博碩士論文 944204010 詳細資訊


姓名 楊大德(Ta-te Yang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 中國鄉鎮企業發展原因的爭論—文獻回顧與分析
(The Debate on the Success of China's TVEs: A Literature Review)
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摘要(中) 中國的鄉鎮企業在八零年代的經濟發展過程中,創造了令人注目的成就,而其所有制的非私有性更是直接挑戰了以私有產權為基礎的傳統經濟理論。本文以文獻回顧的方式,檢視各家理論對於鄉鎮企業難題的解釋,並企圖透過理論的辯證過程,歸納出鄉鎮企業成功發展的原因。
面對中國鄉鎮企業的異軍突起,市場機會論者從鄉鎮企業所獲得的市場機會和要素優勢出發,說明鄉鎮企業發展的條件;實質私有產權論者則認為鄉鎮企業其實「實質私有」,並將其融入於傳統經濟理論的架構之中。合作文化論者從中國的集體傳統,來理解集體所有制能夠順利運作的原因;而中國式聯邦制論者則從地方政府為企業所提供的制度補強出發,以環境的配合來解釋鄉鎮企業的成功。這些說法分別著重鄉鎮企業的本質,或其所獲得的發展條件,對於鄉鎮企業的發展原因都具有一定的解釋能力,然而對鄉鎮企業興衰過程的討論卻仍未臻完善。
除了上述的理論外,另一套從地方政府角度出發的論述,則為中國鄉鎮企業的發展提供了更為完整的說明。地方統合主義強調歷史與政治的延續性,從地方政府的財政動力和政治結構出發,解釋地方政府對經濟發展的強烈需求,並以此說明鄉鎮企業的興衰,為鄉鎮企業的發展提供了較為全面的論述。不過其批評者市場規範論者雖然承認地方政府的重要性,但仍主張市場規範才是鄉鎮企業效率的主因。另外,社會關係論者則強調在地方政府的動力之外,社會關係與地方政府的結合,也對地方經濟的發展有重大的影響。針對相應的批評與補充,修正的地方統合主義強化了對幹部積極性的說明,並以九零年代地方政府對企業效率性的重視,說明了地方統合主義的進化過程,以及其對地方經濟發展的有力解釋,對鄉鎮企業的難題提供了一個更為完整的答案。
摘要(英) China’’s township and village enterprises (TVEs) have made impressive achievement in China’’s economic development of 1980s, and the non-private nature of its ownership has raised a challenge to the traditional economic theory based on private ownership. Thus, by surveying of the relevant literature, this paper reviews various explanations of the puzzle of TVEs, and attempts to conclude the reason of the success of China’’s TVEs.
Some studies focus on the market opportunity and factor advantages that TVEs obtained in 1980s, and contributed that as the cause of TVEs’’ success. Some emphasize the “informal privatization” of TVEs, therefore integrate the specific characteristics of TVEs into the framework of traditional economic theory. Another theory takes China’’s cooperative culture as the reason why the collective ownership could work well, yet the other one highlights the role of local governments, and considers that the institutional complements provided by the local governments were the key to TVEs’’ development. These theories provide certain explanations for the puzzle of TVEs, but each of them did not fully explain the process of TVEs’’ rise and fall. Another point of view stresses the role of local governments, and provides a more completed image of TVEs’’ rise and decline.
Stressing the importance of history and political continuity, Local State Corporatism (LSC) focuses on the fiscal incentives and political structure that local cadre faced, explains the strong need of local governments for economic development, and sheds light on TVEs’’ rise and downfall. This point of view shows a comprehensive idea of TVEs’’ development, and therefore gains a lot of attention. On the other hand, some studies agree with the importance of local governments, but they emphasize more on the market discipline, while another theory takes local institutions and social relationship as the supplements of LSC. Finally, responding to the above mentioned critiques, the revised LSC reiterates the cadre’’s motivation for economic growth, and enhances its explanation by revealing the fact that local governments value the efficiency of enterprises more than the type of ownership. Consequently, the revised LSC illustrates a full image of TVEs’’ development, and gives a better answer to the puzzle of TVEs.
關鍵字(中) ★ 經濟發展
★ 鄉鎮企業
★ 地方統合主義
關鍵字(英) ★ economic development
★ TVEs
★ local state corporatism
論文目次 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與問題意識 1
第二節 研究方法與論文架構 5
第二章 中國大陸經濟發展概況 8
第一節 中國經濟發展與改革情形 8
壹、一九七八年之前的計畫經濟時期 8
貳、一九七九年以後的改革開放時期 10
第二節 鄉鎮企業發展狀況 15
壹、歷史背景與發展情形 16
第三節 與鄉鎮企業有關的重要制度環境與變革 25
壹、承包制:「分灶吃飯」、「利改稅」與「財政大包幹」 26
貳、承包制引發的負面效果 29
參、對承包制問題的兩種回應—「股份合作制」與「分稅制」 31
第三章 市場開放與環境配合論 34
第一節 私有產權與鄉鎮企業的難題 34
第二節 市場機會論與實質私有產權 38
壹、市場機會論與要素優勢論 39
貳、實質私有產權論 44
第三節 集體傳統與合作文化論 48
第四節 中國式聯邦制 52
壹、地方政府與制度補強 52
貳、中國式聯邦制 55
第五節 小結 59
第四章 地方政府中心論 62
第一節 地方統合主義 62
壹、地方政府主導經濟活動 62
貳、地方統合主義 65
第二節 市場規範論與社會關係論 71
第三節 修正的地方統合主義 78
第四節 小結 85
第五章 結論 88
參考文獻 93
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指導教授 王弓、瞿宛文
(Kung Wang、Wan-wen Chu)
審核日期 2007-7-20

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