博碩士論文 944300006 詳細資訊




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姓名 葉佐福(Tsou-Fu Yeh)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 高階主管企管碩士班
論文名稱 印刷電路板(PCB)多聯板報廢移植探討-以A科技公司為例
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摘要(中) 台灣電路板 PCB(Printed Circuit Board) 產業發展迄今以三十餘年了,在獨特的產業上、中、下游群聚發展,相互支持及勤儉敬業的經營,加上掌握近十年來中國為世界工廠的機會,在大陸積極的投資,使得台灣電路板業在全球電路板的地位更加提高,甚至有專業預測不出數年,台灣電路板業在台灣、大陸的總產值可與日本並駕齊驅,甚至超越日本。
1969年台灣在第一家PCB廠美商安陪電子設廠以來即奠定PCB產業在台灣這塊土地上發展基礎,加上原物料廠及設備廠等衛星工廠隨之成立,至今台灣PCB產業便已健全的供應体系及高度彈性化,作為全球競爭最佳利器,因此台灣PCB產業已成為全球重要生產基地之一。
台灣PCB產業上、中、下游供應鏈完整,原物料從玻纖紗、玻纖布、銅箔基板皆有廠商投入生產,生產能力也在全球市場中頗具競爭力,但因PCB廠不斷的擴充,尤其中國大陸將取代過去美國、日本為首,成為全球PCB最大的生產重鎮,若以全球各地的PCB成長力來看,2006年中國大陸更預估將可成長17.9%,遠高於全球的平均成長率。中國大陸佔全球生產比重越來越高,2006年將佔全球四分之ㄧ強,到2008年更可望超過全球總值的30%,未來中國大陸的影響力不可小觀。
相對地,由於PCB產業的蓬勃發展也造成環境的汙染,其污染為空氣污染、廢水污染及廢棄污染等三大汙染源,雖然在環境管理系統(ISO-14001)要求管制下,只是治本的方法,真正改善的方針從原物料選擇、製程上改善、及”省能源、省資源及危害物質管制”的方向改善,已達到綠色環保。
依歐盟的綠色產品指令來看,已超過消極的環保污染管制的涵蓋範圍,希望生產者依”省能源、省資源、化學物質管制”的三大主軸,將只管製程中污染或廢棄物資源化的觀念,向上衍生製產品的設計階段,向下衍生製產品使用與廢棄後回收再利用階段,尤其是廢棄後的階段之回收再利用,國內生產完全缺乏經驗亦尚未察覺影響性,尤其是以零件供應為主的電路板及周邊產業更無法超越環保就是管理污染排放的經驗,可能以為只要繳交處理規費費用即可,真正的推動綠色環保應從原物料、製程中即在回收利用之關鍵上尋求改善。
尤其在2006年7月1日後PCB產業面臨實施環保法令WEEE(Waste Electronics and Electrical Equipment;廢棄子電機設備指令)及RoHS(Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substance;有害物質避免),此波環保浪潮將由歐美等國開始席捲全球,因此使得環保基材以及環保製程之開發格外受到各界矚目。目前PCB產業在轉換環保製程的比重,仍處在逐步升高的階段,預估2006年第一季以後將進入RoHS無鉛製程切換的高峰期,可以預期未來PCB廠不僅僅要面對原物料帶來的成本控制壓力,環保技術全面置換也將是另一項重大考驗。
本論文針對PCB報廢之廢棄物方面研究如何回收再利用這塊區域深入探討,雖然PCB廠在原物料及製程中無鉛之改善,雖已將含RoHS之環保指令要求,但相對的在成本上已增加3~5%,但廢棄物之發生量還是未降低,所以針對PCB報廢板如何回收再利用成為目前PCB廠降低成本、提高成品率、降低廢棄物發生量在本論文中有詳細的研究,希望在綠色環保中有一絲絲的貢獻。
摘要(英) The industry develops with more than 30 years so far in Taiwan printed circuit board PCB (Printed Circuit Board ), at, in unique industry, downstream clustering develop, support each other and hardworking and thrifty management that respect work, in addition, grasped China has been a chance of the world factory in the past ten years, in the positive investment of the continent, make the status in the global circuit board of circuit board industry of Taiwan improve further, even a speciality can not predict that appears for several years, the gross output value in Taiwan , mainland of circuit board industry of Taiwan can keep in step with Japan , even surmount Japan.
