車事故發生機率一直是各國長期研究的重點。本研究目的係以美國實車碰撞資料、我國警察單位的交通事故資料、衛生單位的死亡原因資料所建立的資料庫為基礎,除了發展出利用修正式耦合數值模擬方法得到行車事故中駕駛者可能醫療成本之整合研究模式外,另外再藉由車禍資料庫中車輛碰撞與行車環境的分析結果,以駕駛模擬器建立行車事故前駕駛者對於危險發生反應情形的實驗方法。因此,本研究所建立的連結交通事故資料庫探討提升行車安全之整合方法,可以提供一個全新的交通安全評估模式,讓車輛使用者能以更容易理解的方式以及實際的數據來評估車輛的安全性。
本研究率先提出修正式耦合數值模擬方法,並經過與美國實車碰撞資料庫驗證後,可在不同行車事故物理參數條件組合下,快速且正確地計算行車事故中車輛乘員身體損傷及其風險分佈,再藉由本研究所建立身體損傷風險與我國行車事故資料庫中的醫療費用的關係,從而完成車輛乘員損傷與醫療成本評估的整合分析模式。本研究並針對30km/h至70km/h等不同車輛碰撞接近速度、安全氣囊使用條件以及不同重量車型,對於駕駛者身體損傷嚴重度影響以及後續醫療成本的影響情形進行分析。
本研究亦結合我國行車事故資料庫與駕駛行為模擬實驗,針對駕駛者在危險發生可能產生的反應情形進行實驗,由實驗結果結果顯示,受測者對事件車輛切入時間間隔的變化,在轉向角與速度控制的表現上,隨切入時間間隔的增加,轉向角與速度增加而變異減少,但並未觀察到性別對反應有顯著影響,而年輕族群對於開始反應時間以及減速速度的不適當反應模式應是可能產生風險的行為之一。
摘要(英) The medical treatment cost of occupant deaths and injuries caused by motor vehicle crashes is the major concern of economic burdens. The purpose of this paper was to develop an integrated methodology which links occupant injury risk of motor vehicle crash and medical treatment cost. A modified coupled simulation model was proposed to faster and more accurate estimate the occupant biomechanical response during the crash in the different accident geometry. And various injure sacle of specific body region and severities could be estimated by the real world crash database in Taiwan. Then integrated methodology of medical cost prediction was developed to link the simulation of injury in the different body region and severities. This paper in-depth studied the influence of driver’s body injury severity to medical treatment cost in car-to-car crashes for changes in vehicle mass, impact closing speed from 30km/h to 70km/h, and airbag status. The integrated methodology can be used to recover the insufficient information of real world especially the velocity change during the crash event. This paper proposed an innovated method to assess the safety of vehicle.
This paper was also designed to study how drivers (29 men, 29 women) respond to a risky situation. Sex did not influence the driver’ responses. As expected, for shorter cut-in time gaps, the steering wheel angles were smaller, the speeds were lower, and the variations in the steering wheel angle and speed were larger. The response patterns characterised by the speed-associated measurements can coonect with the modified coupled simulation model to estimate more accurate medical treat cost prediction in the car accidence. Hence, This paper has derived how the integrated methodology links crash injury cast and medical treatment cost was developed.
關鍵字(中) ★ 行車事故
★ 損傷風險
★ 醫療成本
★ 駕駛行為
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 I
英文摘要 II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 我國行車事故資料庫及其應用 5
1.2.1 真實車禍之評估指標與衍生應用 5
1.2.2 車輛乘員損傷指標 7
1.3 行車事故重建 8
1.3.1 以實車碰撞實驗重建 8
1.3.2 以電腦數值模擬重建 9
1.3.3 以駕駛模擬器進行駕駛行為研究 11
1.4 實車碰撞資料庫 12
1.5 研究目的 14
1.6 研究方法 15
1.6.1 真實車禍資料庫連結數值模擬分析之整合研究 15
1.6.2 真實車禍資料庫與駕駛行為之整合研究 18
1.7 研究流程及各章內容 19
第二章 文獻回顧 23
2.1 車禍資料庫整合相關研究 23
2.1.1 國際間車禍資料整合研究 23
2.1.2 實車碰撞測試相關研究 25
2.1.3 人體損傷評估相關研究 27
2.2 行車事故重建相關研究 35
2.2.1數值工具模擬相關研究 36
2.2.2 行車事故車輛乘員動態模擬相關研究 36
2.2.3 行車事故之成本評估相關研究 40
2.3 以模擬器探討駕駛行為相關研究 41
第三章 國內外車禍資料庫分析與應用 44
3.1 台灣車禍資料庫分析 44
3.2 國際行車事故資料庫與醫療處理連結作法 52
3.3 建立真實世界醫療成本與身體損傷間關係 54
3.4 討論 58
第四章 車輛乘員損傷與醫療成本之整合研究 59
4.1行車事故電腦模擬方法應用分析 59
4.1.1有限元素法 60
4.1.2 動量守恆法 60
4.1.3 多剛體動力學法 63
4.2 國際公布實車碰撞資料擷取 65
4.3 修正式耦合模擬法之發展與驗證 67
4.3.1 修正式耦合模擬法模式發展 67
4.3.2 車輛碰撞動態模擬驗證 72
4.4 行車事故碰撞情境設計 82
4.4.1 車隊組成 83
4.4.2 碰撞種類設計 85
4.4.3 兩車碰撞接近速度 86
4.4.4 車輛乘員乘坐位置 87
4.4.5 車輛乘員安全裝置使用條件 88
4.4.6 行車事故模擬參數設計 90
4.5 車輛與乘員生物力學歷程分析 91
4.6 車輛乘員損傷指標以及損傷嚴重度風險分布 99
4.7 行車事故車輛乘員損傷之醫療成本估算 104
4.8討論 106
4.8.1 修正式耦合模擬法 106
4.8.2 行車事故車輛乘員損傷參數及損傷風險模擬 107
4.8.3 車輛乘員損傷之醫療成本估算 109
第五章 駕駛行為模擬實驗 110
5.1 駕駛模擬器系統規劃與建置 111
5.2 實驗場景設計 114
5.2.1 實驗對象規劃 114
5.2.2 實驗設計與流程 115
5.3 實驗數據測量與統計分析 117
5.4 駕駛行為實驗結果 118
5.4.1 轉向角、速度以及碰撞 118
5.4.2 分群分析 121
5.5 討論 124
第六章 結論與建議 127
6.1 結論 127
6.2 後續研究方向建議 129
6.2.1 不同碰撞角度對於車輛乘員損傷醫療成本研究 129
6.2.2 不同車輛乘員屬性對人體損傷指標的影響評估模型 130
6.2.3利用車輛模擬器進行駕駛行為研究 131
參考文獻 133
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指導教授 黃俊仁、鄭銘章 審核日期 2013-5-3
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