博碩士論文 944401018 詳細資訊




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姓名 林信任(Hsin-Jen Trust Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 企業管理學系
論文名稱 運動贊助有效性之探討-以洛杉磯市場推廣臺灣觀光為例
(Sports Sponsorship Effectiveness and Implications in Promoting Taiwan Tourism in Los Angeles)
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摘要(中) 美國市場人口3.19億(2014 est.) ,土地面積983萬平方公里 (為臺灣268倍、歐盟的2.4倍) ,平均所得52800美元 (2013 est.) (The world fact book, 2014),居民2013海外旅遊總人次高達6157萬人次(OTTI, 2014),為全球主要的旅遊客源國。挾其世界媒體、影視娛樂及體育中心之特殊地位,成為各國建構世界品牌形象以協助全球市場銷售的必爭之地。
美國民眾對運動極為熱愛,運動贊助(Sports Sponsorship)早已成為美國市場行銷顯學,但其有效性的評估上仍相對缺乏(O′Reilly & Madill, 2012) 。本研究以美國洛杉磯市場推廣臺灣觀光為例,探討運動贊助對於推動海外旅遊之效果,以作為未來運動贊助及觀光行銷之策略參考。在操作方法上,道奇球團同意於球場入口內指定處所辦理隨機抽樣之問卷調查,調查所在位置可以看見臺灣觀光看版、臺灣觀光及互動遊戲攤位,臺灣LED環場廣告及大螢幕電視廣告亦在場內輪播。
本問卷調查計回收297位球迷問卷,其中男女球迷相當,每季看球或收聽比賽在21場以上之球迷過半。在資料整理後先以統計檢定及迴歸分析各項運動贊助活動對品牌建構及赴臺旅遊意願提昇之關係;復以資料包絡分析法(Data Envelope Analysis),針對各項投入與產出變數來分析運動贊助活動,最後再結合統計檢定結果,運用差額分析法(Slack Analysis)共同研判。
研究結果顯示,以運動贊助活動對提昇赴臺旅遊意願及球迷移轉效果(對球隊的向心力轉向球隊合作伙伴)顯著,惟統計分析顯示增加露出頻率不但對增進赴臺旅遊意願及建構臺灣品牌及知名度無顯著差異,另在輸出為導向之資料包絡分析法變動規模模式下,各項活動己達固定規模報酬或規模報導遞減階段,顯示就連續曝光效果(Mere Exposure Effect)而言,已達此行銷贊助組合下最高效用之水平階段。
此外,本研究除發現運動贊助對目標客群及死忠球迷(Die-hard fans)效果顯著外,對於傳統上認為運動贊助多以男性為目標客羣之認知作性別分析,結果發現女性對臺灣觀光知名度及品牌形象上行銷效果不但與男性無差異,且在旅遊意願提昇上,對群體旅遊有決策影響力的女性客群,其行銷效果檢定結果顯著。若就場域別及媒體別比較多項運動贊助措施,其統計檢定結果無顯著差異,惟運用資料包絡分析法,則可以將各項運動贊助活動項目之效用排序,更可運用差額分析法計算固定效益下之最小投入成本,或以最大產出效益下之各投入與產出項未來調整之量化建議,以進一步提昇運動贊助效果達到管理目標。
關鍵字:運動贊助、連續曝光效果、資料包絡分析法、差額分析法
摘要(英) Sports sponsorship is an easy way to break into a new market and identify with the targeted audience (Earnheardt et al. 2011) However, despite the increasing resources being allocated from marketing budgets to sponsorship, effective evaluation is relatively rare (O’Reilly & Madill, 2012).
This study employed statistic test, Data Envelope Analysis (DEA), and Slack Analysis to explore the level of effectiveness of sports sponsorship by analyzing surveys conducted at Dodger Stadium in an attempt to quantify the success of sponsorship campaign between the Taiwan Tourism Bureau and the Los Angeles Dodgers. The participants were 297 attendees selected randomly at assigned location of Dodger Stadium while attending a Dodgers home game. During which Taiwan Tourism Bureau and Los Angeles Dodgers co-branded souvenirs were passed out, Taiwan interactive carnival booth was set up, Taiwan signage was displayed right behind the base. In addition, Taiwan logo and picture on around the stadium LED and Taiwan Tourism commercial on the jumbo tram were broadcasted twice during the game.