Taiwan has established the development foundation on this land in Taiwan of PCB industry promptly since one ampere of electrons of first American trader of PCB factory set up the factory in 1969, add the establishment thereupon of satellite factory , such as the former supplies factory and equipment factory ,etc. , the already sound supply system in Taiwan PCB industry and high elasticity so far, as the global best edge toll of competition, so Taiwan PCB industry has already become one of the global important production bases.
At, in the industry , PCB of Taiwan ,, low reaches intact to supply chain, original supplies all have a manufacturer that puts from glass fine yarn , glass fine cloth , copper screen base plate into production, production capacity is quite competitive in the global market too, but because PCB factory’’s constant expansion, especially it is headed by that China’’s Mainland will replace over U.S.A. , Japan, become global largest production important strategic place of PCB, if grow up strength is it watch to come with PCB of all parts of the world, China’’s Mainland is it can grow up 17.9% to estimate in advance even more 2006, higher than global average rate of increase far. It is the higher in specific gravity that China’’s Mainland takes global production, will account for four in the world in 2006 ¨çStrong, is it exceed global 30% of total value to expect even more by 2008, influence power of China’’s Mainland in the future can’’t light view.
As to,because too it cause pollution of environment of flourishing development , PCB of industry,pollution of it to air pollution, abolish water pollution and pollution sources not three major of discarding pollution of etc., though under the circumstances that the administrative system (ISO-14001 ) demands to control, method that get a permanent cure just, improved policy choose , make Cheng not to improve from original supplies, and direction that " save energy , save resource and danger material control " improve really, in order to reach green environmental protection.
Watch in accordance with the green products order of European Union , has already surmounted the range of containing controlled in passive environmental protection pollution, hope that producers are in accordance with three major main shafts " saving the energy , saving resources , chemical material and controlling ", make Cheng pollute or discard idea , goods and materials of source , derive until the design phase of products upwards by all means, deriving and retrieving and utilizing stage after the products are used and discarding downwards, the recovery at stage after especially discarding is utilized , produce and totally lack experience and has not also perceived the influencing yet at home, circuit board and peripheral industry that especially rely mainly on the fact that the part is supplied are more unable to surmount environmental protection to be the experience of managing disposal of pollutants, may is it only have to pay and deal with the rule fee expenses to think, real push getting green environmental protection should make Cheng seek to be improving on the key recycled promptly , from original supplies.
Especially face implementing decree WEEE of environmental protection in PCB industry after July 1 , 2006 (Waste Electronics and Electrical Equipment; Discard the sub electrical machinery equipment order) and RoHS (Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardous Substance; The harmful substance is avoided), this wave of environmental protection tide will be begun to sweep across the whole world by the countries , such as America and Europe ,etc., so make the environmental protection sill and development of making one of environmental protection extremely attracted attention by all circles. PCB industry change environmental protection proportion to make Cheng , at stage of rising progressively still at present, estimate in the will it be one season 2006 entering RoHS unleaded to make peak period that switches over Cheng in advance, can expect that the cost that PCB factory should not merely face the original supplies and bring controls the pressure in the future , it is tested greatly that it is another one too that environmental protection technology is replaced in an all-round way.
Thesis this study to offal that PCB scrap how to retrieve to utilize this area to deepen the discussion again, though PCB factory make unleaded improvement in the Cheng in original supplies, although already include environmental protection order of RoHS require, but the relative one has already increased by 3% on the cost, but the emergence amount of the offal has not been reduced , scrap to PCB edition how is it is it become PCB factory lower costs at present to utilize to retrieve, there is detailed research in this thesis to improve the yield , reduce the taking place amount of offal, hope for the contribution of a silk silk of green environmental protection.
