博碩士論文 944206024 詳細資訊


姓名 郭家佑(Chia-Yu Kuo)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 工業管理研究所
論文名稱 揀貨作業之訂單切割與訂單選取的研究
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摘要(中) 世界各國的貿易營運上已逐漸朝向全球化經營,傳統零售業的營運型態也隨這波潮流不斷創新與變動,連帶影響了整體行銷通路體系。許多統計資料顯示,整個物流作業在公司的營運成本中,佔了相當大的比例。做好物流工作降低營運成本、提高顧客服務水準,並滿足顧客的要求已成為企業強化競爭優勢的武器。因此,有效的運用物流策略,將可掌握競爭優勢,並擴大企業體附加價值,同時降低物流處理過程中的成本,提高競爭市場的利潤,且市場競爭激烈,企業能否以較低的成本以提供顧客良好的服務,亦是決定該企業永續經營的關鍵之一。在物流中心的各項內部作業中,揀貨作業是一項重要且繁雜的工作,是否能在合理的時間內完成此項作業、增快貨品流通速度並避免不必要的儲存成本、使商品能快速運送到達顧客手中,其將直接影響物流中心的經營成本與顧客滿意度。
本研究乃探討物流中心揀貨作業效率化的問題,由於揀貨作業是以訂單資料處理後的結果來進行作業,因此吾人也針對物流中心內部之訂單揀貨作業的方向來剖析,探討對象以業界常見的物流中心平行式走道倉儲為主,透過不同因子與法則的設定來完成訂單,本篇欲探討的因子如訂單切割、訂單選取規則、訂單大小的分布情形等,並於最後應用系統模擬的方式以產出不同的實驗結果,藉此判斷於何種情況,以最合適的方法來提高揀貨效率,獲得最好的揀貨方式。透過模擬軟體找出任一情境下達到作業完成所需的最少時間、揀貨員的最少等待時間以及最短行走距離為目標的最佳因子組合。
摘要(英) The environment of this study is modeled upon a distribution centre in Taiwan. A picker often has to visit more than one zone to pick all items in an order. There is one important restriction with the environment– no more than one picker can work simultaneously in the same zone. This paper focuses on one problem of this environment, i.e. order splitting procedure that the system deals with an order of which number of items needed with an order exceeds the capacity limit of picking box. Eleven order splitting strategies are proposed and studied for the problem. Furthermore, fore order-picking solutions are proposed for assigning orders to each picker. Simulation experiments are conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed strategies in three performance measures – Total Running Time of pickers (TRT), Total Waiting Time of pickers (TWT), and Total Traveling Distance of pickers (Tdist.). The simulation results show that those strategies based on considering the character of distance are performed better than other strategies without considering that character in Tdist-index. And those strategies based on considering the character of order similarity are performed better than other strategies without considering that character in TWT-index.
關鍵字(中) ★ 物流中心揀貨作業
★ 水平式走道
★ 訂單切割
關鍵字(英) ★ Order splitting
★ Distribution Centre
★ Order-Picking
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2研究動機與目的 2
1.3研究環境 2
1.4論文架構 4
1.5研究方法說明與流程 6
第二章 文獻回顧 8
2.1 倉庫管理(Warehouse Management) 9
2.1.1 倉儲規劃(Warehousing) 10
2.1.2走道設計(Aisle Design) 12
2.2 儲位設計(Storage Design) 13
2.2.1 儲位指定策略(Storage Assign Strategy) 13
2.2.2儲區佈置(Storage Zone Layout) 15
2.3系統模擬(Simulation) 17
2.4訂單揀取安排(Order Picking Planning) 18
2.4.1 訂單切割(Order Splitting) 18
2.4.2 訂單批次化(Order Batching) 19
2.5 揀貨路徑策略(Route Strategy) 23
2.5.1 旅行推銷員問題(Traveling Salesman Problem) 23
2.5.2 揀貨政策(Picking Policies) 24
第三章 研究方法 28
3.1訂單切割法則 28
3.1.1最少重複區懲罰值 30
3.1.2最小重複區的揀貨時間懲罰值 31
3.1.3最近PD點距離 32
3.1.4 最佳揀貨路徑 32
3.1.5 揀貨區之間最近距離 33
3.1.6 Combination法則 34
3.1.7訂單切割範例說明 36
3.1.7.1『最少重複區懲罰值』說明 37
3.1.7.2『最小重複區的揀貨時間懲罰值』說明 38
3.1.7.3『最近PD點距離』說明 39
3.1.7.4『最佳揀貨路徑』說明 40
3.1.7.5『揀貨區之間最近距離』說明 40
3.1.7.6『Combination法則』說明 42
3.2訂單選取規則 43
3.2.1選取規則-最少重複區次數 44
3.2.2選取規則-最少重複區懲罰值 45
3.2.3選取規則-最小重複區的揀貨時間懲罰值 45
3.2.4選取規則-最小平均重複區的揀貨時間懲罰值 46
3.2.5訂單選擇範例說明 46
3.2.5.1『選取規則-最少重複區次數』說明 47
3.2.5.2『選取規則-最少重複區懲罰值』說明 48
3.2.5.3『選取規則-最小重複區的揀貨時間懲罰值』說明 48
3.2.5.4『選取規則-最小平均重複區的揀貨時間懲罰值』說明 49
3.3揀貨路徑 50
3.3.1『初始揀貨順序』說明 50
3.3.2範例說明 50
3.4模擬退火法 52
3.4.1『模擬退火』簡介 52
3.4.2模擬退火法於揀貨路徑上之運用 53
3.4.3目標函數、初始溫度及降溫係數設定 56
3.4.4降溫策略之選擇 57
第四章 模擬實驗與數據分析 58
4.1前言 58
4.2模擬實驗 58
4.2.1揀貨環境之設定 58
4.2.2總實驗訂單張數 59
4.2.3揀貨區到訪率 59
4.2.4訂單大小之分布情況 60
4.2.5環境假設 61
4.2.6實驗因子組合 62
4.3績效評估準則 63
4.4統計分析 63
4.4.1 ANOVA之前提假設 64
4.4.2分析說明 66
4.4.2.1依『總揀貨時間』為績效評估值 66
4.4.2.2依『總等待時間』為績效評估值 74
4.4.2.3依『總行走距離』為績效評估值 81
4.5實驗總結 89
第五章 結論與建議 93
5.1研究結論 93
5.2後續研究建議 95
參考文獻 97
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指導教授 何應欽(Ying-Chin Ho) 審核日期 2007-7-6

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