This study tested the effectiveness relationships between 9 sponsorship activities and willingness to visit Taiwan and Taiwan tourism awareness/brand image enhanced. There is strong correlation between Dodgers sponsorship and increased brand awareness for Taiwan Tourism Bureau. Accessing with DEA-BCC model, all activities’ technical efficiency scored 0.958 or higher. However, from mere exposure’s perspective, increased rate of exposure to TTB’s advertisements do not have an increase in the participants’ opinion on Taiwan Tourism’s brand image and awareness factor. Observing from the scale to return on DEA-BCC model, all sponsorship activities are either in constant return to scale or decreasing scale to return. These facts mean that the sponsorship mix has closed to its scale limit.
Other findings include the simple linear regression analyses indicated Dodgers fans’ favor to the team has successfully transferred to the team’s partner, Taiwan. In addition to die-hard fans and focused target fans’ favor to Taiwan, the female fans preferred to visit Taiwan. There is another interesting finding: based on t test, there is no significant difference between TV commercial and signage (or stadium TV clip, raiod ads) while employing DEA method can rank them according to different managerial purpose. Co-analyzing with statistics analysis and DEA method do bring more sufficient information for implementing managerial objectives.
Keywords: Sports Sponsorship, Mere Exposure Effect, Data Envelope Analysis, Slack Analysis.
關鍵字(中) ★ 運動贊助
★ 連續曝光效果
★ 資料包絡分析法
★ 差額分析法
關鍵字(英) ★ Sports Sponsorship
★ Mere Exposure Effect
★ Data Envelope Analysis
★ Slack Analysis
論文目次 中文摘要 ii
ABSTRACT iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
List of Figure xii
List of Tables xiv
List of Abbreviations xv
Chapter 1、Introduction 1
1-1 Research Motivation 1
1-2 Case Study: Taiwan Tourism Sports Sponsorship in Los Angeles 5
1-2-1 Sponsorship Negotiation 7
1-2-2 Sponsorship Activation 9
1-2-3 Sponsorship Exaggeration: Taiwan Beer, Micro Star International, Fox Sports West 12
1-3 Research Question and Purpose 14
1-4 Thesis Process 15
Chapter 2、Literate Review 16
2-1 Sports Sponsorships 16
2-2 Persuasion 21
2-3 Mere Exposure Effect 26
2-4 Evaluations on Sports Sponsorship Effectiveness 29
2-5 Data Envelope Analysis 34
2-6 Taiwan Tourism International Marketing and Branding Strategy 39
Chapter 3、Research Model and Hypothesis Development 43
3-1 Research Model 43
3-2 Hypotheses development 45
3-2-1 Group 1 Hypotheses H1-H2 45
3-2-2 Group 2 Hypotheses H3-H4 46
3-2-3 Group 3 Hypotheses H5-H7 46
3-2-4 Group 4 Hypotheses H8-H10 49
3-3 Questionnaires Development 51
3-4 Reliability Statistics and Sample Size 53
3-4-1 Reliability Statistics 53
3-4-2 Sample Size 54
Chapter 4、Analysis Results and Data Envelope Analysis 55
4-1 Participants and Data Gathering 55
4-2 The Analysis Result of Hypothesis 57
4-2-1 The Analysis H1 57
4-2-2 The Analysis Result of H2 58
4-2-3 The Analysis Result of H3 59
4-2-4 The Analysis Result of H4 60
4-2-5 The Analysis Result of H5 61
4-2-6 The Analysis Result of H6 63
4-2-7 The Analysis Result of H7 64
4-2-8 The Analysis Result of H8-H10 65
4.3 Data Envelope Analysis 67
4-3-1 Input Orientated DEA 68
4-3-2 Output Orientated DEA 70
Chapter 5、Conclusions and Recommendations 73
5-1 Discussions: How Does It Work? Multiple Approaches to Evaluate Effectiveness 73
5-2 Conclusions and Managerial Implications 75
5-2-1 Sponsorship Mix with Empirical Knowledge: the Bobble Head Maniac 75
5-2-2 Co-analyze with statistics analysis and DEA methods bring more sufficient information for implementing managerial objectives 76
5-2-3 The power of Female in Sports Sponsorship 77
5-3 Research Limitations and Recommendations for Future Research 78
5-3-1 One Gate One Game Bias 78
5-3-2 Fans Favorable Bias 78
5-3-3 Limitations on DEA 79
5-3-4 Suggestions for Future Research 79
References 80
Appendix 89
Appendix 1 US Census on Sports 2010 89
Appendix 2 Input orientated DEA 90
Appendix 3 Output Oriented DEA 98
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指導教授 林明杰(Ming-Ji James Lin) 審核日期 2014-7-17
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