關鍵字(中) ★ 環保法令
★ 環境管理系統
★ 印刷電路板
關鍵字(英) ★ Board PCB of printed circuit
★ decree WEEE of environmental protection
★ Environmental administrative system
★ RoHS
論文目次 第一章 緒論……………………………………………………………………………...1
1.1 研究背景……………………………………………………………………………1
1.2 研究動機……………………………………………………………………………3
1.3 研究目的……………………………………………………………………………4
1.4 研究範圍與限制……………………………………………………………………5
1.5 論文架構……………………………………………………………………………6
第二章 文獻探討………………………………………………………………………...8
2.1 印刷電路板產業概況介紹………………………………………………………....8
2.1.1 印刷電路板產業之市場分析……………………………………………...9
2.1.2 印刷電路板之產業群眾與結構………………………………………….11
2.2 RoHS環保指令對PCB產業影響分析…………………………………………12
2.2.1 歐盟RoHS環保法推動全球電子產業概況…………………………….12
2.2.2 RoHS指令下受益程度最大為上游材料廠商……………………………13
2.2.3 歐盟RoHS環保法令推動全球電子產業新綠色革命……………………14
2.2.4 RoHS指令的禁用物質與排除條款概況…………………………………15
2.2.5 RoHS指令影響整體電子產業供應鏈……………………………………16
2.2.6 PCB製造廠商已能因應RoHS指令對製程上的改變…………………..18
2.2.7 CCL廠商均有開發無鹵素材料…………………………………………..18
2.2.8 SMT轉無鉛製程對良率影響大…………………………………………..19
2.2.9 印刷電路板PCB之介紹…………………………………………………..19
2.2.10 印刷電路板製造流程………………………………………………………21
2.2.11 印刷電路板製作流程說明…………………………………………………23
2.2.12 印刷電路板異常分…………………………………………………………26
2.2.13 印刷電路板之報廢率………………………………………………………26
2.2.14.PCB各製造流程報廢發生原因及改善對策………………………………33
2.3 報廢板移植介紹……………………………………………………………….....39
2.3.1 報廢板移植之方法分析……………………………………………………39
2.3.2 移植板之品質規範…………………………………………………………42
2.3.3 報廢板移植條件……………………………………………………………42
2.3.4 印刷電路板多聯板的結構…………………………………………………43
2.4 PCB報廢板移植自動化研究……………………………………………………47
2.5 PCB報廢板移植效率與品質提升……………………………………………...47
2.6 報廢板移植提升率、降低成本…………………………………………………48
第三章 個案公司介紹……………………………………………………………………49
3.1 公司介紹…………………………………………………………........................49
3.1.1 簡介…………………………………………………………………….........49
3.3.2 經營理念…………………………………………………………………….49
3.1.3 企業文化……………………………………………………………….........49
3.1.4 經營方針…………………………………………………………………….50
3.1.5 企業願景……………………………………………………………….........50
3.2 移植作業方式與介紹………………………………………………………..........50
3.2.1 移植作業流程……………………………………………………………….53
3.3 個案公司之經營目標…………………………………………………………….53

3.3.1 移植作業流程介紹…………………………………………………………55
第四章 問題說明與改善方法……………………………………………………………..82
4.1 改善前的問題說明……………………………………………………………….82
4.2 移植板的品質問題與探討……………………………………………………….87
4.2.1 移植品質規範………………………………………………………………..87
4.3 提升品質與效率探討…………………………………………………………….88
4.4 移植技術由半自動改為自動化探討…………………………………………….95
4.4.1 定位作業由人工改為自動化………………………………………………..95
4.4.2 注膠作業由人工改為自動化………………………………………………..95
4.5 加強員工之在職訓練…………………………………………………………….96
第五章 移植效果與成果比較…………………………………………………………….97
5.1 報廢板移植之效益分析…………………………………………………………97
5.2 報廢板移植之成本分析……………………………………………………….....99
第六章 結論與建議………………………………………………………………………100
