博碩士論文 945201021 詳細資訊


姓名 柯欣欣(Hsin-Hsin Ko)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 使用高精準度電流偵測技巧之高轉換效能同步互補式金氧半降壓切換式穩壓器
(A High Efficiency Synchronous CMOS Switching Buck Regulator with Accurate Current Sensing Technique)
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摘要(中) 隨著可攜式電子產品的發展與盛行,低功率高效率成為可攜式電子產品的首要考量,因此這些利用電池提供電源的電子電路必須工作在低電壓低電流以降低能量消耗,使得電池可以長時間的工作。此外,在製程技術不斷進步的同時,由於可靠度的考量,其工作電壓也必須隨著製程進步而降低,為了節省功率的消耗,穩壓器常被用來降低工作電壓。
本論文提出的電流型降壓切換式穩壓器,其原理主要是利用偵測電感上電流變化以加速因負載改變時之暫態反應時間,根據電路回授機制將輸出電壓控制在所預期的數值,而不會受到負載電流的差異影響。相較於電壓模式控制,電流模式控制降壓式穩壓器具有較好的負載調節度、線性調節度及較快的暫態反應。而切換式穩壓器本身轉換效能高,因此適用於可攜式電子產品中。
此電流型降壓切換式穩壓器是以台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司0.18um 3.3V互補式金氧半製程來實現,而工作電壓的範圍為2.4V~4.6V,操作頻率為0.7MHz~1.4MHz,負載電流範圍為0.05A~0.5A,及轉換效能為91.16%。此電流型降壓切換式穩壓器線性調節度與負載調節度分別為6.27mV/V 與0.0107mV/mA,而其核心面積為0.711mm2。
摘要(英) The fast growing demand of portable and battery-operated electronic systems has driven the efforts to reduce power consumption or to improve the efficiency of these electronic equipments. Regulators are essential for most electrically powered systems which include the prevalent portable equipments. Regulators are required to reduce the voltage variations of the battery. Besides, regulators are often utilized to provide a lower voltage from a higher input voltage for power reduction. Current trend in portable or battery-powered electronics demands ultra-low-power consumption or high operating efficiency to prolong the service time of these battery-operated equipments.
In this thesis, the proposed current mode buck converter senses the inductor current variation to accelerate response time, and applies the mechanism of feedback-loop theory to control the output voltage at the desired value. Compared with the voltage mode buck converter, the current mode buck converter has better load regulation, better line regulation and faster transient response. The proposed buck converter has high efficiency, and, therefore, it is suitable for the application of portable products.
This current mode switching regulator is fabricated with TSMC 0.18um 3.3V CMOS process. In the proposed buck converter, the operation voltage is form 2.4V to 4.6V, the loading current is form 0.05A to 0.5A, and the efficiency is 91.16%. The line regulation and load regulation are 6.27mV/V and 0.0107mV/mA respectively. The core area is 0.711mm2.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電流偵測電路
★ 降壓切換式穩壓器
★ 直流轉直流穩壓器
關鍵字(英) ★ switching regulator
★ current sensing circuit
★ regulator
★ DC to DC converter
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xi
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 背景簡介 1
1.2 研究動機 2
1.3 論文架構 3
第2章 直流轉直流穩壓器概論 5
2.1 穩壓器分類 5
2.1.1 線性穩壓器簡介(Linear Regulator) 6
2.1.2 切換式穩壓器簡介(Switching Regulator) 7
2.1.3 切換式電容穩壓器簡介(Switching Capacitance ) 8
2.2 切換式穩壓器分類 10
2.2.1 降壓切換式穩壓器(Buck Converter or Step-Down Converter) 10
2.2.2 其他類型穩壓器 13
2.3 控制電路分類 15
2.3.1 電壓模式控制(Voltage Mode Control) 15
2.3.2 電流模式控制(Current Mode Control) 17
2.4 切換式穩壓器規格說明 20
2.4.1 轉換效能(Efficiency) 20
2.4.2 線性調節度(Line Regulation) 22
2.4.3 負載調節度(Load Regulation) 22
2.4.4 暫態響應(Transient Response) 22
第3章 降壓切換式穩壓器電路設計 25
3.1 系統架構 25
3.2 小訊號分析 26
3.2.1 電壓模式模型分析 26
3.2.2 電流模式模型分析 37
3.3 帶差參考電路(Bandgap Reference) 47
3.4 誤差放大器(Error Amplifier ) 49
3.5 脈衝寬度寬度控制電路(PWM Control Circuit) 51
3.5.1 比較器電路(Comparator Circuit) 51
3.5.2 時脈產生器(Clock Generator) 53
3.6 緩啟動電路(Soft-Start Circuit) 54
3.7 電流偵測電路(Current Sensing Circuit) 55
3.7.1 偵測電感電流電路(L_sensing) 55
3.7.2 偵測感測電阻電流(R_sensing) 61
3.7.3 電壓轉電流轉換器(V-I Converter) 61
第4章 模擬結果 65
4.1 帶差參考電路模擬結果 65
4.2 降壓切換式穩壓器模擬結果 67
4.2.1 暫態模擬 68
4.2.2 規格模擬 70
第5章 低壓降切換式穩壓器佈局與量測 75
5.1 佈局考量 75
5.2 低壓降切換式穩壓器量測設定 77
5.3 量測結果 81
第6章 結論 89
第7章 參考文獻 91
參考文獻 [1] National Semiconductor, ”Power ”High-Performance Analog Seminar 2007
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IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, pp. 271-280, April, 1991
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[19] C. Y. Leung; Mok, P.K.T.and K. N. Leung “An integrated CMOS current-sensing circuit for low-Voltage current-mode buck regulator,” Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 52, pp. 394-397, 2005
[20] B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001
[21] T. Y. Yu “A High-Efficiency Synchronous CMOS Switching Regulator with PWM/PFM-Mode Operation, ” NCTU MS. Thesis, 2003
[22] S. Y. Wang “ Improved Light- Load Frequency for Switched Mode Buck Converter Using PWM Operated Power-Save Mode,” NTHU MS. Thesis, 2004
[23] Forghani-zadeh, H. P.and Rincon-Mora, G. A. “An Accurate, Continuous, and Lossless Self-Learning CMOS Current-Sensing Scheme for Inductor-Based DC-DC Converters ” IEEE JSSC Vol.42,pp 665-679, March 2007
[24] Ridley Engineering, Inc.“ Current-Mode Control Modeling,” professional engineering seminar taught semiannually
指導教授 鄭國興(Kuo-Hsing Cheng) 審核日期 2007-10-15
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