6.1 論文探討結論說明………………………………………………………………100
6.2 論文之持續改善建議…………………………………………………………….100
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………………………108
參考文獻 一.中文文獻
1. 林水春(2000),印刷電路板設計與製作,台中:金華科技圖書股份有限公司。
2. TPCA(2005),全球電路板供需分析與台灣未來機會,桃園,台灣電路板協會市場資訊部。
3. TPCA(2005),印刷電路板技術發展趨勢與競爭分析,桃園,台灣電路板協會市場資訊部。
4. TPCA(2005),綠色法規下PCB對應之技術發展ROADMAP,桃園,台灣電路板協會市場資訊部。
5. TPCA(2005),大陸地區電路板產業分析與台商未來機會,桃園,台灣電路板協會市場資訊部。
6. TPCA(2005),台灣電路板產業與應用市場調查報告,桃園,台灣電路板協會市場資訊部。
7. 許享承(2004),綠色供應鍊管理機制建構之研究─以A公司為例,中央EMBA碩士論文。
8. 郭永棋,詹睿然,周以琪(2002),PCB產業分析,工研院IT IS出版。
9. 吳建(2001),台灣電路板現況調查報告,桃園:台灣電路板協會出版。
10. 楊致行(2005),產業綠色供應鍊運作機制與案例彙編─管理篇,台北市:經濟部工業局。
11. 劉靜靜,廖明癸( 2005),綠色,從產品設計開始,管理雜誌373期。
12. 賴義方(2004),綠色供應鍊中綠色供應商之評估─以PCB供應商為例,國立成功大學資源工程學系碩士論文。
13. 陳穆臻( 2005),勢在必行的綠色供應鍊,管理雜誌373期。
14. 林素(2006),電子產業因應京都議定書及危害物質管制調查研究,中央大學環境工程研究所碩士論文。
15. 楊致行(2004),歐盟電機電子環保指令─對我國產業的衝擊與因應,永續產業發展雙月刊第16期。
16. 蕭國坤(2005),惠普公司綠色供應鍊經驗分享,工安環保報導第25期。
17. 鍾俐娟(1997),我國印刷電路板工業國際競爭力之研究所,工研院工業材料研究所。
18.力太電子股份有限公司(2005)•經營績效會議資料。
二.英文文獻
1. Dr.Thomas Jm Chen , 2004 , Roadmap of Green-Oriented Technology in PCB Industry Within Asia-Paciffic.
2. European Union , 2003 , “ Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on Waste Electrical and Electronics Equipment (WEEE ) ”, official Journal of the European Union. , Brussels.
3. European Union , 2003 , “ Directive 2002/95/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Restriction of the use of Certain Hazardus Substance in Electrical an Electronics Equipment ”, official Journal of the European Union. , Brussels.
4. D.Shangguan , 2004 , “ Environmental Leadership in Electronics Manufacturingl:Lead – Free and Beyond ”, 2004 IEEE International Symposium on Electronics & the Environment.
5. L.Hubert , 2000 , “ Environmentally Friendly Design of Electronic Products with Silicone Substrates ”, Joint International Congress:Electronic Goes 2000.
6. Jahau Lewis Chen , 2004 , “ Recent Development of Green Design For Printed Circuit Bords ”, Department of Mechanical Engineering , National Cheng Kung University, Tainan701, Taiwan.
7. C.E.HO and C. Robet , Kao, 2004 ,Recent Development of Green Design For Printed Circuit Boards”, Department of Mechanical Engineering , National Cheng Kung University.
8. Simon Lee (李東三) , 2005 , “ Lead Free Solder ” – The Newest Surface Finish ,
Rohm and Heas Electronic Materal Taiwan Limited.
9. D.r Thomas Jm Chen , 2004 , “ IEK Green industry roadmap”, IEK.
指導教授 何應欽(Ying-Chin Ho) 審核日期 2007-7-10
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